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Cosmic Distance Duality Relation and the Shape of Galaxy Clusters

Holanda, R. F. L.; Lima, J. A. S.; Ribeiro, M. B.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Observations in the cosmological domain are heavily dependent on the validity of the cosmic distance-duality (DD) relation, D_L(z) (1 + z)^{2}/D_{A}(z) = 1, an exact result required by the Etherington reciprocity theorem where D_L(z) and D_A(z) are, respectively, the luminosity and angular diameter distances. In the limit of very small redshifts D_A(z) = D_L(z) and this ratio is trivially satisfied. Measurements of Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) and X-rays combined with the DD relation have been used to determine D_A(z)from galaxy clusters. This combination offers the possibility of testing the validity of the DD relation, as well as determining which physical processes occur in galaxy clusters via their shapes. We use WMAP (7 years) results by fixing the conventional LCDM model to verify the consistence between the validity of DD relation and different assumptions about galaxy cluster geometries usually adopted in the literature. We assume that $\eta$ is a function of the redshift parametrized by two different relations: \eta(z) = 1 + \eta_{0}z, and \eta(z)=1 + \eta_{0}z/(1+z), where \eta_0 is a constant parameter quantifying the possible departure from the strict validity of the DD relation. In order to determine the probability density function (PDF) of \eta_{0}...

Correctly validating results from single molecule data: the case of stretched exponential decay in the catalytic activity of single lipase B molecules

Flomenbom, Ophir; Hofkens, Johan; Velonia, Kelly; de Schryver, Frans C.; Rowan, Alan E.; Nolte, Roeland J. M.; Klafter, Joseph; Silbey, Robert J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/02/2007 Português
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The question of how to validate and interpret correctly the waiting time probability density functions (WT-PDFs) from single molecule data is addressed. It is shown by simulation that when a stretched exponential WT-PDF, with a stretched exponent alfa and a time scale parameter tau, generates the off periods of a two-state trajectory, a reliable recovery of the input WT-PDF from the trajectory is obtained even when the bin size used to define the trajectory, dt, is much larger than the parameter tau. This holds true as long as the first moment of the WT-PDF is much larger than dt. Our results validate the results in an earlier study of the activity of single Lipase B molecules and disprove recent related critique.

Magnetic Discontinuities in Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence and in the Solar Wind

Zhdankin, Vladimir; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Mason, Joanne; Perez, Jean Carlos
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/04/2012 Português
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Recent measurements of solar wind turbulence report the presence of intermittent, exponentially distributed angular discontinuities in the magnetic field. In this Letter, we study whether such discontinuities can be produced by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We detect the discontinuities by measuring the fluctuations of the magnetic field direction, Delta theta, across fixed spatial increments Delta x in direct numerical simulations of MHD turbulence with an imposed uniform guide field B_0. A large region of the probability density function (pdf) for Delta theta is found to follow an exponential decay, proportional to exp(-Delta theta/theta_*), with characteristic angle theta_* ~ (14 deg) (b_rms/B_0)^0.65 for a broad range of guide-field strengths. We find that discontinuities observed in the solar wind can be reproduced by MHD turbulence with reasonable ratios of b_rms/B_0. We also observe an excess of small angular discontinuities when Delta x becomes small, possibly indicating an increasing statistical significance of dissipation-scale structures. The structure of the pdf in this case closely resembles the two-population pdf seen in the solar wind. We thus propose that strong discontinuities are associated with inertial-range MHD turbulence...

Ground-state energy fluctuations in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model

Palassini, Matteo
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The probability distribution function (PDF) of the ground-state energy in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin-glass model is numerically determined by collecting a large statistical sample of ground states, computed using a genetic algorithm. It is shown that the standard deviation of the ground-state energy per spin scales with the number of spins, N, as N^{-\rho} with \rho \simeq 0.765, but the value \rho=3/4 is also compatible with the data, while the previously proposed value \rho=5/6 is ruled out. The PDF satisfies finite-size scaling with a non-Gaussian asymptotic PDF, which can be fitted remarkably well by the Gumbel distribution for the m-th smallest element in a set of random variables, with m \simeq 6.; Comment: 4 pages, 4 eps figures. Some changes in the text, references corrected, plot of Tracy-Widom distribution added

