Página 13 dos resultados de 19220 itens digitais encontrados em 0.028 segundos

Tragic challenges and the moral hazard of humanitarian intervention : how and why ethnic groups provoke genocidal retaliation; How and why ethnic groups provoke genocidal retaliation

Kuperman, Alan J
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 406 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
This dissertation explores the causes of, and possible remedies for, extremely violent ethnic conflict. It starts from a robust yet under-explored finding in the literature: Most groups that fall victim to genocidal violence actually trigger their own demise by launching armed secessions or revolutions against state authorities that only then retaliate with genocide or forced migration ("ethnic cleansing"). Accordingly, the dissertation asks why groups that are vulnerable to genocidal retaliation would provoke that very outcome by launching such "tragic challenges." To explain this phenomenon, the dissertation employs three case studies to test three hypotheses drawn from rational deterrence theory. The cases focus on three subordinate groups whose armed challenges provoked genocidal retaliation: Bosnia's Muslims in 1992-95; Rwanda's Tutsi in 1990-94; and Kosovo's Albanians in 1998-99. To gain further insight by adding variation on the theory's dependent variable, the dissertation also examines an earlier period of the third case during which the subordinate group did not launch a violent challenge, despite having substantial grievances, and thereby avoided genocidal violence (Kosovo's Albanians in 1989-97). he three hypotheses are as follows: (1) the group did not expect its armed challenge to provoke genocidal retaliation; (2) the group expected to suffer genocidal violence regardless of whether or not it launched an armed challenge; (3) the group expected its armed challenge to provoke genocidal retaliation but viewed this as an acceptable cost to achieve its goal of secession or revolution. The dissertation confirms the third hypothesis: subordinate groups launch tragic challenges when they expect to prevail and are willing to civilians as the cost of doing so.; (cont.) Most surprisingly...

The private sector's capacity to manage climate risks and finance carbon neutral energy infrastructure

Hart, Craig A
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (312 leaves)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
This dissertation examines the financial aspects of climate change relating to the private sector's capacity to manage climate risks and finance carbon neutral energy infrastructure. The dissertation examines (a) potential risks posed by climate change to private sector investment in critical infrastructure, (b) the potential effectiveness of standard private contractual methods for mitigating risks posed by climate change, (c) the capacity of private capital markets to finance carbon neutral energy infrastructure, and (d) the potential for market failure in developing carbon neutral energy infrastructure. The dissertation first identifies climate risks to infrastructure by examining scientific evidence concerning climate change from studies and atmospheric models. Based on this data, it modifies a framework widely used by practitioners in the finance field for purposes of evaluating financial risks in infrastructure projects. Using the modified risk assessment framework, the dissertation identifies financial risks posed by climate change to financing and developing infrastructure. The dissertation then assesses whether these climate risks can be mitigated and managed by employing private contractual methods typically used in infrastructure finance...

It takes more than a village : mobilization, networks, and the state in Central Asia

Radnitz, Scott (Scott B.)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 231, [21] p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
This dissertation develops and demonstrates a theory to account for the outbreak of mass mobilization in authoritarian settings. Two conditions make the expansion of protest across community boundaries more likely: (1) low levels of public goods, coupled with (2) economic opportunities that allow elites autonomous from the state to earn revenue. Under regimes where the rule of law is weak, non-state elites have an incentive to protect their assets from state predation by developing a social support base. They do this by making symbolic gestures and providing surrogate public goods to communities. If the regime threatens to harm this relationship, by restricting elites' freedoms or denying them access to resources, top-down mobilization is one of the few means available to advance or defend their position. Elites base their appeal on shared local identity and the material benefit that people derive from elite charity. The ultimate scale of mobilization is determined by the number and geographic dispersion of elites who mobilize locally and then unite their protests.; (cont.) Three mechanisms may be activated to expand mobilization beyond the local level: demonstration, in which people receive information of an event through an impersonal medium and emulate other people's actions by analogy to their own situation; diffusion...

