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Persistence of wild food and wild medicinal plant knowledge in a North-Eastern region of Portugal

Carvalho, Ana Maria; Morales, Ramón
Fonte: Berghahn Books Publicador: Berghahn Books
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.976875%
Today, the geographical and social conditions that led to the isolation of some European regions are no longer prevalent, and so changes in the cultural, economic and political contexts of plant use in these areas are coming faster and faster. The current reduction in the human population, due to out-migration and a general drop in the birth rate, and the abandonment of agriculture have been critical for rural areas and ways of life and have promoted the loss of cultural traditions. How these changes are affecting the system of local knowledge of plant resources and the maintenance of traditional plant use practices are some of the questions addressed in this chapter, based on research in such a region of northeastern Portugal. We documented local knowledge and uses of food and medicinal plants among rural people living around the Natural Park of Montesinho, in the region of Trás-os-Montes, in northeastern Portugal. This area has suffered from geographic and economic isolation and a slow, steady decline of the population, as young people move out of the area, so we were particularly interested in seeing whether and how traditional practices would persist under these conditions. Do the people recognize these trends, and are they concerned about them? Are there mechanisms that people are employing to maintain their knowledge?

Densidade de plantas de milho híbrido em semeadura precoce no Rio Grande do Sul; Plant density of hybrid maize at early sowing date in Southern Brazil

Piana, Alexandre Tadeu; Silva, Paulo Regis Ferreira da; Bredemeier, Christian; Sangoi, Luis; Vieira, Vladirene Macedo; Serpa, Michael da Silva; Jandrey, Douglas Batista
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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A escolha da densidade de plantas e a sua adequação à época de semeadura são práticas de manejo importantes na determinação do rendimento de grãos de milho. Este trabalho foi realizado a fim de avaliar os efeitos da densidade de plantas sobre o rendimento de grãos e seus componentes em dois híbridos cultivados em semeadura precoce (agosto) no Rio Grande do Sul. O experimento foi conduzido em Eldorado do Sul, em 2006/07. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro densidades de plantas (5,5; 7,3; 9,1 e 11pl m-2) e dois híbridos, um de folhas decumbentes (Dow 2B587) e outro de folhas eretas (NB 4214). A semeadura foi realizada em 22 de agosto de 2006. O rendimento de grãos do híbrido de folhas decumbentes aumentou linearmente com o incremento na densidade de 5,5 até 11pl m-2, alcançando 16t ha-1. Já no híbrido de folhas eretas, o rendimento aumentou de forma quadrática, sendo maximizado na densidade de 9,4pl m-2. O número de espigas por metro quadrado foi o componente que melhor explicou o aumento da produtividade com o incremento na densidade de plantas. O uso de densidades superiores a 9pl m-2 é uma estratégia efetiva para aumentar o rendimento de grãos sob alto nível de manejo em semeadura precoce (agosto).; The choice of plant density and sowing date are important management practices to determine maize grain yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of plant density on grain yield and its components for two maize hybrids at early sowing date (August) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul...

Potencial de emissão de metano em lavouras de arroz irrigado; Methane emission potential in flooded rice fields

Agostinetto, Dirceu; Fleck, Nilson Gilberto; Rizzardi, Mauro Antonio; Balbinot Júnior, Alvadi Antonio
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.9179%
Nos últimos anos, grande atenção tem sido dirigida aos problemas potenciais ocasionáveis pelo “efeito estufa”. O homem, através da atividade industrial, consumo de combustíveis fósseis, destruição de florestas e da adoção de certas práticas agrícolas, é o principal responsável pelo fenômeno. Os principais gases que causam o efeito estufa são dióxido de carbono (CO2), metano (CH4), óxido nitroso (N2O) e clorofluorcarbonos (CFCs). O metano destaca-se dentre eles pela quantidade produzida e pela atividade na absorção do calor atmosférico. As principais fontes produtoras de metano são solos naturalmente alagados ou cultivados sob inundação, os quais respondem por aproximadamente 40% do total de metano emitido; destes, 37% são emitidos a partir do arroz cultivado sob inundação. Neste contexto, a presente revisão de literatura tem como objetivos descrever os processos que governam a produção e a emissão de metano, bem como discutir práticas de manejo e características da cultura que afetam a emissão do gás Do total de metano originado em lavouras de arroz durante a estação de crescimento, entre 60 e 90% dá-se através das plantas de arroz. Embora o metano não seja o principal responsável pelo efeito estufa e a orizicultura não represente a maior fonte produtora de metano...