Analysis of the ensemble Kalman filter for marginal and joint posteriors

Morzfeld, Matthias; Hodyss, Daniel
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is widely used to sample a probability density function (pdf) generated by a stochastic model conditioned by noisy data. This pdf can be either a joint posterior that describes the evolution of the state of the system in time, conditioned on all the data up to the present, or a particular marginal of this posterior. We show that the EnKF collapses in the same way and under even broader conditions as a particle filter when it samples the joint posterior. However, this does not imply that EnKF collapses when it samples the marginal posterior. We we show that a localized and inflated EnKF can efficiently sample this marginal, and argue that the marginal posterior is often the more useful pdf in geophysics. This explains the wide applicability of EnKF in this field. We further investigate the typical tuning of EnKF, in which one attempts to match the mean square error (MSE) to the marginal posterior variance, and show that sampling error may be huge, even if the MSE is moderate.; Comment: I submitted a much improved and revised version which has very little to do with this version of the article

A new gap phenomenon for proper holomorphic mappings from B^n into B^N

Huang, Xiaojun; Ji, Shanyu; Xu, Dekang
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/05/2006 Português
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In this paper (Math. Res. Lett. 13 (2006). No 4, 509-523), the authors established a pseudo-normal form for proper holomoprhic mappings between balls in complex spaces with degenerate rank. This then was used to give a complete characterization for all proper holomorphic maps with geometric rank one, which, in particular, includes the following as an immediate application: Theorem: Any rational holomorphic map from B^n into B^N with $4\le n\le N\le 3n-4$ is equivalent to the D'Angelo map $$F_{\theta}(z',w)=(z',(\cos\theta)w,(\sin\theta)z_1w, ..., (\sin\theta)z_{n-1}w, (\sin\theta)w^2, 0'), 0\le \theta\leq \pi/2.$$ It is a well-known (but also quite trivial) fact that any non-constant rational CR map from a piece of the sphere $\partial {B^n}$ into the sphere $\partial {B^N}$ can be extended as a proper rational holomoprhic map from $B^n$ into $B^N$ ($N\ge n\ge 2$). By using the rationality theorem that the authors established in [HJX05], one sees that the the above theorem (and also the main theorem of the paper) holds in the same way for any non-constant $C^3$-smooth CR map from a piece of $\partial {B^n}$ into $\partial{B^N}$. The paper [Math. Res. Lett. 13 (2006). No 4, 509-523] was first electronically published by Mathematical Research Letters several months ago at its home website: http://www.mrlonline.org/mrl/0000-000-00/Huang-Ji-Xu2.pdf. (The pdf file of the printed journal version can also be downloaded at http://www.math.uh.edu/~shanyuji/rank1.pdf).; Comment: published

Soft metrics and their Performance Analysis for Optimal Data Detection in the Presence of Strong Oscillator Phase Noise

Krishnan, Rajet; Khanzadi, M. Reza; Eriksson, Thomas; Svensson, Tommy
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/10/2013 Português
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In this paper, we address the classical problem of maximum-likelihood (ML) detection of data in the presence of random phase noise. We consider a system, where the random phase noise affecting the received signal is first compensated by a tracker/estimator. Then the phase error and its statistics are used for deriving the ML detector. Specifically, we derive an ML detector based on a Gaussian assumption for the phase error probability density function (PDF). Further without making any assumptions on the phase error PDF, we show that the actual ML detector can be reformulated as a weighted sum of central moments of the phase error PDF. We present a simple approximation of this new ML rule assuming that the phase error distribution is unknown. The ML detectors derived are also the aposteriori probabilities of the transmitted symbols, and are referred to as soft metrics. Then, using the detector developed based on Gaussian phase error assumption, we derive the symbol error probability (SEP) performance and error floor analytically for arbitrary constellations. Finally we compare SEP performance of the various detectors/metrics in this work and those from literature for different signal constellations, phase noise scenarios and SNR values.

Stretching of polymers around the Kolmogorov scale in a turbulent shear flow

Davoudi, Jahanshah; Schumacher, Joerg
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/01/2006 Português
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We present numerical studies of stretching of Hookean dumbbells in a turbulent Navier-Stokes flow with a linear mean profile, =Sy. In addition to the turbulence features beyond the viscous Kolmogorov scale \eta, the dynamics at the equilibrium extension of the dumbbells significantly below eta is well resolved. The variation of the constant shear rate S causes a change of the turbulent velocity fluctuations on all scales and thus of the intensity of local stretching rate of the advecting flow. The latter is measured by the maximum Lyapunov exponent lambda_1 which is found to increase as \lambda_1 ~ S^{3/2}, in agreement with a dimensional argument. The ensemble of up to 2 times 10^6 passively advected dumbbells is advanced by Brownian dynamics simulations in combination with a pseudospectral integration for the turbulent shear flow. Anisotropy of stretching is quantified by the statistics of the azimuthal angle $\phi$ which measures the alignment with the mean flow axis in the x-y shear plane, and the polar angle theta which determines the orientation with respect to the shear plane. The asymmetry of the probability density function (PDF) of phi increases with growing shear rate S. Furthermore, the PDF becomes increasingly peaked around mean flow direction (phi= 0). In contrast...

