Tese de mestrado em Engenharia Informática, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2011; O desenvolvimento de aplicações para dispositivos móveis não só tem acompanhado a
crescente utilização destes como tem acompanhado a evolução tecnológica que lhes está
associada. Actualmente os dispositivos móveis vêm munidos com sensores que permitem a criação de aplicações que enriquecem a utilização destes, sendo que a visualização de informação ocupa um lugar de destaque no seio destas.
Nesta área incluímos as aplicações que, utilizando métodos que permitem calcular com algum grau de precisão a localização geográfica do utilizador, apresentam aos utilizadores informação relevante sobre os espaços físicos ou eventos que os rodeiam.
Contudo, continuam a existir alguns desafios na área da visualização de informação em dispositivos móveis. No contexto da utilização de informação georeferenciada, como mencionado acima, a obtenção da localização geográfica do utilizador é especialmente importante para fornecer informação baseada no contexto do utilizador.
Nos últimos anos a investigação na área de aplicações adaptáveis a contextos, e em particular as aplicações de visualização...
This project proposes an approach for supporting Indoor Navigation Systems
using Pedestrian Dead Reckoning-based methods and by analyzing motion
sensor data available in most modern smartphones. Processes suggested in
this investigation are able to calculate the distance traveled by a user while he
or she is walking. WLAN fingerprint- based navigation systems benefit from
the processes followed in this research and results achieved to reduce its
workload and improve its positioning estimations.
The localization of persons in indoor environments is nowadays an open problem. There are partial solutions based on the deployment of a network of sensors (Local Positioning Systems or LPS). Other solutions only require the installation of an inertial sensor on the person’s body (Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning or PDR). PDR solutions integrate the signals coming from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), which usually contains 3 accelerometers and 3 gyroscopes. The main problem of PDR is the accumulation of positioning errors due to the drift caused by the noise in the sensors. This paper presents a PDR solution that incorporates a drift correction method based on detecting the access ramps usually found in buildings. The ramp correction method is implemented over a PDR framework that uses an Inertial Navigation algorithm (INS) and an IMU attached to the person’s foot. Unlike other approaches that use external sensors to correct the drift error, we only use one IMU on the foot. To detect a ramp, the slope of the terrain on which the user is walking, and the change in height sensed when moving forward, are estimated from the IMU. After detection, the ramp is checked for association with one of the existing in a database. For each associated ramp...
Most portable systems like smart-phones are equipped with low cost consumer grade sensors, making them useful as Pedestrian Navigation Systems (PNS). Measurements of these sensors are severely contaminated by errors caused due to instrumentation and environmental issues rendering the unaided navigation solution with these sensors of limited use. The overall navigation error budget associated with pedestrian navigation can be categorized into position/displacement errors and attitude/orientation errors. Most of the research is conducted for tackling and reducing the displacement errors, which either utilize Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) or special constraints like Zero velocity UPdaTes (ZUPT) and Zero Angular Rate Updates (ZARU). This article targets the orientation/attitude errors encountered in pedestrian navigation and develops a novel sensor fusion technique to utilize the Earth’s magnetic field, even perturbed, for attitude and rate gyroscope error estimation in pedestrian navigation environments where it is assumed that Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) navigation is denied. As the Earth’s magnetic field undergoes severe degradations in pedestrian navigation environments, a novel Quasi-Static magnetic Field (QSF) based attitude and angular rate error estimation technique is developed to effectively use magnetic measurements in highly perturbed environments. The QSF scheme is then used for generating the desired measurements for the proposed Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based attitude estimator. Results indicate that the QSF measurements are capable of effectively estimating attitude and gyroscope errors...