Harvest managements and cultural practices in sugarcane

Castro, Sérgio Gustavo Quassi De; Franco, Henrique Coutinho Junqueira; Mutton, Miguel Ângelo
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 299-306
Português
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68.180327%
The presence of trash from the mechanical harvest of green cane on sugarcane plantations promotes changes in the agricultural management, for example, in the mechanical cultural practices of ratoon cane in-between the rows and nitrogen (N) fertilization. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of sugarcane in different harvest systems, associated to the mechanical cultural practices in interrows and N rates. The study was carried out on a sugarcane plantation in Sales Oliveira, São Paulo, Brazil, with the sugarcane variety SP81-3250, on soil classified as Acrudox, in a randomized block design with split-split plots and four replications. The main treatments consisted of harvest systems (harvesting green cane or burnt cane), the secondary treatment consisted of the mechanical cultural practices in the interrows and the tertiary treatments were N rates (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 160 kg ha-1), using ammonium nitrate (33 % N) as N source. The harvest systems did not differ in sugarcane yield (tons of cane per hectare - TCH), but in burnt cane, the pol percent and total sugar recovery (TSR) were higher. This could be explained by the higher quantity of plant impurities in the harvested raw material in the system without burning...

Evolução de práticas culturais : a análise de uma organização autogestionável

Silva, André Vasconcelos da
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Tese
Português
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Tese (doutorado)—Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Psicologia, Departamento de Processos Psicológicos Básicos, 2008.; Os problemas e processos culturais têm recebido grande atenção das Ciências Sociais, e em especial, nos últimos 30 anos, da Análise do Comportamento. A partir do modelo explicativo da seleção pelas conseqüências, entende-se a cultura como prática que garante aos indivíduos acesso a conseqüências que só poderiam ser adquiridas mediante ações integradas dos indivíduos, sendo essa interação a unidade de analise básica da cultura. Com essa unidade é possível realizar estudos que descrevam a evolução da cultura em sistemas sociais amplos ou em pequenos agrupamentos sociais. As organizações empresariais seriam um agrupamento social que têm apresentado diversidade de práticas gestoras: modelo de organização, de gestão do trabalho e de processos produtivos. As cooperativas de trabalho, ou as organizações de base associativa, por possuírem princípios, como o da cooperação, se diferenciam consideravelmente das organizações tradicionais em suas práticas gestoras. Buscou-se, no presente estudo, descrever a evolução das práticas culturais de gestão de uma cooperativa de trabalho de produção...

Cultural practices and genetic resistance as factors affecting soybean stem canker and plant yield in the cerrado; Influência de práticas culturais e da resistência genética na intensidade do cancro da haste e produção de soja no Cerrado

Freitas, Marcos Augusto de; Café Filho, Adalberto Corrêa; Nasser, Luiz Carlos Bhering
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Fitopatologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Fitopatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.205664%
Os efeitos de práticas culturais e resistência genética na intensidade ao cancro-da-haste da soja (Diaporthe phaseolorum f.sp. meridionalis - Dpm) foram examinados na safra 1995-96 em áreas de produção comercial, que haviam sido severamente atacadas na safra anterior (1994-95). Um experimento investigou os efeitos de cultivo mínimo (MT) e do plantio direto (NT) no desenvolvimento da doença e produtividade das cultivares FT-Cristalina e FT-Seriema. Em outro experimento, semeado em plantio direto, estudou-se o efeito da densidade de plantas (8, 15, 21 e 36 plantas/m) no desenvolvimento da doença e produtividade das cvs. FT-Cristalina (suscetivel), FT- 101 (moderadamente resistente) e FT-104 (resistente). Incidência e severidade da doença foram menores em NT do que em MT. A produtividade aumentou no sistema NT (23% para ‘FT-Cristalina’ e 14% para ‘FT-Seriema’), comparada com as produtividades em MT. As curvas de progresso da doença foram melhor descritas pelos mo- delos de Gompertz e logístico. A severidade do cancro aumentou pro- porcionalmente ao aumento das densidades de plantio nas cvs. suscetível e moderadamente resistente. No final do ciclo, 100% das plantas da cv. FT-Cristalina estavam infetadas por Dpm, em todas as densidades de plantio. Níveis intermediários de doença foram observa- dos na cv. FT-101...

