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Media use at the crossroads: Nicosia

El Issawi, Fatima; Georgiou, Myria
Fonte: Sage Publications Publicador: Sage Publications
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2010 Português
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Cyprus has always been a crossroads between continental Europe and the Middle East and the history of migration from this region to the eastern Mediterranean island can be traced back more than two thousand years. Contemporary migration has had its distinct history with significant waves of refugees migrating from the Middle East to Cyprus since the 1960s. In these recent times, Lebanese and Palestinians have become the two largest groups of migrants to Cyprus. In addition, since the turn of the 21st century and with the growth of the Cypriot economy, smaller waves of economic migrants from the Middle East and Northern Africa have moved to Cyprus. Although Arabic migration spreads across the island, an established Arab community sustains a strong and longstanding presence in Nicosia, the capital. For this study we recruited individuals from different social and ethnic backgrounds, including Middle Eastern migrants and Cypriotborn migrants from locations such as Lebanon and Palestine especially, but also newcomers from the Gulf region and North Africa. This article is based on six focus groups of three different age groups (three female and three male; age groups: 18–25, 26–45, 46+) conducted in Nicosia, Cyprus, in June 2009. Each focus group included between six and eight participants of various Arabic backgrounds. The Nicosia focus groups have tended to reflect the distinct cultural position Arab participants occupy in contemporary South Eastern Europe (i.e. being primarily refugees living close to the Middle East). Thus...

Hegemony, democracy, agonism and journalism: an interview with Chantal Mouffe

Carpentier, Nico; Cammaerts, Bart
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2006 Português
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Chantal Mouffe's political philosophy has been influential in a variety of domains, including sociology, cultural studies, media studies, law, art, literary criticism, and journalism studies. By combining Gramsci's focus on hegemony with post-structuralist theory she has developed - in collaboration with Ernesto Laclau - a sophisticated perspective on the political that intersects with all aspects of society, including the role and functioning of journalism. Her emphasis on the productive role of hegemony and conflict in society combined with her plea for a radical pluralist democracy, open a wide range of new perspectives for journalism studies. We present an overview of Mouffe's work set against a recent interview with her, in which we discuss, among other things, the potential diversity of contingent journalistic identities, ranging between being complicit with hegemonic socio-political projects, and safe-guarding or even deepening democratic institutions, including itself.

Online political debate, unbounded citizenship, and the problematic nature of a transnational public sphere

Cammaerts, Bart; Van Audenhove, Leo
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 Português
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Citizenship has always been a dynamic notion, subject to change and permanent struggle over its precise content and meaning. Recent technological, economic, and political transformations have led to the development of alternative notions of citizenship that go beyond the classic understanding of its relationship to nation states and rights. Civil society actors play an important role in this process by organizing themselves at a transnational level, engaging with issues that transcend the boundaries of the nation state and questioning the democratic legitimacy of other transnational actors such as international and corporate organizations. They also allow citizens to engage with "unbounded" issues and to construct a transnational public sphere where such issues can be debated. It is often assumed that the Internet plays a crucial role in enabling this transnational public sphere to take shape. Empirical analysis of discussion forums and mailing lists developed by transnational civil society actors shows, however, that the construction of such a transnational public sphere is paved with constraints. To speak of a unified transnational public sphere is therefore deemed to be problematic. It cannot be seen or construed without taking into account the local...

Community radio in the West: a legacy of struggle for survival in a state and capitalist controlled media environment

Cammaerts, Bart
Fonte: Sage Communications Publicador: Sage Communications
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2009 Português
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In this article the legacy of struggle by community radio in the West is analysed from a comparative perspective. More specifically, the focus of this article is on Western media policies towards community radio. It is argued that while many community radio discourses, theories and policies are oriented towards developing countries and emerging democracies, community radio stations in the West are often forced to operate in the margins. Case studies on the US, the UK and Belgium are presented. Some influence of distinct regulatory paradigms can be observed, but overall in each of these countries community radio stations have a legacy of struggle for their existence and survival. This exposes the need to account for the distinct nature of community radio in (Western) regulatory regimes. A common thread in the cases being presented is the difficulty involved in (local) community radio legitimating its existence on the FM-band alongside commercial and public broadcasters. Unlike these, community radio movements have little lobbying power and are usually positioned as rogue and unprofessional actors within the broadcasting community. From a democratic perspective emphasizing the importance of participation and civic culture, Western media policies urgently need to create an enabling environment for participatory community radio initiatives.

Changing regimes of regulation: implications for public service broadcasting.