Dead-reckoning (DR) algorithms, which use self-contained inertial sensors combined with gait analysis, have proven to be effective for pedestrian navigation purposes. In such DR systems, the primary error is often due to accumulated heading drifts. By tightly integrating global navigation satellite system (GNSS) Doppler measurements with DR, such accumulated heading errors can usually be accurately compensated. Under weak signal conditions, high sensitivity GNSS (HSGNSS) receivers with block processing techniques are often used, however, the Doppler quality of such receivers is relatively poor due to multipath, fading and signal attenuation. This often limits the benefits of integrating HSGNSS Doppler with DR. This paper investigates the benefits of using Doppler measurements from a novel direct vector HSGNSS receiver with pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) for indoor navigation. An indoor signal and multipath model is introduced which explains how conventional HSGNSS Doppler measurements are affected by indoor multipath. Velocity and Doppler estimated by using direct vector receivers are introduced and discussed. Real experimental data is processed and analyzed to assess the veracity of proposed method. It is shown when integrating HSGNSS Doppler with PDR algorithm...
We propose a novel hybrid inertial sensors-based indoor pedestrian dead reckoning system, aided by computer vision-derived position measurements. In contrast to prior vision-based or vision-aided solutions, where environmental markers were used—either deployed in known positions or extracted directly from it—we use a shoe-fixed marker, which serves as positional reference to an opposite shoe-mounted camera during foot swing, making our system self-contained. Position measurements can be therefore more reliably fed to a complementary unscented Kalman filter, enhancing the accuracy of the estimated travelled path for 78%, compared to using solely zero velocities as pseudo-measurements.
This paper explores how inertial Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR) location systems can be improved with the use of a light sensor to measure the illumination gradients created when a person walks under ceiling-mounted unmodified indoor lights. The process of updating the inertial PDR estimates with the information provided by light detections is a new concept that we have named Light-matching (LM). The displacement and orientation change of a person obtained by inertial PDR is used by the LM method to accurately propagate the location hypothesis, and vice versa; the LM approach benefits the PDR approach by obtaining an absolute localization and reducing the PDR-alone drift. Even from an initially unknown location and orientation, whenever the person passes below a switched-on light spot, the location likelihood is iteratively updated until it potentially converges to a unimodal probability density function. The time to converge to a unimodal position hypothesis depends on the number of lights detected and the asymmetries/irregularities of the spatial distribution of lights. The proposed LM method does not require any intensity illumination calibration, just the pre-storage of the position and size of all lights in a building, irrespective of their current on/off state. This paper presents a detailed description of the light-matching concept...
The dependence of proposed pedestrian navigation solutions on a dedicated infrastructure is a limiting factor to the deployment of location based services. Consequently self-contained Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning (PDR) approaches are gaining interest for autonomous navigation. Even if the quality of low cost inertial sensors and magnetometers has strongly improved, processing noisy sensor signals combined with high hand dynamics remains a challenge. Estimating accurate attitude angles for achieving long term positioning accuracy is targeted in this work. A new Magnetic, Acceleration fields and GYroscope Quaternion (MAGYQ)-based attitude angles estimation filter is proposed and demonstrated with handheld sensors. It benefits from a gyroscope signal modelling in the quaternion set and two new opportunistic updates: magnetic angular rate update (MARU) and acceleration gradient update (AGU). MAGYQ filter performances are assessed indoors, outdoors, with dynamic and static motion conditions. The heading error, using only the inertial solution, is found to be less than 10° after 1.5 km walking. The performance is also evaluated in the positioning domain with trajectories computed following a PDR strategy.
Location-based services (LBS) have attracted a great deal of attention recently. Outdoor localization can be solved by the GPS technique, but how to accurately and efficiently localize pedestrians in indoor environments is still a challenging problem. Recent techniques based on WiFi or pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) have several limiting problems, such as the variation of WiFi signals and the drift of PDR. An auxiliary tool for indoor localization is landmarks, which can be easily identified based on specific sensor patterns in the environment, and this will be exploited in our proposed approach. In this work, we propose a sensor fusion framework for combining WiFi, PDR and landmarks. Since the whole system is running on a smartphone, which is resource limited, we formulate the sensor fusion problem in a linear perspective, then a Kalman filter is applied instead of a particle filter, which is widely used in the literature. Furthermore, novel techniques to enhance the accuracy of individual approaches are adopted. In the experiments, an Android app is developed for real-time indoor localization and navigation. A comparison has been made between our proposed approach and individual approaches. The results show significant improvement using our proposed framework. Our proposed system can provide an average localization accuracy of 1 m.