Harvest managements and cultural practices in sugarcane

Castro,Sérgio Gustavo Quassi de; Franco,Henrique Coutinho Junqueira; Mutton,Miguel Ângelo
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.180327%
The presence of trash from the mechanical harvest of green cane on sugarcane plantations promotes changes in the agricultural management, for example, in the mechanical cultural practices of ratoon cane in-between the rows and nitrogen (N) fertilization. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of sugarcane in different harvest systems, associated to the mechanical cultural practices in interrows and N rates. The study was carried out on a sugarcane plantation in Sales Oliveira, São Paulo, Brazil, with the sugarcane variety SP81-3250, on soil classified as Acrudox, in a randomized block design with split-split plots and four replications. The main treatments consisted of harvest systems (harvesting green cane or burnt cane), the secondary treatment consisted of the mechanical cultural practices in the interrows and the tertiary treatments were N rates (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 160 kg ha-1), using ammonium nitrate (33 % N) as N source. The harvest systems did not differ in sugarcane yield (tons of cane per hectare - TCH), but in burnt cane, the pol percent and total sugar recovery (TSR) were higher. This could be explained by the higher quantity of plant impurities in the harvested raw material in the system without burning...

Effect of management practices on mycorrhizal infection, growth and dry matter partitioning in field-grown bean

Oliveira,Antonio Alberto Rocha; Sanders,Francis Edward
Fonte: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira Publicador: Embrapa Informação Tecnológica; Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/1999 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.827227%
The experiment was carried out on unsterilized field soil with low phosphorus availability with the objective of examining the effect of cultural practices on mycorrhizal colonization and growth of common bean. The treatments were: three pre-crops (maize, wheat and fallow) followed by three soil management practices ("ploughing", mulching and bare fallow without "ploughing" during the winter months). After the cultural practices, Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Canadian Wonder was grown in this soil. Fallowing and soil disturbance reduced natural soil infectivity. Mycorrhizal infection of the bean roots occurred more rapidly in the recently cropped soil than in the fallow soil. Prior cropping with a strongly mycorrhizal plant (maize) increased infectivity even further.

Cultural practices and genetic resistance as factors affecting soybean stem canker and plant yield in the Cerrado

FREITAS,MARCOS A.; CAFÉ FILHO,ADALBERTO C.; NASSER,LUIZ C. B.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Fitopatologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Fitopatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.205664%
Field experiments were conducted in the 1995-96 soybean (Glycine max) growing season to evaluate the effects of cultural practices and host genetic resistance on the intensity of soybean stem canker, caused by Diaporthe phaseolorum f.sp. meridionalis (Dpm). Experiments were conducted in a commercial field severely infected in the previous (1994-95) season. In one study, minimum tillage (MT) and no-tillage (NT) cropping systems were investigated for their effects on disease development and on plant yields in cvs. FT-Cristalina (susceptible) and FT-Seriema (moderately resistant). Another study evaluated the effects of plant densities (8, 15, 21 and 36 plants/m) on disease development in cvs. FT-Cristalina, FT-101 (moderately resistant) and FT-104 (resistant). Disease incidence and severity were consistently lower in NT than in MT, and plant yields were increased by 23% and 14% in the NT system for the susceptible and moderately resistant cultivars, respectively, compared to the yields in the MT system. The Gompertz and Logistic models described well the disease progress curves in all situations. For both susceptible and moderately resistant cultivars, disease severity increased proportionately to the increase in plant densities. At the end of the season...