Geologic Storage of carbon dioxide : risk analyses and implications for public acceptance; Geologic Storage of CO₂ : risk analyses and implications for public acceptance

Singleton, Gregory R. (Gregory Randall)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 123 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology has the potential to enable large reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions, but one of the unanswered questions about CCS is whether it will be accepted by the public. In the past, construction of large facilities such as nuclear power plants has been prevented or delayed by public opposition, and CCS proponents would like to know whether it will provoke similar public opposition. Since the Geologic Storage (GS) component of the CCS architecture has not been widely deployed, this thesis explores the characteristics of GS and how they might affect public perception and acceptance of the larger CCS architecture. To provide insight regarding public acceptance of CCS, this thesis addresses two questions; first asking how GS is likely to be perceived by the public and what can be done to improve that perception, and second asking whether financial compensation can be used to improve public acceptance of energy facilities. To address the first question about the public perception of GS, this thesis begins with a discussion of risk concepts and how it is used differently by experts, who use a realist perspective, and the general public, who use a social constructivist perspective.; (cont.) After discussing how this difference in perspective leads to risk disputes...

The rise of "china threat" arguments

Ueki, Chikako
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (517 p.)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
The study seeks to explain the rise of "China threat" arguments in the United States and Japan in the 1990s by using three theories of states behavior- realism, organization theory, and democratic peace theory. The rise of "China threat" arguments occurred in the United States and Japan because of a convergence of several factors, the most important of which was the increase of China's relative power after the Cold War. The distribution of power among states strongly affects their intentions and military capabilities. The study introduces and suggests the importance of the strategic safety-net in shaping threat perception. A strategic safety-net emerges when state's survival depends on cooperation with another state. When the strategic safety-net exists, states suppress self-interested behavior and the ally's intentions are perceived as benign. Interviews with former government officials in the United States and Japan confirmed that strategic necessity restrained U.S. and Japanese behavior towards China during the Cold War and limited suspicion of China. The fraying of the strategic safety-net led to the advent of "China threat" arguments.; (cont.) The main difference between the United States and Japan was that whereas in the U.S. case threat perception was shaped by a primacy strategy...

Implementing flexible response : the US, Germany, and NATO's conventional Forces

Baldauf, Joerg Franz
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (543 leaves); 44916326 bytes; 44916084 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
by Joerg Franz Baldauf.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1987.; Bibliography: leaves 523-543.

Working with what you've got : US strategy in Iraq; Working with what you've got : United States strategy in Iraq

Rumbaugh, R. Russell, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 75 leaves; 4816729 bytes; 4824509 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
by R. Russell Rumbaugh.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references.

Leashes or lemmings? : alliances as restraining devices

Pressman, Jeremy, 1969-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 287 p.; 13124225 bytes; 13124024 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
Does alliance restraint happen in international affairs? What theories explain the success or failure of restraint efforts? Do states ever form alliances in order to restrain? Alliance restraint - an actual or anticipated diplomatic effort by one ally to influence a second ally not to proceed with a proposed military policy or not to continue an existing military policy - most definitely happens in international affairs, and sometimes it is successful. This study of alliance restraint suggests three central conclusions about alliances: 1) On both a conceptual and empirical level, the alliance restraint dynamic means that alliances can have a stabilizing and peace-promoting effect on the international system. When calculating the net impact of alliances on international peace and stability, scholars should account for restraint, not just chainganging, buckpassing, and other pathological (destabilizing) alliance dynamics described by Waltz, Posen, Snyder & Christensen, and Vasquez. 2) The success or failure of restraint efforts is best explained by rational restraint theory - a combination of capabilities, interests, and communication. Rational restraint theory, analogous to rational deterrence theory, provides a better explanation than ones based on power...

The military lens : doctrinal differences, misperception, and deterrence failure in Sino-American relations

Twomey, Christopher P
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 407 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
Nations, because of their different strategic situations, histories, and military cultures can have dramatically different beliefs about the nature of effective military doctrine, strategy, and capabilities. This dissertation argues that when such doctrines-or "theories of victory"-differ across states, misperceptions and false optimism are likely to occur. In turn, these can impede international diplomacy and statecraft by making communication and common assessments of the balance of power more difficult. When states are engaged in strategic coercion--either deterrence or compellence--these problems can lead to escalation and war. To develop this unique explanation for the pernicious problem of false optimism, this dissertation draws on scholarship on the sources of doctrine, strategic culture, misperception, strategic coercion, and deterrence theory. It assesses the argument through case studies of attempts at strategic coercion in early Cold War Sino- American conflicts in Korea and the Taiwan Strait. The dissertation also tests the proposed theory against the conventional approach of deterrence theory that focuses on the "objective" quality of the signaling. The cases rely on process tracing using both primary and secondary sources from each side...

