In 2001, Maryland’s court of appeals was asked to decide whether researchers at Johns Hopkins University had engaged in unethical research on children. During the 1990s, Johns Hopkins’s Kennedy Krieger Institute had studied 108 African American children, aged 6 months to 6 years, to find an inexpensive and “practical” means to ameliorate lead poisoning. We have outlined the arguments in the case and the conundrum faced by public health researchers as they confront new threats to our health from environmental and industrial insults. We examined the case in light of contemporary public health ideology, which prioritizes harm reduction over the historical goals of prevention. As new synthetic toxins—such as bisphenyl A, polychlorinated biphenyls, other chlorinated hydrocarbons, tobacco, vinyl, and asbestos—are discovered to be biologically disruptive and disease producing at low levels, lead provides a window into the troubling dilemmas public health will have to confront in the future.
When the American Museum of Health (AMH) opened in 1939 at the World’s Fair, its popularity convinced its organizers that the AMH was merely the first in a nationwide network of health museums. The AMH’s organizers had imported an approach to health education developed in Germany, which promoted health as a positive attribute through interactive, visually impressive displays that relied on clarity and simplicity—as epitomized by the “Transparent Man”—to encourage a feeling of wonder among exhibit goers. However, other museum professionals rejected this approach, and the AMH failed to catalyze a broad health museum movement. Nevertheless, the notion that presenting the body as an object of wonder will improve the public’s health has reappeared in the more recent past, as popular anatomical shows claim that exposing the interior of the human body will convince viewers to live healthier lives.
Between the years 1921 and 1938, 27 600 children were irradiated during a mass campaign to eradicate ringworm among the Jewish community in East Europe. The ringworm campaign was the initiative of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee together with the Jewish health maintenance organization OZE (The Society for the Protection of Jewish Health). We describe this campaign that used x-rays to eradicate ringworm and its mission to enhance public health among Jewish communities in Eastern Europe during the period between the world wars. We discuss the concepts behind the campaign, the primary health agents that participated in it, and the latent medical ramifications that were found among children treated for ringworm, many years after treatment—pathologies that can be linked to the irradiation they received as children. Our research is based on historical archival materials in the United States, Europe, and Israel.
In the United States, analysis of survey data provided by projects such as the National Health Interview Survey and the Youth Tobacco Survey has revealed the extent to which cigarette consumption patterns are influenced by gender and race. Taking our lead from a broader field of research that analyzed the sociological characteristics of cigarette consumption, we analyzed these intersections between race and gender through a study of masculinity and style in Marlboro and Kool cigarette advertisements during the 1960s and 1970s. We focused on this period because it was then that the racial bifurcation of cigarette consumption practices first became apparent. We suggest that style provides both a theoretical framework and methodology for understanding how and why White American and African American male consumers learned to consume in different ways. We also argue that the analysis of tobacco consumption in terms of masculinity and style provides a useful method for approaching the design of antismoking interventions.
OBJECTIVES The science of mass gatherings is a relatively new and developing field. It is currently at a stage where summarising the rigour of knowledge gained about the complex interrelationships between key characteristics of an event, spectator profiles and health implications are critical. This study seeks to summarise the levels of evidence in peer-reviewed journal articles concerning mass gathering public health and emergency medicine published 2001 to 2011. Until now, the evidence behind the science of mass gathering public health and emergency medicine has not been critically analysed. METHODS Publications were reviewed by searching the following online databases: GALE, NLM, Web of Science, Elsevier, Wiley, BMJ Journals, OUP, IngentaConnect, RMIT, DOAJ and JSTOR. Published news articles and grey literature were omitted. The peer-reviewed articles were organised into pre-determined World Health Organisation categories and the levels of evidence were assessed using the effectiveness classifications developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Descriptive statistical analysis was then undertaken using Microsoft Excel®. RESULTS Of all publications examined, 38•86% (n = 89) of the articles found in this review were categorised as observational studies...
Air quality, especially in urban areas, deteriorated with the industrial revolution
and the following centuries. It is only during the last 60 years, following e.g. the
infamous London smog (1952), that the health impacts of air pollution have been
recognised and acted upon. In the developed world, abatement strategies and
closure of major industries have led to significant air quality improvements
(Harrison, 2004; Lamarque et al., 2010; Monks et al., 2009; Smith et al., 2011).
Even so, the evaluation of current research within the Clean Air for Europe
(CAFE) process has clearly shown that, even today, investments in further air
quality improvements will have a beneficial return financially, in terms of
population health, environmental improvements and in quality of life (EEA, 2007;
The measurement of air quality changed dramatically during the last century
reflecting the concurrent knowledge about the adverse effects of air pollution, as
well as the technological developments. The earliest measurement methods were
often labour intensive, needed long analysis times and had a low time resolution.
Routine measurements of air quality can be traced back to the Montsouris
Click here to download Manuscript: AMT_AtmosEnv_NewDirection_19_09_2013.docx Click here to view linked References
Observatory in Paris...
Drugs misuse is a complex phenomenon that does not appear to have declined significantly in last decades, despite great efforts in terms of repression and therapeutic approaches. Interestingly, the Internet is now playing a key role in shaping how drugs are sold, changing the classic classification of new versus old drugs. Indeed, a growing number of new drugs are now available on the internet drug market, including prescription drugs with psychoactive properties that are easier to obtain than illegal drugs. Among the prescription drugs whose recreational use is on the rise there is Benzydamine (BZY), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug also abused as a club drug. BZY abuse was first identified in Brazilian teenagers, and then spread to Poland and Romania, and other European countries (Opaleye et al, 2009; Mota et al, 2010; Babalan et al, 2013; Doksat et al, 2009; Settimi et al, 2012). Today, BZY abuse has become the object of increasing concern in public health also in Italy. It is used because, when taken systemically at high doses, it produces euphoria, excitation, hallucinations, and delirium. According to online forums, BZY causes a long-lasting 'brain-flying' effect similar to LSD. It seems that BZY is often taken in conjunction with tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol to obtain an amplified effect. The main goal of the present dissertation is to characterize the reinforcing properties of BZY using the intravenous drug self-administration in the rat and then to investigate the ability of BZY to induce neuroplastic changes in the cortico-accumbens glutamatergic synapses...
Background: Accumulating evidence implicates early life factors in the aetiology of non-communicable diseases, including asthma/wheezing disorders. We undertook a systematic review investigating risks of asthma/wheezing disorders in children born preterm, including the increasing numbers who, as a result of advances in neonatal care, now survive very preterm birth. Methods and Findings: Two reviewers independently searched seven online databases for contemporaneous (1 January 1995–23 September 2013) epidemiological studies investigating the association between preterm birth and asthma/wheezing disorders. Additional studies were identified through reference and citation searches, and contacting international experts. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Effective Public Health Practice Project instrument. We pooled unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates using random-effects meta-analysis, investigated “dose–response” associations, and undertook subgroup, sensitivity, and meta-regression analyses to assess the robustness of associations. We identified 42 eligible studies from six continents. Twelve were excluded for population overlap, leaving 30 unique studies involving 1,543,639 children. Preterm birth was associated with an increased risk of wheezing disorders in unadjusted (13.7% versus 8.3%; odds ratio [OR] 1.71...