Heterogeneity in pineapple fruit quality results from plant heterogeneity at flower induction

Fassinou Hotegni, V. Nicodème; Lommen, Willemien J. M.; Agbossou, Euloge K.; Struik, Paul C.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/12/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.50619%
Heterogeneity in fruit quality constitutes a major constraint in agri-food chains. In this paper the sources of the heterogeneity in pineapple in the field were studied in four experiments in commercial pineapple fields. The aims were to determine (a) whether differences in pineapple fruit quality among individual fruits are associated with differences in vigor of the individual plants within the crop at the time of artificial flower induction; and (b) whether the side shoots produced by the plant during the generative phase account for the fruit quality heterogeneity. Two pineapple cultivars were considered: cv. Sugarloaf and cv. Smooth Cayenne. Plant vigor at the time of artificial flower induction was measured by three variates: the number of functional leaves, the D-leaf length and their cross product. Fruit quality attributes measured at harvest time included external attributes (weight and height of fruit, infructescence and crown) and internal quality attributes [total soluble solids (TSS), pH, translucent flesh]. Results showed that the heterogeneity in fruit weight was a consequence of the heterogeneity in vigor of the plants at the moment of flower induction; that effect was mainly on the infructescence weight and less or not on the crown weight. The associations between plant vigor variates at flower induction and the internal quality attributes of the fruit were poor and/or not consistent across experiments. The weight of the slips (side shoots) explained part of the heterogeneity in fruit weight...

Influence of Plowdown Dates and Cultural Practices on Spring Moth Emergence of the Pink Bollworm

Watson, T. F.; Barnes, K. K.; Slosser, J. E.; Fullerton, D. G.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Português
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Several plowdown dates and various cultural practices on cotton were evaluated for effects on spring moth emergence of Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders). Results indicated that spring moth emergence is progressively higher with each delay in plowdown; the range in plowdown dates was from Oct. 2–6 to Jan. 5 in the 1967–68 study and from Sept. 3 to Jan. 3 in 1968–69. Various cultural practices affected spring moth emergence. Best results were obtained where plant residue was removed, indicating that a significant portion of the population had remained in the bolls. The greatest spring moth emergence occurred where only a stalk-shredding operation was performed.

Selected Cultural Practices as Affecting Production of Tobacco Hornworms on Tobacco

Reagan, T. E.; Rabb, R. L.; Collins, W. K.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Português
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Late season production of Manduca sexta (L.) was evaluated relative to various plant conditions induced by several pre-, and postharvest cultural practices. The sequential sucker control method when using contact × systemic chemical applications was ½ times more elfective in reducing overwintering tobacco hornworms than use of maleic hydrazide alone. Variables that significantly increased tobacco hornworm production through a greater potential for sucker growth were weed control, varietal resistance to pathogens, and increased nitrogen fertilization. Delayed transplanting and excess fertilization caused a closer synchronization of succulent green tobacco with the late-July, mid-Aug. “brood”. These findings and present cultural trends emphasize a greater need for immediate stalk and root destruction after harvest to reduce production of overwintering tobacco hornworms.

Effect of management practices on Mycorrhizal infection, growth and dry matter partitioning in field-grown bean.

OLIVEIRA, A.A.R.; SANDERS, F.E.
Fonte: Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, Brasilia, v.34, n.7, p.1247-54, jul. 1999. Publicador: Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, Brasilia, v.34, n.7, p.1247-54, jul. 1999.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.827227%
The experiment was carried out on unsterilized field soil with low phosphorus availability with the objective of examining the effect of cultural practices on mycorrhizal colonization and growth of common bean. The treatment were: three pre-crops (maize, wheat and fallow) followed by three soil management practices ("ploughing", mulching and bare fallow without "ploughing" during the winter months). After the cultural practices, Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Canadian Wonder was grown in this soil. Fallowing and soil disturbance reduced natural soil infectivity. Mycorrhizal infection of the bean roots occurred more rapidly in the recently cropped soil than inthe fallow soil. Prior cropping with a strongly mycorrhizal plant (maize) increased infectivity even further.; 1999

Plantio cruzado na cultura da soja utilizando uma cultivar de hábito de crescimento indeterminado.

