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Associação de poliformismos de genes relacionados à obesidade e comorbidades com resposta à intervenção no estilo de vida de indivíduos de risco cardiometabólico; Association of related-obesity diseases genes polymorphisms and response to lifestyle intervention in individuals at cardiometabolic risk

Curti, Maira Ladeia Rodrigues
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/08/2012 Português
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Introdução: Fatores genéticos estão entre os determinantes de obesidade, podendo influenciar a resposta a intervenções em estilo de vida. O impacto de polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único (SNPs) na resposta de biomarcadores a intervenções não é claro. Objetivo: Este estudo examinou as associações de seis SNPs FTO T/A, PPAR Pro12Ala, Apo A1 -75G/A, TNF- -308G/A, IL-6 - 174G/C e AdipoQ 45T/G com mudanças induzidas por uma intervenção em amostra de brasileiros de risco cardiometabólico. Métodos: Em um programa de nove meses de orientações em hábitos alimentares e atividade física, 180 indivíduos com prediabetes ou síndrome metabólica foram genotipados e agrupados segundo a presença do alelo variante de cada SNP e comparados quanto a variáveis antropométricas, metabólicas e inflamatórias. Resultados: A intervenção resultou em redução do consumo calórico, aumento da atividade física, melhora na antropometria e outros biomarcadores. Estratificando pelos SNPs, os principais achados estão contidos em dois artigos. Artigo 1: Houve melhor resposta do perfil glicêmico após a intervenção nos portadores do alelo variante do SNP TNF -308 G/A. Observou-se melhora das variáveis lipídicas nos portadores do alelo variante do SNP IL-6 -174 G/C...

Human biomonitoring : biomarkers, individual susceptibility, and nutrigenetics

Ladeira, Carina Alexandra Fernandes, 1984-
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Genética), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2015; Cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay and comet assay are the most promising short-term genotoxicity assays for human risk assessment and their combination is recommended to monitor populations chronically exposed to genotoxic agents. Nutrition is recognized to be an important lifestyle factor that influences cancer risk, and should be taken into account at an individual level. Laboratories are occupational settings where chemical agents are handled and workers are exposed. Formaldehyde and cytostatic drugs, in particular, are chemical agents handled in laboratories that are considered carcinogenic for humans and special protective measures should thus be adopted against them. The aim of this investigation is to contribute to the development of a biomonitoring programme that includes genotoxicity assessment related with genetic susceptibility biomarkers, and lifestyle factors, namely nutrition. The experimental planning used was a case-control blinded study. Four separated samples were formed comprising two samples of subjects exposed (n = 56 for formaldehyde; n = 46 for cytostatics), and two samples of non-exposed controls (n = 85 and n = 46...

Pharmacogenetics and nutrigenetics in crohn’s disease

Ferreira, Paula Sousa Alves, 1983-
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Genética), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2015; Crohn’s disease, a pathology of unknown origin, is characterized by a chronic inflammatory response that involves the entire gastrointestinal tract, a high heterogeneity in phenotype and a strong genetic component. It’s a disease with a greater incidence in industrialized countries, what suggests the importance of environmental factors in its pathogenesis, where diet patterns have been pointed out as possible cause. The treatment of this disease is very complex due to the severity of the clinical parameters and the variety of response to the existing therapies. This emphasizes the importance of the conjugation with genetic factors such as polymorphisms in key genes presented in inflammatory pathways, apoptosis, autophagy and metabolism and drug transportation. The main existing challenge results from the difficulty in predicting the disease development along the years, which turns the choice of appropriate therapeutic and control of symptoms problematic. With the purpose of answering to these questions, we have developed several studies, here compiled in this dissertation, that have the main goal of identifying clinical and genetic predictors of response to the normally used therapies that allowed the physicians to stratified their patients in order to apply a more personalized therapeutic based on individuals genetic profile. As main results emerges the identification of genetic polymorphisms in cytokine genes such as TNFα...