Lunt, Peter; Livingstone, Sonia; Brevini, Benedetta
Fonte: Nordicom, University of Gothernberg Publicador: Nordicom, University of Gothernberg
Tipo: Book Section; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 Português
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While the BBC is bloated in some parts, the desire by some to gut it may make us all poorer

Choudhury, Barnie
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/10/2011 Português
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Today the BBC announced massive cuts to its services and has plans to shed 2,000 more jobs. The Lincoln School of Journalism’s Barnie Choudhury worked for the BBC for 24 years and reflects on today’s news and what it might mean for the future of broadcasting in the UK.

The great global switch-off: international coverage in UK public service broadcasting

Harding, Phil
Fonte: POLIS, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: POLIS, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
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A new report by Polis, Oxfam and the International Broadcasting Trust (IBT).

PSBs must be bolder in their vision for society

Hunt, Jeremy
Fonte: Conservative Party Publicador: Conservative Party
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/10/2008 Português
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Jeremy Hunt MP's PSB broadcasting speech. 28 October 2008 Embargoed until 0001 Wednesday 29th October 2008.

What good is Twitter? The value of social media to public service journalism

Hahn, Nadja
Fonte: European Broadcasting Union and POLIS, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: European Broadcasting Union and POLIS, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2013 Português
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This research paper is a report with a purpose. Its author, who is ultimately responsible for the views it contains, is exactly the kind of journalist who should be using social media. Nadja Hahn is an experienced business journalist with Austria’s public service broadcaster ORF. She makes good radio news content that informs the listeners on the critical economic stories of our times. She had already dabbled in social media before embarking on this project but she is limited in what she can do professionally by Austrian regulations. In a clever and pithy blog post for Polis during her stay at the LSE she showed how social media could have improved a recent radio feature she had made. The title said it all: ‘What It’s Like To Tell A Story Without Social Media And Why I will Never Do So Again”. However, the reasons she sets out in this paper for using social media are not because it makes journalism easier, speedier or fashionable. The case she sets out is that it improves the public service value of the journalism. I have long argued that journalism changes when it becomes networked2. It can become more open, responsive, creative and diverse. The use of social media to engage the public can add depth, variety, and reach. It can tap into wider expertise and accountability networks beyond the newsroom. This paper tests that thesis in the time-starved...

Who's reporting the protests?: converging practices of citizen journalists and two BBC World Service newsrooms, from Iran’s election protests to the Arab uprisings

Hänska-Ahy, Maximillian; Shapour, Roxanna
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 Português
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The 2009 protests in Iran and the 2011 Arab uprisings took place in complex and fast evolving media ecologies. The BBC's Persian and Arabic language services, which reach millions, drew heavily on content created by ordinary citizens to cover events. This paper traces the flow of this content through the news process to examine how collaboration between newsrooms and citizen journalists changed from 2009 to 2011. The article argues that participation in the news process hinges on the congruence between newsroom practices, and the practices of those producing content on the streets. Such congruence requires mutual knowledge of broadcasting requirements. It finds that by 2011 journalists felt more comfortable and effective integrating user-generated content (UGC) into their news output. Importantly, UGC creators appear to have taken on board the broadcaster's editorial requirements, making them savvier content creators.

The US experience suggests that the government’s plans for local TV are unsustainable and will not lead to a new wave of locally based broadcasters

Broughton Micova, Sally
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/08/2011 Português
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One of the biggest differences between the US and UK media is the lack of local commercial TV stations in the UK’s urban areas. While Culture Secretary, Jeremy Hunt, is very keen to adopt the US model of individual local broadcasting licenses, Sally Broughton-Micova warns that without the ‘backbone’ of a large affiliate network to provide content (as is the case in the US, but not the UK), most of these local stations will not be sustainable.

Rights vs. reality: minority language broadcasting in South East Europe

Broughton Micova, Sally
Fonte: European Centre for Minority Issues Publicador: European Centre for Minority Issues
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/04/2013 Português
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This article examines the challenges to broadcasting in minority languages in South East Europe. It looks closely at the demand for, and supply and use of, minority language media in two of the successor states to the former Yugoslavia and investigates the constraints on achieving institutional completeness in media for national minorities in those two states. The evidence presented indicates that smallness, defined by both population size and economic conditions, is an important limitation, despite state policies designed to ensure the provision of media in the languages of national minorities. The article also shows how definitional issues and particular historical legacies further complicate the provision of media services for existing national minorities. It considers these problems in the context of the changing broadcasting landscape in which multi-channel subscription services on cable, Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) and even digital terrestrial television networks (DTT) facilitate cross-border transmission and consumption. The article argues that in this new environment, cultural preservation and identity-related aims might be served within the region of South East Europe, but that the democratic and public participation of national minorities in their home state is at risk. It also points out the specific problems of the minorities without neighbouring kin-states such as the Roma and Vlach.