Influence and information in U.S. bureaucracy : how agencies, congress, and interest groups use federal advisory committees; Influence and information in United States bureaucracy

Karty, Kevin Dean, 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 217 p.; 25555518 bytes; 25555277 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
This thesis studies how government in the US gathers and uses information effectively, and the role of federal advisory committees therein. All governments that serve the public interest encounter conflicting needs - on the one hand to gather information to solve important problems, and on the other hand to resist particularistic pressures of special interests both within and outside of government. Many governments choose to reconcile these demands in different ways - through balance of power, direct oversight, and procedural controls, for example - but these control mechanisms are costly. The use of such control mechanisms impacts both the effectiveness of advisory committees as information gathering tools, and how advisory committees are used. The body of the thesis consists of three papers. The first summarizes the available literature on information transmission and influence in complex environments, especially as they relate to delegation of authority. It categorizes the various bodies of theory and identifies the key lines of difference across these theories. The second paper tests hypotheses about meeting closure, government capture, and committee authorization to ascertain which branches of government are most vulnerable to inappropriate influence. Results weakly predict that committees formed cooperatively by Congress and agencies are most vulnerable to special interests. The third paper uses survey data to test how process controls impact the effectiveness of committees...

Expediting organizational transformation in the small firm sector : lessons from the metalworking industry

Flynn, Erin Kathleen, 1963-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 294 p.; 20490570 bytes; 20490326 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
This dissertation examines the adoption of new work organization practices in the small firm, manufacturing sector through an in-depth examination of the metalworking industry in western Massachusetts. An original survey of 46 firms was conducted as were detailed firm-level case studies. Four key questions were addressed through the research: 1) what does the new work organization look like in the small firm sector? 2) how widely have new forms of work organization diffused? 3) what explains variation in workplace innovation outcomes? 4) what are the most effective mechanisms of diffusion? Survey and case study results show that new work organization practices have diffused widely in the small firm sector but that adoption levels vary dramatically among similarly situated firms. Detailed review of data indicates that whether and when firms embark on a path of organizational reform must be analyzed in the context of each firm's market environment and overall strategy. The extent and rate of adoption is determined by two key variables: the nature of market pressure a firm experiences (shaped predominantly by the industry sector the firm supplies to and customers relations); and the strategic orientation of firm leadership. The presence of cooperative customer-supplier relations and/or innovative...

Foreign perceptions of American casualty sensitivity : is your reputation worth fighting for?

Horst, Adam Marshall, 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 102 p.; 4393651 bytes; 4393457 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
I examine America's reputation for sustaining casualties (i.e., foreign perceptions of American casualty sensitivity) in order to test and shed light on the larger "reputation" hypothesis. For the purposes of this paper, the reputation hypothesis posits that foreign perceptions of American casualty tolerance are based on past American actions. The central question of this paper asks how countries come to hold their perceptions of American casualty sensitivity. I conduct six case studies to test four (not mutually exclusive) hypotheses - reputation, interests, democracy, and culture - concerning foreign perceptions of American casualty sensitivity. The case studies document foreign leaders - including adversaries, allies, and neutrals - giving the United States reputations for lacking resolve and being unable to sustain casualties based upon America's previous retreats and defeats. I conclude that, in disagreement with the central conclusions of the reputation literature to date, it is indeed right for a state to fight for its reputation. In addition, the evidence suggests that the reputation hypothesis, democracy hypothesis, and culture hypothesis explain different aspects of the phenomenon. However, when viewed in combination, these three hypotheses provide a nearly complete explanation of how countries come to hold their perceptions of American casualty sensitivity. Surprisingly...

Cooperation over conflict : the women's movement and the state in contemporary Japan; Women's movement and the state in contemporary Japan

Murase, Miriam Y. (Miriam Yuko), 1967-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 208 leaves; 16876558 bytes; 16876319 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
Progress on women's equality in Japan is found to be constrained by state intervention in the women's movement. This intervention takes the form of regulations that limit the independence of women's group, as well as resources that aid and influence their activities. The result is a relationship between women and the state that is more cooperative than conflictual. For this reason, social change is necessarily slow, as it is achieved through constant consultation and compromise. These findings were reached through an examination of women's organizations, women's centers, and women's policy in Japan. Data collected on 889 women's organizations shows a vibrant and diverse women's movement. But Japanese government policies make it difficult for grassroots civic groups to gain legal recognition and develop beyond part-time voluntary associations into full-time professional organizations. At the same time, the Japanese government actively intervenes to aid women's organizations by providing various resources, such as direct funding, government offices for women's policy, and public women's centers. Data collected on 623 women's centers and analysis of various women's programs show how the provision of these resources allow the government to influence the women's movement. In this way...