This paper proposes a scheme for indoor positioning by fusing floor map, WiFi and smartphone sensor data to provide meter-level positioning without additional infrastructure. A topology-constrained K nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm based on a floor map layout provides the coordinates required to integrate WiFi data with pseudo-odometry (P-O) measurements simulated using a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) approach. One method of further improving the positioning accuracy is to use a more effective multi-threshold step detection algorithm, as proposed by the authors. The “go and back” phenomenon caused by incorrect matching of the reference points (RPs) of a WiFi algorithm is eliminated using an adaptive fading-factor-based extended Kalman filter (EKF), taking WiFi positioning coordinates, P-O measurements and fused heading angles as observations. The “cross-wall” problem is solved based on the development of a floor-map-aided particle filter algorithm by weighting the particles, thereby also eliminating the gross-error effects originating from WiFi or P-O measurements. The performance observed in a field experiment performed on the fourth floor of the School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics (SESSI) building on the China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT) campus confirms that the proposed scheme can reliably achieve meter-level positioning.
The paper presents a hybrid indoor positioning solution based on a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) approach using built-in sensors on a smartphone. To address the challenges of flexible and complex contexts of carrying a phone while walking, a robust step detection algorithm based on motion-awareness has been proposed. Given the fact that step length is influenced by different motion states, an adaptive step length estimation algorithm based on motion recognition is developed. Heading estimation is carried out by an attitude acquisition algorithm, which contains a two-phase filter to mitigate the distortion of magnetic anomalies. In order to estimate the heading for an unconstrained smartphone, principal component analysis (PCA) of acceleration is applied to determine the offset between the orientation of smartphone and the actual heading of a pedestrian. Moreover, a particle filter with vector graph assisted particle weighting is introduced to correct the deviation in step length and heading estimation. Extensive field tests, including four contexts of carrying a phone, have been conducted in an office building to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Test results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve sub-meter mean error in all contexts.
Nowadays the incredible grow of mobile devices market led
to the need for location-aware applications. However, sometimes person
location is di cult to obtain, since most of these devices only have a GPS
(Global Positioning System) chip to retrieve location. In order to sup-
press this limitation and to provide location everywhere (even where a
structured environment doesn't exist) a wearable inertial navigation sys-
tem is proposed, which is a convenient way to track people in situations
where other localization systems fail. The system combines pedestrian
dead reckoning with GPS, using widely available, low-cost and low-power
hardware components. The system innovation is the information fusion
and the use of probabilistic methods to learn persons gait behavior to
correct, in real-time, the drift errors given by the sensors.; This work is part-funded by ERDF - European Regional Development Fund through
the COMPETE Programme (operational programme for competitiveness) and by
National Funds through the FCT Fundao para a Cincia e a Tecnologia (Portuguese
Foundation for Science and Technology) within project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-
028980 (PTDC/EEI-SII/1386/2012). Ricardo also acknowledge FCT for the support
of his work through the PhD grant (SFRH/DB/70248/2010).
O desenvolvimento de sistemas de localização pedestre com recurso a técnicas de dead
reckoning tem mostrado ser uma área em expansão no mundo académico e não só. Existem
algumas soluções criadas, no entanto, nem todas as soluções serão facilmente
implementadas no mercado, quer seja pelo hardware caro, ou pelo sistema em si, que é
desenvolvido tendo em conta um cenário em particular.
INPERLYS é um sistema que visa apresentar uma solução de localização pedestre,
independentemente do cenário, utilizando recursos que poderão ser facilmente usados.
Trata-se de um sistema que utiliza uma técnica de dead reckonig para dar a localização do
utilizador. Em cenários outdoor, um receptor GPS fornece a posição do utilizador,
fornecendo uma posição absoluta ao sistema. Quando não é possível utilizar o GPS,
recorre-se a um sensor MEMS e a uma bússola para se obter posições relativas à última
posição válida do GPS. Para interligar todos os sensores foi utilizado o protocolo de
comunicações sem fios ZigBee™. A escolha recaiu neste protocolo devido a factores como
os seus baixos consumos e o seu baixo custo. Assim o sistema torna-se de uso fácil e
confortável para o utilizador, ao contrário de sistemas similares desenvolvidos...