Updated radio $\Sigma-D$ relation for Galactic supernova remnants

Pavlović, M. Z.; Dobardžić, A.; Vukotić, B.; Urošević, D.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/11/2014 Português
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We present updated empirical radio surface-brightness-to-diameter ($\Sigma-D$) relation for supernova remnants (SNRs) in our Galaxy. Our original calibration sample of Galactic SNRs with independently determined distances (Pavlovic et al. 2013, hereafter Paper I) is reconsidered and updated with data which became available in the past two years. The orthogonal fitting procedure and probability-density-function-based (PDF) method are applied to the calibration sample in the $\log \Sigma - \log D$ plane. Orthogonal regression keeps $\Sigma-D$ and $D-\Sigma$ relations invariant. Our previous Monte Carlo simulations verified that the slopes of the empirical $\Sigma-D$ relation should be determined by using orthogonal regression. Updated calibration sample contains 65 shell SNRs. 6 new Galactic SNRs are added to the sample from Paper I, one is omitted and distances are changed for 10 SNRs. The slope derived here is slightly steeper ($\beta \approx 5.2$) than $\Sigma-D$ slope in Paper I ($\beta \approx 4.8$). The PDF method relies on data points density maps which can provide more reliable calibrations that preserve more information contained in the calibration sample. We estimate distances to five new faint Galactic SNRs discovered for the first time by Canadian Galactic Plane Survey and obtained distances of 2.3...

Effects of quintessence on observations of Type Ia SuperNovae in the clumpy Universe

Sereno, M.; Piedipalumbo, E.; Sazhin, M. V.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/09/2002 Português
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We discuss the amplification dispersion in the observed luminosity of standard candles, like supernovae (SNe) of type Ia, induced by gravitational lensing in a Universe with dark energy (quintessence). We derive the main features of the magnification probability distribution function (pdf) of SNe in the framework of on average Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) models for both lensing by large-scale structures and compact objects. The magnification pdf is strongly dependent on the equation of state, $w_Q$, of the quintessence. The dispersion increases with the redshift of the source and is maximum for dark energy with very large negative pressure; the effects of gravitational lensing on the magnification pdf, i.e. the mode biased towards de-amplified values and the long tail towards large magnifications, are reduced for both microscopic DM and quintessence with an intermediate $w_Q$. Different equations of state of the dark energy can deeply change the dispersion in amplification for the projected observed samples of SNe Ia by future space-born missions. The "noise" in the Hubble diagram due to gravitational lensing strongly affects the determination of the cosmological parameters from SNe data. The errors on the pressureless matter density parameter...

Atomic-scale structure of hard-core fluids under shear flow

Lutsko, James F.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The effect of velocity correlations on the equal-time density autocorrelation function, e.g. the pair distribution function or pdf, of a hard-sphere fluid undergoing shear flow is investigated. The pdf at contact is calculated within the Enskog approximation and is shown to be in good agreement with molecular dynamics simulations for shear rates below the shear-induced ordering transition. These calculations are used to construct a nonequilibrium generalised mean spherical approximation for the pdf at finite separations which is also found to agree well with the simulation data.; Comment: 35 pages, 13 figures. To be submitted to PRE. Replacement: More data added to fig 8 and minor improvements to the text

Physical factorisation scheme for PDFs for non-inclusive applications

de Oliveira, E. G.; Martin, A. D.; Ryskin, M. G.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/10/2013 Português
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We introduce the physical factorisation scheme, which is necessary to describe observables which are `not completely inclusive'. We derive the formulae for NLO DGLAP evolution in this scheme, and also for the `rotation' of the conventional MSbar PDFs into the physical representation. Unlike, the MSbar prescription, where, for example, the gluon PDF at NLO obtains an admixture of the quark-singlet PDF, and vice-versa, the physical approach does not mix parton PDFs of different types. That is, the physical approach retains the precise quantum numbers of each PDF. The NLO corrections to DGLAP evolution in the physical scheme are less than those in the MSbar case, indicating a better convergence of the perturbative series.