The regional trade-union : lessons from Spain

Fraile, Lydia M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 288 p.; 11974070 bytes; 11973870 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
The region has emerged in the last two decades as a new field of trade-union activity. There is increasing interaction across Europe between unions, employer associations, and state actors at the subnational territorial level. These practices take different forms and cover a wide range of issues, with training and labor market policies being the most common. Some scholars see in the regional trade union the promise of union revitalization, providing a more adaptable alternative in today's flexible economy. Yet others consider it a recipe for weakness and fragmentation. This thesis argues that the region is an important site for trade unions because it is well suited for addressing employment problems and reaching out to "outsiders:" the unemployed, temporary workers, and others in the more insecure parts of the labor market. My research, which compares the experience of different Spanish regions, links successful intervention to two conditions. One is that the union fully connects its efforts in the region to collective bargaining. The other is that it works within the framework of national agreements and institutions, rather than in opposition to them. Contrary to the academic tendency to view the regional and national union in competing terms...

Conceptualizing FDI in the Russian regions : Primore, Khabarovsk, and Sakhalin; Conceptualizing foreign direct investment in the Russian regions

Burns, Katherine G. (Katherine Georgiana), 1964-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 426 p.; 18198251 bytes; 18198251 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
Since the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, Russia has attracted a minuscule proportion of global FDI-only 1 percent of inflows to developing countries. Worse, most of Russia's FDI is "market-seeking"-geared to the domestic market-rather than the more productive export-oriented variety which dominates global FDI flows. Well over half of Russia's FDI goes to Moscow and St. Petersburg, a disparity which aggravates the developmental dislocation between the national center and the rest of the vast country. In this dissertation, I examine variation in regional-level FDI policies-a key factor in attracting FDI to the regions. The empirical work focuses on FDI in the export-oriented industries of three regions in the Russian Far East--Primorskii krai, Khabarovskii krai, and Sakhalin oblast--all of which have been the object of intense interest from foreign investors. The three developed widely variegated FDI policies: During the 1990s, Primorskii krai grew increasingly hostile to foreign investors, Khabarovsk largely ignored foreign investment, while Sakhalin, actively sought out foreign investment. The dissertation finds that policy variation is a product of gubernatorial power. It shows that regional governors wielded decisive power in policy areas which directly affected FDI inflows-foreign acquisition of stock in privatizing Russian enterprises...

Regulatory competition and the politics of environmental enforcement

Konisky, David M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 258 p.; 16976978 bytes; 16994704 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
Does interstate economic competition result in states weakening their environmental regulation? Scholars have long been interested in this question. Of particular concern, is whether this type of behavior leads to a "race to the bottom" in U.S. state environmental regulatory behavior. Although there is a mature theoretical literature investigating the conditions under which regulators will use environmental measures as competitive instruments vis-a.-vis other states for attracting economic investment, the empirical literature has lagged far behind in testing the direct predictions of the race to the bottom argument. The purpose of this project is test the applicability of the race to the bottom argument in U.S. state environmental regulation. To test the race to the bottom argument, I examine both behavioral' and attitudinal evidence. Specifically, I estimate a series of strategic interaction models which aim to detect whether state enforcement of three federal pollution control programs - the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act - follows a pattern consistent with regulatory competition theory generally, and the race to the bottom argument specifically. I also conduct a nationwide survey of senior officials working in state environmental agencies.; (cont.) This elite level survey helps to validate the behavioral evidence studied in the statistical analysis...

"A Mulato cannot be prejudiced" : the legal construction of racial discrimination in contemporary Brazil; Legal construction of racial discrimination in contemporary Brazil