Obesity-related gene ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms and the response to a weight loss diet intervention in adult women

Saliba,Louise F.; Reis,Rodrigo S.; Brownson,Ross C.; Hino,Adriano A.; Tureck,Luciane V.; Valko,Cheryl; Souza,Ricardo L.R. de; Furtado-Alle,Lupe
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 Português
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The individual response to diet may be influenced by gene polymorphisms. This study hypothesized that ADRB2 (Gln27Glu, rs1042714 and Arg16Gly, rs1042713), ADRB3 (Trp64Arg, rs4994) and GHRL (Leu72Met, rs696217) polymorphisms moderate weight loss. The study was a seven weeks dietary weight loss intervention with Brazilian adult obese women (n = 109). The body mass index (BMI) was calculated and polymorphisms in these genes were assessed by real-time PCR assays. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (2 x 2) were used to analyze the intervention effect between polymorphisms and BMI over the period and after stratification for age and socioeconomic status (SES). The weight loss intervention resulted in decreased BMI over the seven-week period (p < 0.001), for high and low SES (p < 0.05) and mainly for participants with 30-49 y. The intervention did not result in a statistically significant difference in weight loss between polymorphism carriers and non-carriers, and although, the ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms did not moderate weight loss, the Gln27Glu polymorphism carriers showed a lower BMI compared to non-carriers in the low SES (p = 0.018) and the 30-39 y (p = 0.036) groups, suggesting a role for this polymorphism related to BMI control.

GENOTYPE-PHENOTYPE ASSOCIATIONS: MODULATION BY DIET AND OBESITY

Ordovas, Jose M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2008 Português
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Changes in diet are likely to reduce chronic disorders, but after decades of active research and heated discussion the question still remains: what is the optimal diet to achieve this elusive goal? Is a low fat, as traditionally recommended by multiple medical societies? Or a high monounsaturated fat as predicated by the Mediterranean diet? Perhaps a high polyunsaturated fat based on the cholesterol lowering effects? The right answer may be all of the above but not for everybody. A well-known phenomenon in nutrition research and practice is the dramatic variability in interindividual response to any type of dietary intervention. There are many other factors influencing response, and they include, among many others, age, sex, physical activity, alcohol, and smoking as well as genetic factors that will help to identify vulnerable populations/individuals that will be benefit from a variety of more personalized and mechanistic based dietary recommendations. This potential could and needs to be developed within the context of nutritional genomics that in conjunction with systems biology may provide the tools to achieve the holy grail of dietary prevention and therapy of cardiovascular diseases. This approach will break with the traditional public health approach of “one size fits all.” The current evidence based on nutrigenetics has begun to identify subgroups of individuals who benefit more from a low fat diet...

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Implications for Nutrigenetics

Allayee, Hooman; Roth, Nitzan; Hodis, Howard N.
Fonte: S. Karger AG Publicador: S. Karger AG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) arises as a result of genetic predisposition in the context of a disease-promoting environment. While several risk factors have been identified for CVD, such as elevated serum lipid levels and hypertension, most of the genes identified thus far do not appear to involve such ‘conventional’ risk factors. Moreover, the interactions between genes and environment, such as a diet high in certain fats, adds another level of complexity to CVD and renders identification of the underlying genetic factors even more difficult. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as the ω–6 and ω–3 fatty acids, which have multiple roles in membrane structure, lipid metabolism, blood clotting, blood pressure, and, in particular, inflammation, have been linked to the reduction in CVD. Linoleic (ω–6) and α-linolenic acid (ω–3) are essential fatty acids that can be converted into long-chain PUFAs, such as arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively. These long-chain PUFAs are metabolized by enzymatically catalyzed systems via cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. The 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO)/leukotriene (LT) biosynthesis pathway has been biochemically and genetically associated with CVD traits in mice and humans...