Minimax theory of estimation of linear functionals of the deconvolution density with or without sparsity

Pensky, Marianna
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The present paper considers a problem of estimating a linear functional $\Phi=\int_{-\infty}^\infty \varphi(x) f(x)dx$ of an unknown deconvolution density $f$ on the basis of i.i.d. observations $Y_i = \theta_i + \xi_i$ where $\xi_i$ has a known pdf $g$ and $f$ is the pdf of $\theta_i$. Although various aspects and particular cases of this problem have been treated by a number of authors, there are still many gaps. In particular, there are no minimax lower bounds for an estimator of $\Phi$ for an arbitrary function $\varphi$. The general upper risk bounds cover only the case when the Fourier transform of $\varphi$ exists. Moreover, no theory exists for estimating $\Phi$ when vector of observations is sparse. In addition, until now, the related problem of estimation of functionals $\Phi_n = n^{-1} \sum_{i=1}^n \varphi(\theta_i)$ in indirect observations have been treated as a separate problem with no connection to estimation of $\Phi$. The objective of the present paper is to fill in the gaps and develop the general minimax theory of estimation of $\Phi$ and $\Phi_n$. We offer a general approach to estimation of $\Phi$ (and $\Phi_n$) and provide the upper and the minimax lower risk bounds in the case when function $\varphi$ is square integrable. Furthermore...

Efficient grid-based Bayesian estimation of nonlinear low-dimensional systems with sparse non-Gaussian PDFs

Bewley, T R; Sharma, A S
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/01/2013 Português
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Bayesian estimation strategies represent the most fundamental formulation of the state estimation problem available, and apply readily to nonlinear systems with non-Gaussian uncertainties. The present paper introduces a novel method for implementing grid-based Bayesian estimation which largely sidesteps the severe computational expense that has prevented the widespread use of such methods. The method represents the evolution of the probability density function (PDF) in phase space, $p_{\x}(\x',t)$, discretized on a fixed Cartesian grid over {\it all} of phase space, and consists of two main steps: (i) Between measurement times, $p_{\x}(\x',t)$ is evolved via numerical discretization of the Kolmogorov forward equation, using a Godunov method with second-order corner transport upwind correction and a total variation diminishing flux limiter; (ii) at measurement times, $p_{\x}(\x',t)$ is updated via Bayes' theorem. Computational economy is achieved by exploiting the localised nature of $p_{\x}(\x',t)$. An ordered list of cells with non-negligible probability, as well as their immediate neighbours, is created and updated, and the PDF evolution is tracked {\it only} on these active cells. %The grid-based discretization of $p_{\x}(\x',t)$ in this approach avoids the requirement for resampling associated with particle-based representations of the PDF.

Dynamics of heterogeneous hard spheres in a file

Flomenbom, Ophir
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Normal dynamics in a quasi-one-dimensional channel of length L (\to\infty) of N hard spheres are analyzed. The spheres are heterogeneous: each has a diffusion coefficient D that is drawn from a probability density function (PDF), W D^(-{\gamma}), for small D, where 0\leq{\gamma}<1. The initial spheres' density {\rho} is non-uniform and scales with the distance (from the origin) l as, {\rho} l^(-a), 0\leqa\leq1. An approximation for the N-particle PDF for this problem is derived. From this solution, scaling law analysis and numerical simulations, we show here that the mean square displacement for a particle in such a system obeys, ~t^(1-{\gamma})/(2c-{\gamma}), where c=1/(1+a). The PDF of the tagged particle is Gaussian in position. Generalizations of these results are considered.

Phonons from neutron powder diffraction

Dimitrov, D. A.; Louca, D.; Röder, H.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The spherically averaged structure function $\soq$ obtained from pulsed neutron powder diffraction contains both elastic and inelastic scattering via an integral over energy. The Fourier transformation of $\soq$ to real space, as is done in the pair density function (PDF) analysis, regularizes the data, i.e. it accentuates the diffuse scattering. We present a technique which enables the extraction of off-center phonon information from powder diffraction experiments by comparing the experimental PDF with theoretical calculations based on standard interatomic potentials and the crystal symmetry. This procedure (dynamics from powder diffraction(DPD)) has been successfully implemented for two systems, a simple metal, fcc Ni, and an ionic crystal, CaF$_{2}$. Although computationally intensive, this data analysis allows for a phonon based modeling of the PDF, and additionally provides off-center phonon information from powder neutron diffraction.