PROCÓPIO, S. de O.; BALBINOT JUNIOR, A. A.; DEBIASI, H.; FRANCHINI, J. C.; PANISON, F.
Fonte: Revista de Ciências Agrárias, Belém, PA, v. 56, n. 4, p. 319-325, out./dez. 2013. Publicador: Revista de Ciências Agrárias, Belém, PA, v. 56, n. 4, p. 319-325, out./dez. 2013.
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.879897%
RESUMO: O arranjo espacial de plantas afeta o aproveitamento de luz, água e nutrientes, podendo refletir na produção de fitomassa e na produtividade de grãos. Em razão de a soja apresentar alta plasticidade fenotípica, novos arranjos espaciais de plantas vêm sendo avaliados, a fim de aumentar a produtividade da cultura, como o plantio cruzado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento e a produtividade de grãos da cultivar de soja de hábito indeterminado BRS 359 RR, em diferentes arranjos espaciais de plantas, incluindo o plantio cruzado. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 2 × 2 × 2, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram formados pela combinação de dois espaçamentos entre as fileiras (0,4 e 0,6 m), duas densidades de semeadura (375.000 e 562.500 sementes ha?1) e duas formas de plantio (cruzado e não cruzado). O plantio cruzado reduziu a densidade de plantas, mas não afetou a produtividade. O aumento da densidade de semeadura provocou menor acúmulo de fitomassa e menor produção de grãos de soja por indivíduo, fato compensado pela maior quantidade de plantas, não afetando a produtividade de grãos na cultivar BRS 359 RR. A maior densidade de plantas ou a redução do espaçamento entre fileiras aumentaram a produção de grãos de soja nas hastes...

Uso de materiais refletivos e de práticas de manejo sobre a qualidade da uva merlot

Cabral, Vagner Bandeira
Fonte: Pato Branco Publicador: Pato Branco
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
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38.447698%
There are several types of cultural practices adopted on the grape plant orchard to improve fruit quality. However, this cultural practices demand for labor, which does not encourage farmers to adopt them. However, it is necessary to adopt practices that can produce quality fruits without increased demand for labor. The aim of this work was to evaluate the reflective film use and cultural practices in the pathology, physical-chemical, biochemical quality and physiologic Merlot grape. The experimental design was in blocks completely randomized, in factorial 3 x 2 (material type x cultural practices), with four replications, considering four plants by plot. The cultural practices factor was divided in two levels, with and without it. In the material type factor were tested two reflective film in the soil, white raffia plastic (polypropylene) (reflective film 1) and metalized raffia plastic (reflective film 2). The pathology, physical-chemical and biochemical quality characteristics were evaluated in harvest fruit moment. The physiologic plants aspects and microbiological soil activity were evaluated, too. The reflective material use in the soil reduced fruit lost, what it increase the yield per plant. Cultural practices had no influence on the organoleptic and biochemical grape characteristics...

Conservation of Medicinal Plants in Central America and the Caribbean

Lagos-Witte, Sonia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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37.958987%
The issues of medical plant conservation have been the focus of many formal and informal discussions at national and international forums, seminars, workshops, conferences and congresses in the last 10 years. Caribbean and Central American countries are adopting common policies on medicinal plant conservation and establishing collaborative projects and appropriate agreements for research programs in order to achieve a new status for the protection of medicinal plant diversity. This paper for the most part reports on the the TRAMIL Program (Scientific Research on Medicinal Plants in the Caribbean Basin) coordinated since 1982. TRAMIL has focused on conserving traditional community knowledge of folk remedies, and providing scientific validation of safety and efficacy needed to encourage national health policies that include traditional medicine in primary health care programs.