The Nutrigenetics of Hyperhomocysteinemia: QUANTITATIVE PROTEOMICS REVEALS DIFFERENCES IN THE METHIONINE CYCLE ENZYMES OF GENE-INDUCED VERSUS DIET-INDUCED HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA*

DiBello, Patricia M.; Dayal, Sanjana; Kaveti, Suma; Zhang, Dongmei; Kinter, Michael; Lentz, Steven R.; Jacobsen, Donald W.
Fonte: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Hyperhomocysteinemia has long been associated with atherosclerosis and thrombosis and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Its causes include both genetic and environmental factors. Although homocysteine is produced in every cell as an intermediate of the methionine cycle, the liver contributes the major portion found in circulation, and fatty liver is a common finding in homocystinuric patients. To understand the spectrum of proteins and associated pathways affected by hyperhomocysteinemia, we analyzed the mouse liver proteome of gene-induced (cystathionine β-synthase (CBS)) and diet-induced (high methionine) hyperhomocysteinemic mice using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Nine proteins were identified whose expression was significantly changed by 2-fold (p ≤ 0.05) as a result of genotype, 27 proteins were changed as a result of diet, and 14 proteins were changed in response to genotype and diet. Importantly, three enzymes of the methionine cycle were up-regulated. S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase increased in response to genotype and/or diet, whereas glycine N-methyltransferase and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase only increased in response to diet. The antioxidant proteins peroxiredoxins 1 and 2 increased in wild-type mice fed the high methionine diet but not in the CBS mutants...

A multifactorial analysis of obesity as CVD risk factor: Use of neural network based methods in a nutrigenetics context

Valavanis, Ioannis K; Mougiakakou, Stavroula G; Grimaldi, Keith A; Nikita, Konstantina S
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/09/2010 Português
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Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics: Viewpoints on the Current Status and Applications in Nutrition Research and Practice

Fenech, Michael; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Cahill, Leah; Ferguson, Lynnette R.; French, Tapaeru-Ariki C.; Tai, E. Shyong; Milner, John; Koh, Woon-Puay; Xie, Lin; Zucker, Michelle; Buckley, Michael; Cosgrove, Leah; Lockett, Trevor; Fung, Kim Y.C.; Head, Richard
Fonte: S. Karger AG Publicador: S. Karger AG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics hold much promise for providing better nutritional advice to the public generally, genetic subgroups and individuals. Because nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics require a deep understanding of nutrition, genetics and biochemistry and ever new ‘omic’ technologies, it is often difficult, even for educated professionals, to appreciate their relevance to the practice of preventive approaches for optimising health, delaying onset of disease and diminishing its severity. This review discusses (i) the basic concepts, technical terms and technology involved in nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics; (ii) how this emerging knowledge can be applied to optimise health, prevent and treat diseases; (iii) how to read, understand and interpret nutrigenetic and nutrigenomic research results, and (iv) how this knowledge may potentially transform nutrition and dietetic practice, and the implications of such a transformation. This is in effect an up-to-date overview of the various aspects of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics relevant to health practitioners who are seeking a better understanding of this new frontier in nutrition research and its potential application to dietetic practice.

Nutrigenetics, Nutrigenomics, and Selenium

Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Karunasinghe, Nishi
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/04/2011 Português
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Selenium (Se) is an important micronutrient that, as a component of selenoproteins, influences oxidative and inflammatory processes. Its’ levels vary considerably, with different ethnic and geographic population groups showing varied conditions, ranging from frank Se deficiencies to toxic effects. An optimum Se level is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, and this optimum may vary according to life stage, general state of health, and genotype. Nutrigenetic studies of different Se levels, in the presence of genetic variants in selenoproteins, suggest that an effective dietary Se intake for one individual may be very different from that for others. However, we are just starting to learn the significance of various genes in selenoprotein pathways, functional variants in these, and how to combine such data from genes into pathways, alongside dietary intake or serum levels of Se. Advances in systems biology, genetics, and genomics technologies, including genetic/genomic, epigenetic/epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic information, start to make it feasible to assess a comprehensive spectrum of the biological activity of Se. Such nutrigenomic approaches may prove very sensitive biomarkers of optimal Se status at the individual or population level. The premature cessation of a major human Se intervention trial has led to considerable controversy as to the value of Se supplementation at the population level. New websites provide convenient links to current information on methodologies available for nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics. These new technologies will increasingly become an essential tool in optimizing the level of Se and other micronutrients for optimal health...

Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics

Farhud, DD; Zarif Yeganeh, M; Zarif Yeganeh, M
Fonte: Tehran University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/12/2010 Português
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The nutrients are able to interact with molecular mechanisms and modulate the physiological functions in the body. The Nutritional Genomics focuses on the interaction between bioactive food components and the genome, which includes Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics. The influence of nutrients on f genes expression is called Nutrigenomics, while the heterogeneous response of gene variants to nutrients, dietary components and developing nutraceticals is called Nutrigenetics. Genetic variation is known to affect food tolerances among human subpopulations and may also influence dietary requirements and raising the possibility of individualizing nutritional intake for optimal health and disease prevention on the basis of an individual’s genome. Nutrigenomics provides a genetic understanding for how common dietary components affect the balance between health and disease by altering the expression and/or structure of an individual’s genetic makeup. Nutrigenetics describes that the genetic profile have impact on the response of body to bioactive food components by influencing their absorption, metabolism, and site of action.

Nutrigenetics and Metabolic Disease: Current Status and Implications for Personalised Nutrition

Phillips, Catherine M.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/01/2013 Português
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Obesity, particularly central adiposity, is the primary causal factor in the development of insulin resistance, the hallmark of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a common condition characterized by dyslipidaemia and hypertension, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Interactions between genetic and environmental factors such as diet and lifestyle, particularly over-nutrition and sedentary behavior, promote the progression and pathogenesis of these polygenic diet-related diseases. Their current prevalence is increasing dramatically to epidemic proportions. Nutrition is probably the most important environmental factor that modulates expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways and the variety of phenotypes associated with obesity, the MetS and T2DM. Furthermore, the health effects of nutrients may be modulated by genetic variants. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics require an understanding of nutrition, genetics, biochemistry and a range of “omic” technologies to investigate the complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors relevant to metabolic health and disease. These rapidly developing fields of nutritional science hold much promise in improving nutrition for optimal personal and public health. This review presents the current state of the art in nutrigenetic research illustrating the significance of gene-nutrient interactions in the context of metabolic disease.

Risks of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics? What the scientists say

Hurlimann, T.; Menuz, V.; Graham, J.; Robitaille, J.; Vohl, M.-C.; Godard, B.
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics (hereafter NGx) have stimulated expectations for beneficial applications in public health and individuals. Yet, the potential achievability of such promise is not without socioethical considerations that challenge NGx implementation. This paper focuses on the opinions of NGx researchers about potential risks raised by NGx. The results of an online survey show that these researchers (n = 126) are fairly confident about the potential benefits of NGx, and that most downplay its potential risks. Researchers in this field do not believe that NGx will reconfigure foods as medication or transform the conception of eating into a health hazard. The majority think that NGx will produce no added burden on individuals to get tested or to remain compliant with NGx recommendations, nor that NGx will threaten individual autonomy in daily food choice. The majority of researchers do not think that NGx will lead to discrimination against and/or stigmatization of people who do not comply with NGx dietary recommendations. Despite this optimism among NGx researchers, we suggest that key risk factors raised by the socioethical context in which NGx applications will be implemented need to be considered.

Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics of Atherosclerosis

Merched, Aksam J.; Chan, Lawrence
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2013 Português
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The latest genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have re-energized our effort to understand the genetic basis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Although the knowledge generated by GWAS has confirmed that mediators of inflammation and perturbed lipid metabolism are major players in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development, much of individual disease heritability remains unexplained by the variants identified through GWAS. Moreover, results from interventions that aim at the pharmaceutical modification of lipid parameters fall short of expectation. These elusive treatment goals based on heritability studies highlight a key supportive, and perhaps even primary, role of nutritional therapy to achieve better health outcomes. Nonetheless, effective and specific interventions for CVD prevention using principles of “personalized” nutrition require a better knowledge of gene-diet interactions, an area that remains poorly explored. Dietary fatty acids such as omega–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are an excellent example of a widely studied “environment” that interacts with the genetic makeup in relation to CVD. A thorough exploration of the nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of omega–3 PUFAs is key to understanding the etiology...