Content quotas: what and whom are the protecting?

Broughton Micova, Sally
Fonte: Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Palgrave Macmillan
Tipo: Book Section; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2013 Português
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When private television started to take off in Europe in the 1980s it confronted an environment in which the role of television and radio in cultural and national identity formation had already been established through national public service broadcasters (Gripsrud, 2007; Price, 1995). Having relied largely on publicly funded television and the film industry to produce such content, European countries lagged far behind the United States in terms of their capacity to generate content for television (Esser, 2009; Tunstall and Machin, 1999). The large private television networks and production houses in the United States were well situated to sell their content, particularly fiction and entertainment, to the new private channels in Europe. Most European countries placed requirements on their private television stations, and usually also radio, for certain amounts of domestically produced content. Their individual markets and production industries remained small compared with that of the United States, which fuelled part of the reasoning behind the EU’s Television without Frontiers Directive (TWF Directive) and the Council of Europe’s Convention on Transfrontier Television that followed. The TWF Directive, since amended and renamed the Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMS Directive)...

Born into crisis: public service broadcasting in South East Europe

Broughton Micova, Sally
Fonte: Nordicom Publicador: Nordicom
Tipo: Book Section; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2012 Português
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Scholars and concerned policymakers have discussed an emerging crisis in public service broadcasting [PSB] for more than two decades. Much of this discussion has focused on the adaptations and transformations that established PSB companies in Western Europe should make in responding to increasing competition, technological changes and reduced protections in consequence to the drive to create an increasingly stronger European Common Market. The continuing economic crisis is a pressurising concern as PSB operators across Europe face cuts, budget caps and losses in advertising revenue. Another cause for concern is related to the increasingly interventionist approach of the European Commission [EC] in competition rules about State Aid policy (Harcourt, 2005; Humphreys, 2009). PSB companies are mandated to redefine and often to limit their remits as various commercial interests challenge their ventures into new media. The combination of financial insecurity, policy intervention pointedly seeking to limit the drive to become public service media [PSM] companies, and the potential of public uncertainty about its position and remit has created a condition that amounts to a crisis for PSB in much of Europe.

Audio and visual characteristics of television news broadcasting: their effects on opinion change

Kline, Stephen
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: text
Publicado em //1977 Português
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The audio-visual character of television was used as the conceptual focus of this examination of television news broadcasting. The research comprised both a macro and micro level analysis. On the macro level, a study was undertaken to examine the influences of the cultural context of broadcasting with special reference to the structure of television and its news organizations upon the formats and content of television news programmes. A comparative content analysis was carried out of the principle evening newscast during one fortnight of news broadcast by the public and the private broadcast networks, in Britain and Canada, and the NBC in the United States. A special "code" was developed for this purpose which would categorize not only content but also format, with a special emphasis on the relative role of the commentary and the visuals. Comparison between the countries revealed differences in both content and format, pointing to different cultural emphasis upon specific issues. Differences in the formats used in the news revealed a greater trend to entertainment values - particularly the use of the action visuals and the newsreader in the more commercialised cultural settings. Within Canada and Britain, those differences between the public and private sectors which did occur...

The social organisation of news production: a case study of BBC radio and television news

Schlesinger, Philip
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1975 Português
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This is a case study in the microsociology of knowledge conducted in the London-based News Division of the British Broadcasting Corporation during 1972-3. The data was gathered by fieldwork in Broadcasting House and Television Centre. The study falls into two parts. The first, after a review of relevant literature, presents a detailed account of those dimensions of the organisational milieu necessary for an understanding of broadcast news production. These are: the hierarchical control structure which determines policy for news coverage; the everyday production routines which structure “news” as an organisational product; the system of advanced planning through which news stories are identified. This section also locates the legitimising role played by the BBC’s editorial philosophy and power structure, and considers implications of the broadcaster’s conventional distinction between “news” and “current affairs”. The second part of the study develops the idea of news producers as constituting and epistemic community whose work skills, organisational location, and occupational knowledge give them a distinctive cognitive orientation. Newsmen’s characterisation of their thought and practice as “professional” is analysed as a mode of conferring authority upon the production process...