Many studies utilize the signal strength of short-range radio systems (such as WiFi, ultrasound and infrared) to build a radio map for indoor localization, by deploying a large number of beacon nodes within a building. The drawback of such an infrastructure-based approach is that the deployment and calibration of the system are costly and labor-intensive. Some prior studies proposed the use of Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) for indoor localization, which does not require the deployment of beacon nodes. In a PDR system, a small number of sensors are put on the pedestrian. These sensors (such as a G-sensor and gyroscope) are used to estimate the distance and direction that a user travels. The effectiveness of a PDR system lies in its success in accurately estimating the user's moving distance and direction. In this work, we propose a novel waist-mounted based PDR that can measure the user's step lengths with a high accuracy. We utilize vertical acceleration of the body to calculate the user's change in height during walking. Based on the Pythagorean Theorem, we can then estimate each step length using this data. Furthermore, we design a map matching algorithm to calibrate the direction errors from the gyro using building floor plans. The results of our experiment show that we can achieve about 98.26% accuracy in estimating the user's walking distance...
Because of the high calculation cost and poor performance of a traditional planar map when dealing with complicated indoor geographic information, a WiFi fingerprint indoor positioning system cannot be widely employed on a smartphone platform. By making full use of the hardware sensors embedded in the smartphone, this study proposes an integrated approach to a three-dimensional (3D) indoor positioning system. First, an improved K-means clustering method is adopted to reduce the fingerprint database retrieval time and enhance positioning efficiency. Next, with the mobile phone’s acceleration sensor, a new step counting method based on auto-correlation analysis is proposed to achieve cell phone inertial navigation positioning. Furthermore, the integration of WiFi positioning with Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) obtains higher positional accuracy with the help of the Unscented Kalman Filter algorithm. Finally, a hybrid 3D positioning system based on Unity 3D, which can carry out real-time positioning for targets in 3D scenes, is designed for the fluent operation of mobile terminals.
Inertial navigation systems use dead-reckoning to estimate the pedestrian's position. There are two types of pedestrian dead-reckoning, the strapdown algorithm and the step-and-heading approach. Unlike the strapdown algorithm, which consists of the double integration of the three orthogonal accelerometer readings, the step-and-heading approach lacks the vertical displacement estimation. We propose the first step-and-heading approach based on unaided inertial data solving 3D positioning. We present a step detector for steps up and down and a novel vertical displacement estimator. Our navigation system uses the sensor introduced in the front pocket of the trousers, a likely location of a smartphone. The proposed algorithms are based on the opening angle of the leg or pitch angle. We analyzed our step detector and compared it with the state-of-the-art, as well as our already proposed step length estimator. Lastly, we assessed our vertical displacement estimator in a real-world scenario. We found that our algorithms outperform the literature step and heading algorithms and solve 3D positioning using unaided inertial data. Additionally, we found that with the pitch angle, five activities are distinguishable: standing, sitting, walking, walking up stairs and walking down stairs. This information complements the pedestrian location and is of interest for applications...
This paper presents a step count algorithm designed to work in real-time using low computational power. This proposal is our first step for the development of an indoor navigation system, based on Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR). We present two approaches to solve this problem and compare them based in their error on step counting, as well as, the capability of their use in a real time system.
Inertial navigation systems for pedestrians are infrastructure-less and can
achieve sub-meter accuracy in the short/medium period. However, when low-cost
inertial measurement units (IMU) are employed for their implementation, they
suffer from a slowly growing drift between the true pedestrian position and the
corresponding estimated position. In this paper we illustrate a novel solution
to mitigate such a drift by: a) using only accelerometer and gyroscope
measurements (no magnetometers required); b) including the sensor error model
parameters in the state vector of an extended Kalman filter; c) adopting a
novel soft heuristic for foot stance detection and for zero-velocity updates.
Experimental results evidence that our inertial-only navigation system can
achieve similar or better performance with respect to pedestrian dead-reckoning
systems presented in related studies, although the adopted IMU is less accurate
than more expensive counterparts.