Personalized Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: From Framingham to PREDIMED123

Konstantinidou, Valentini; Ruiz, Lidia Angeles Daimiel; Ordovás, Jose M.
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/05/2014 Português
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Diet is considered the cornerstone for the prevention of age-related diseases, and a low-fat diet has been considered for decades as the most suitable alternative to achieve this goal. However, mounting evidence supports the efficacy of other alternatives, such as the Mediterranean diet. Nevertheless, it is well known that people present a dramatic range of responses to similar environmental challenges, and it has been shown that some of this variability is rooted in the genome. In fact, this knowledge is driving the field of nutrigenetics. The finding of interactions between diet and genetic variants has led to intense research and debate about the effectiveness of personalized nutrition as a more suitable tool for the prevention of chronic diseases than the traditional 1-size-fits-all recommendations. Here, we provide some of our own examples that illustrate the progression of nutrigenetics through the years, from the initial studies within the Framingham Heart Study, to the most recent use of large consortia, such as the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology, and ending up with large dietary intervention studies, such as the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study. These recent approaches are providing more robust and clinically relevant gene–diet interactions. Therefore...

Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics Insights into Diabetes Etiopathogenesis

Berná, Genoveva; Oliveras-López, María Jesús; Jurado-Ruíz, Enrique; Tejedo, Juan; Bedoya, Francisco; Soria, Bernat; Martín, Franz
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/11/2014 Português
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered a global pandemic, and the incidence of DM continues to grow worldwide. Nutrients and dietary patterns are central issues in the prevention, development and treatment of this disease. The pathogenesis of DM is not completely understood, but nutrient-gene interactions at different levels, genetic predisposition and dietary factors appear to be involved. Nutritional genomics studies generally focus on dietary patterns according to genetic variations, the role of gene-nutrient interactions, gene-diet-phenotype interactions and epigenetic modifications caused by nutrients; these studies will facilitate an understanding of the early molecular events that occur in DM and will contribute to the identification of better biomarkers and diagnostics tools. In particular, this approach will help to develop tailored diets that maximize the use of nutrients and other functional ingredients present in food, which will aid in the prevention and delay of DM and its complications. This review discusses the current state of nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics and epigenomics research on DM. Here, we provide an overview of the role of gene variants and nutrient interactions, the importance of nutrients and dietary patterns on gene expression...

Phénomène de biohype dans des articles scientifiques rapportant des résultats issus de recherches cliniques en nutrigénétique/nutrigénomique : caractérisation et perception des chercheurs

Stenne, Raphaëlle
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Le développement de la nutrigénétique/nutrigénomique (NGx) a suscité de nombreuses attentes puisque les retombées qui lui sont associées s’avèrent potentiellement bénéfiques autant pour les individus en santé que pour les individus malades. De grandes attentes avaient également été associées au Projet de décryptage du Génome Humain (PGH). Aujourd’hui, seules quelques attentes de celles envisagées se sont concrétisées. Le PGH a donc évolué dans un contexte marqué par du biohype, soit la promotion d’attentes exagérées, voir irréalistes. Étant donné l’importance des attentes associées avec le développement de la NGx et des limites méthodologiques auxquelles fait encore face la recherche clinique conduite dans ce domaine, l’objectif principal de cette thèse est de déterminer si les publications scientifiques rapportant des résultats de recherches cliniques effectuées en NGx contribuent à l’émergence d’un phénomène de biohype. Plus spécifiquement, il s’agira également de documenter la perception des chercheurs oeuvrant dans le domaine de la NGx du phénomène de biohype, d’identifier certains facteurs qui pourraient expliquer son émergence dans la littérature scientifique propre à ce domaine et de proposer des pistes d’actions pour limiter les risques associés à ce phénomène. Nous avons tout d’abord procédé à une analyse documentaire d’articles scientifiques rapportant des résultats issus de recherches cliniques en NGx. Celle-ci nous a révélé que plusieurs bénéfices étaient promus dans cette littérature alors même que les limites méthodologiques n’étaient pas d’emblée présentées et discutées. Cette observation nous portait à croire que ces bénéfices étant potentiellement prématurés. Nous avons ensuite voulu valider notre constat auprès des chercheurs œuvrant principalement dans le domaine de la NGx. Cette enquête nous a permis de constater que les chercheurs étaient généralement en accord avec les bénéfices que nous avons recensés dans les articles scientifiques. Toutefois...