A posteriori inclusion of parton density functions in NLO QCD final-state calculations at hadron colliders: The APPLGRID Project

Carli, Tancredi; Clements, Dan; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Gwenlan, Claire; Salam, Gavin P.; Siegert, Frank; Starovoitov, Pavel; Sutton, Mark
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/11/2009 Português
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A method to facilitate the consistent inclusion of cross-section measurements based on complex final-states from HERA, TEVATRON and the LHC in proton parton density function (PDF) fits has been developed. This can be used to increase the sensitivity of LHC data to deviations from Standard Model predictions. The method stores perturbative coefficients of NLO QCD calculations of final-state observables measured in hadron colliders in look-up tables. This allows the posteriori inclusion of parton density functions (PDFs), and of the strong coupling, as well as the a posteriori variation of the renormalisation and factorisation scales in cross-section calculations. The main novelties in comparison to original work on the subject are the use of higher-order interpolation, which substantially improves the trade-off between accuracy and memory use, and a CPU and computer memory optimised way to construct and store the look-up table using modern software tools. It is demonstrated that a sufficient accuracy on the cross-section calculation can be achieved with reasonably small look-up table size by using the examples of jet production and electro-weak boson (Z, W) production in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV at the LHC. The use of this technique in PDF fitting is demonstrated in a PDF-fit to HERA data and simulated LHC jet cross-sections as well as in a study of the jet cross-section uncertainties at various centre-of-mass energies.

Real-time particle-detection probabilities in accelerated macroscopic detectors

Anastopoulos, Charis; Savvidou, Ntina
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/03/2014 Português
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We construct the detection rate for particle detectors moving along non-inertial trajectories and interacting with quantum fields. The detectors described here are characterized by the presence of records of observation throughout their history, so that the detection rate corresponds to directly measurable quantities. This is in contrast to past treatments of detectors, which actually refer to probes, i.e., microscopic systems from which we extract information only after their interaction has been completed. Our treatment incorporates the irreversibility due to the creation of macroscopic records of observation. The key result is a real-time description of particle detection and a rigorously defined time-local probability density function (PDF). The PDF depends on the scale $\sigma$ of the temporal coarse-graining that is necessary for the formation of a macroscopic record. The evaluation of the PDF for Unruh-DeWitt detectors along different types of trajectory shows that only paths with at least one characteristic time-scale much smaller than $\sigma$ lead to appreciable particle detection. Our approach allows for averaging over fast motions and thus predicts a constant detection rate for all fast periodic motions.; Comment: 22 pages...

Adaptive Rejection Sampling with fixed number of nodes

Martino, L.; Louzada, F.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/09/2015 Português
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The adaptive rejection sampling (ARS) algorithm is a universal random generator for drawing samples efficiently from a univariate log-concave target probability density function (pdf). ARS generates independent samples from the target via rejection sampling with high acceptance rates. Indeed, ARS yields a sequence of proposal functions that converge toward the target pdf, so that the probability of accepting a sample approaches one. However, sampling from the proposal pdf becomes more computational demanding each time it is updated. In this work, we propose a novel ARS scheme, called Cheap Adaptive Rejection Sampling (CARS), where the computational effort for drawing from the proposal remains constant, decided in advance by the user. For generating a large number of desired samples, CARS is faster than ARS.

Survey design for Spectral Energy Distribution fitting: a Fisher Matrix approach

Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric; Bickerton, Steven J.; Grogin, Norman A.; Guo, Yicheng; Lee, Seong-Kook
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The spectral energy distribution (SED) of a galaxy contains information on the galaxy's physical properties, and multi-wavelength observations are needed in order to measure these properties via SED fitting. In planning these surveys, optimization of the resources is essential. The Fisher Matrix formalism can be used to quickly determine the best possible experimental setup to achieve the desired constraints on the SED fitting parameters. However, because it relies on the assumption of a Gaussian likelihood function, it is in general less accurate than other slower techniques that reconstruct the probability distribution function (PDF) from the direct comparison between models and data. We compare the uncertainties on SED fitting parameters predicted by the Fisher Matrix to the ones obtained using the more thorough PDF fitting techniques. We use both simulated spectra and real data, and consider a large variety of target galaxies differing in redshift, mass, age, star formation history, dust content, and wavelength coverage. We find that the uncertainties reported by the two methods agree within a factor of two in the vast majority (~ 90%) of cases. If the age determination is uncertain, the top-hat prior in age used in PDF fitting to prevent each galaxy from being older than the Universe needs to be incorporated in the Fisher Matrix...