The public value notion in UK public service broadcasting: an analysis of the ideological justification of public service broadcasting in the context of evolving media policy paradigms

Knoll, Eva
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2012 Português
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The thesis investigates the application of the public value notion in UK public service broadcasting (PSB). In the context of technological change from analogue to digital broadcasting and the reduction of applicable market failures, the notion has been used to describe the remit and assess the performance of PSB, thus providing sustained justification of PSB in the digital age. The overall research interest is to investigate the public value notion in the context of evolving media policy paradigms to examine whether its institutionalisation represents a paradigm shift in the ideological justification of PSB. The ideological justification is investigated in the form of economic and noneconomic regulatory rationales as different academic approaches to market intervention and public service provision. As a fundamental type of policy change, the paradigm shift concept is operationalised by devising an analytical framework that consists of two analytical strands; an ideological shift and a policy process analysis. Based on a case study approach of the notion’s application at the BBC and Channel 4, the research design employs interpretative textual analysis of documents and expert interviews to investigate the ideological composition of the public value notion and its wider policy process. The research finds that no paradigm shift has taken place in the justification of PSB as the public value notion continues the overall more economic than non-economic focus of the incumbent media policy paradigm. These findings contribute to media and public policy studies with regard to the understanding and classification of (media policy) paradigm shifts as a fundamental type of policy change and the use of economic and non-economic rationales as different ideologies in informing policy ideas and decisions-making in media policy.

Al Jazeera English: margins of difference in international English-language news broadcasting

Bigalke, Nina
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2013 Português
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Launching in 2006, Al Jazeera English (AJE) set out to challenge the dominance of Western-based organisations in the field of international English-language news broadcasting. Ambitions of ‘balancing the current typical information flow by reporting from the developing world back to the West’ directly link the organisation to longstanding debates on asymmetric global news flows (AJE Website, Corporate Profile, 04/09/2008). In this context, the aim of my thesis is to develop a theoretical framework that allows to conceptualise two related aspects: 1) assessing degrees of both similarities and differences between AJE and established Western-based news broadcasters and 2) addressing underlying mechanisms that begin to explain degrees of difference that AJE has managed to carve out in the field of international television news. On the basis of a critical realist ontology, I combine Bourdieu’s concepts of field, habitus and capital with an understanding of agency as advanced by Archer. While the first allows me to conceptualise the relational nature of questions of news flows on the level of journalistic practices (which in the past have primarily been the domain of macro-theory), the latter serves to acknowledge the role of the reflexive powers of the individual when it comes to professional trajectories and editorial decision making. Combined...

Image, information and changing work practices: the case of the BBC’s Digital Media Initiative

Mariátegui, José-Carlos
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2013 Português
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The media industry is undergoing a comprehensive change due to media convergence and the diffusion of the internet. However, there is a lack of research in the field of Information Systems on how these technological phenomena impact work practices in broadcasting and media organizations. Using the BBC’s Digital Media Initiative (DMI) as a case study, I provide a detailed description and analysis of the implementation of DMI in news and long-form productions. The empirical evidence was gathered from BBC Northern Ireland (BBC NI), where a large-scale digital video production infrastructure based on DMI was implemented. My point of departure is the study and impact of digitalization in work practices associated to the production of video as an image-based artefact, which complements previous studies that focus on information tokens such as electronic text. I seek to assess how work practices at BBC NI were affected by the use of digital video throughout the DMI workflow. In this context, my case study analyzes: 1) DMI’s technical infrastructure and its impact on work practices for the purpose of searching and organizing video content, and how this affected news and long-form productions distinctively; and 2) the domain of video craft editing brought about by the digitization of the video production process. My contribution demonstrates the importance of a semiotic approach to the study of the digitalized image-based artefact...

Public communication as ideal and practice: Definitions of the common good in Persian-language transnational newswork

Hänska-Ahy, Maximillian
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2012 Português
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Public communication’s normative task is to support the legitimacy of collective decisions. Theoretically, two challenges in particular have proved persistent: (1) defining the purpose of public communication under conditions of pluralism, and (2) defining the composition of the public sphere as communication becomes increasingly transnational. It is argued that shared definitions of these, among actors participating in public communication, are prerequisites for the democratic legitimacy of collective decisions. Achieving this is difficult, particularly because it remains unclear how practices of public communication relate to ideals such as participation, inclusion and public reason. In part these difficulties can be attributed to a lack of congruence between the way political theory and empirical social research frame questions about the public sphere. To deepen understanding of these challenges, this study asks how purpose and composition are defined in Persian-language transnational newswork. It also asks whether communicating actors enjoy any meaningful definitional agency. The study is designed to align these empirical results with normative questions about public communication so that they speak more fully to one another. An interview-based qualitative study of the way newsworkers who engage in transnational Persian broadcasting define the public sphere provides the setting for this research. Newsworkers are examined because...