Genome health nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics - diagnosis and nutritional treatment of genome damage on an individual basis

Fenech, M.
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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The term nutrigenomics refers to the effect of diet on gene expression. The term nutrigenetics refers to the impact of inherited traits on the response to a specific dietary pattern, functional food or supplement on a specific health outcome. The specific fields of genome health nutrigenomics and genome health nutrigenetics are emerging as important new research areas because it is becoming increasingly evident that (a) risk for developmental and degenerative disease increases with DNA damage which in turn is dependent on nutritional status and (b) optimal concentration of micronutrients for prevention of genome damage is also dependent on genetic polymorphisms that alter function of genes involved directly or indirectly in uptake and metabolism of micronutrients required for DNA repair and DNA replication. Development of dietary patterns, functional foods and supplements that are designed to improve genome health maintenance in humans with specific genetic backgrounds may provide an important contribution to a new optimum health strategy based on the diagnosis and individualised nutritional treatment of genome instability i.e. Genome Health Clinics.; Michael Fenech; Crown copyright © 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Inclusion and exclusion in nutrigenetics clinical research: ethical & scientific challenges

Hurlimann, Thierry; Stenne, Raphaëlle; Menuz, Vincent; Godard, Béatrice
Fonte: Karger Publicador: Karger
Tipo: Pré-publication / Preprint
Português
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Background/Aims: There are compelling reasons to ensure participation of ethnic minorities and populations of all ages worldwide in nutrigenetics clinical research. If findings in such research are valid for some individuals, groups, or communities, and not for others, then ethical questions of justice – and not only issues of methodology and external validity – arise. This paper aims to examine inclusion in nutrigenetics clinical research and its scientific and ethical challenges. Methods: 173 publications were identified through a systematic review of clinical studies in nutrigenetics published between 1998 and 2007 inclusively. Data such as participants' demographics as well as eligibility criteria were extracted. Results: There is no consistency in the way participants’ origins (ancestry, ethnicity or race) and ages are described in publications. A vast majority of the studies identified was conducted in North America and Europe and focused on “white” participants. Our results show that pregnant women (and fetuses), minors and the elderly (≥75 years old) remain underrepresented. Conclusion: Representativeness in nutrigenetics research is a challenging ethical and scientific issue. Yet, if nutrigenetics is to benefit whole populations and be used in public and global health agendas...

Third Jesús Culebras Lecture: Molecular Biology and Clinical Nutrition; ¿where do we stand and where do we go?

Gil,Ángel
Fonte: Nutrición Hospitalaria Publicador: Nutrición Hospitalaria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2013 Português
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Nutrition plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of health and the treatment of disease, and serves as the crossroads for many disciplines. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology represents a key brand of science to ascertain the mechanism of action of nutrients and other food bioactive compounds in health and disease. The aim of the present Jesús M. Culebras lecture is to consider the future of the relationships between Molecular Biology and Clinical Nutrition and to discuss the use of molecular and genetic tools to study molecular responses to dietary factors and the metabolic consequences of food and to consider major challenges on human nutrition sciences in the 21st century. Particular emphasis is given to the identification and use of novel biomarkers in inflammatory diseases. Likewise, the importance of the human microbiome and how microorganisms can be safely utilized in the prevention and management of infectious and chronic diseases are discussed. Moreover, the key role of nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics and epigenetics in the new era of nutrition is considered. Nutrigenetics refers to the role of DNA sequence variation in the responses to nutrients, whereas nutrigenomics is the study of the role of nutrients in gene expression. Epigenetics is the study of mitotically heritable alterations in gene expression potential that are not caused by DNA sequence alterations. In the past decade...