Racusen, Seth
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 406 p.; 25162120 bytes; 25218421 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
This dissertation, an in-depth empirical study of Brazilian racial discrimination law, examines the trends in complaining and surprising variation in official decisionmaking over the past decade. I collected more than 300 racial discrimination complaints, police investigations and court proceedings filed since 1989. I claim that Brazil's racial ideology and its theory of racial discrimination as an act of racial prejudice have been jointly constituted and, in turn, fully shape the making and the using of anti-discrimination law. I show that Brazil constructed racial discrimination narrowly compared to US theories of racial discrimination and the Brazilian understanding of other forms of discrimination, such as gender and age. Brazilians disproportionately file racial discrimination complaints about insults by a neighbor or co-worker. Officials treated these and most allegations as private, interpersonal disputes, even for allegations of firing and other problems protected in the law. I located approximately 40 findings for the plaintiff, a small fraction of the tens of hundreds of allegations, and analyze the variation in judicial inquiry and outcomes. Brazil's racial ideology and weak rule of law strongly influenced litigation. Defendants destroyed evidence and threatened plaintiffs and witnesses. Officials often erased the testimony of Black plaintiffs and witnesses in their holdings. Defendants often claimed to be Mulato or to have treated the plaintiff cordially as evidence of being Brazilian and inherently unprejudiced. Many officials accepted that defense. I hold the Brazilian theory of racial discrimination as overt prejudicial acts responsible for the use of the law.; (cont.) The law has focused attention on the mind and attitude of the aggressor. Although all judges invoke their ideology in their findings...

An evaluation of the prescriptive utility of psychological bias theory in international relations

Leung, Wilson (Wilson Wan Shun)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 87 p.; 5276208 bytes; 5279786 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
I evaluate the practical utility of psychological bias theory by examining two historical cases - the US decision to cross the 38th parallel in 1950 and the British policy of appeasement towards Germany in the 1930s - asking in each of these whether the theory could have helped policymakers to make better decisions. Drawing from the lessons of these two cases, I argue that psychological bias theory can help foreign-policymakers to improve their decisionmaking capabilities and hence increase their chances of achieving favorable outcomes in international politics. However, even if the prescriptions of the theory are adopted, there is no guarantee that positive outcomes will obtain in every case because outcomes are affected by at least two other factors that one largely cannot control: the availability of information and the misperceptions suffered by one's opponent. I also discuss other research methods that could be used to investigate the utility of the theory: examining how useful its prescriptions have been; looking at whether people can actually correct their psychological biases; and considering whether policymakers should attempt to rectify their biases.; by Wilson Leung.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

The weight of an assassin's mace : vulnerabilities in the US military's satellite communications and China's information warfare threat

Brooks, Benjamin M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 93 p.; 5505015 bytes; 5508850 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
Believing that an information Revolution of Military Affairs has occurred, the US military is currently transforming to achieve dominance over the full spectrum of deployment scenarios with a lighter, more mobile, and more capable force. Establishing a far-reaching, robust, ubiquitous ISR and telecommunications network, and a network-centered fighting doctrine are keys to this endeavor. Of the many systems needed, satellite communications are especially significant because they are the prime method of transmitting high quantities of information to remote and mobile units. The People's Republic of China too has become aware of the information Revolution of Military Affairs, as well as the vulnerabilities associated with it. Though the People's Republic is still in the process of modernizing its society and military, the doctrines and advantages of Information Warfare have not been lost to it. It seeks to equip itself with the IT and skill sets that are becoming increasingly more available to asymmetrically affect the information usage of a technologically superior adversary. As it stands, the military's use of satellite communications is vulnerable.; (cont.) Though some satellite communications have inherent protective qualities, they are still susceptible to some variants of Electronic Attack and anti-satellite attack. Military-dedicated systems do not offer enough security...

The stability of coerced economic reform : the case of IPR; Stability of coerced economic reform : the case of intellectual property rights

Wilcox, Trudy
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 239 leaves; 15889007 bytes; 15899127 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
Theories in international relations posit, and empirical evidence has verified, that unwilling states can be compelled by another state or by an international institution to enact domestic policy reform. However, these theories ignore the important follow-on question of whether such externally imposed reforms can be expected to stick. Using intellectual property rights (IPR) reform as a policy case, this dissertation seeks to explain why imposed reform stabilizes in some states but not in others. Here, stable policy means a government demonstrates credible and ongoing commitment to the reform after enacting new law. For example, the state passes additional legal measures to extend the reform, and provides ample support for domestic institutions necessary for the law's implementation. This dissertation presents a comparative study of IPR reform in Brazil and South Korea, covering seven years in the former case and sixteen years in the latter. The Korean government acquiesced to U.S. pressure in 1987 and strengthened its national IPR regime. Brazil undertook IPR reform in 1996, owing in part to its obligation to abide by the directives of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Accord).; (cont.) The argument put forward is that states commit to imposed reforms once they capture or create reform benefits...