Cultural Rights for Zimbabwe’s Sui Generis Legislation : Emphasizing Symbolic Practice Related to Traditional Medicinal Knowledge

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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58.19217%
Throughout two decades of development activity, reports on the "crisis" of desertification, food scarcity, and economic inefficiency have been challenged by local counter-narratives which show local people uniquely engaging in their environment in ways that deny the relevance of economic incentives (Lansing 1995; Leach and Mearns 1996; Appadurai 1990). Recently, the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) characterized plant genetic resources as the "heritage of mankind" (Cullet 2001) in order to globalize conservation of them. Likewise, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) legislation has enabled biotechnology companies to enclose aspects of this heritage within intellectual property rights (IPR) in ways that primarily fuel international industry. As a result, the local cultural practices related to biological resources have been dismissed as inefficient or discussed as barriers to development. This may begin with the fact that the relationship between territorial cultural practices...

Conserving the Past as a Foundation for the Future : China-World Bank Partnership on Cultural Heritage Conservation

Ebbe, Katrinka; Licciardi, Guido; Baeumler, Axel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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37.772725%
The rich cultural heritage of China is an essential touchstone of its collective identity. The country's archaeological sites, historic architecture, expressive arts, cultural landscapes, and ethnic diversity also are treasured around the world. Despite their importance, China's cultural assets are under tremendous pressure due to the country's rapid development, particularly its rapid urbanization. Moreover, rising incomes and mobility have significantly increased domestic tourism, leading to the overdevelopment and deterioration of cultural heritage sites. However, many of China's government officials, conservationists, and community groups have recognized these threats and, over the past several decades, have worked tirelessly to protect their country's cultural heritage. Based on the 12 projects developed under this partnership, this report presents an overview of the project approaches and experiences, takes stock of the challenges, extracts initial lessons learned, and identifies new directions and challenges ahead. The principal audience of the report is national...

Philippines : Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy 2003

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.675442%
The Water Resources Sector Strategy (WRSS) supports implementation of the Bank's 1993 Water Resources Management Policy, using the experience updated internationally, with water resources and management. This country Water Resources Assistance Strategy (CWRAS) identifies the Philippines principal water resource challenges, the current situation, how the Bank is assisting at present, and what it should in the future. In summary this strategy can be summarized as follows: 1) Bank assistance should translate the rhetoric of water conservation, and sustainability, into practical-realistic programs, and policies; 2) focus should be on promoting cooperation of local government units (LGUs), and water users themselves, and, on following a "bottom-up and top-down" approach, that includes active participation of water users, in addition to developing infrastructure, and management into water resources projects; 3) water resource management (WRM) initiatives should respect cultural practices, which have evolved to provide sustainable WRM in a micro-watershed context. Indigenous water systems provide clues to how WRM should be rooted in the socio-cultural context; and...

Evaluation of chemical, biological, and cultural controls for the management of pod rot of lima bean caused by Phytophthora capsici

Kness, Andrew Archer
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Johnson, Gordon C.; Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus ) is an important crop for the Delmarva Peninsula, particularly Delaware, which plants more land area to lima bean than any other state. Yield loss due to diseases such as pod rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici, reduce profitability of the crop. Phytophthora capsici causes significant damage to lima beans during periods of high humidity and frequent rainfall. Symptoms include browning, drying, and abortion of the pod. Current management practices for pod rot are limited, and fungicide choices are few. Mefenoxam is the most widely used fungicide and it has been registered for use against P. capsici on lima bean since 2000, however, repeated applications have resulted in populations of P. capsici with resistance. Cyazofamid was approved for control of pod rot 2013, however use remains low because of the expense. The goal of this research was to identify new products and practices for managing pod rot of lima bean. These included identifying new fungicides with efficacy against P. capsici on lima bean, as well as evaluating biofumigation, biopesticides, and reduced tillage. All field experiments were conducted during the summer of 2013 and 2014 at the University of Delaware's Carvel Research and Education Center...