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Three Papers in Political Methodology

Stewart, Brandon Michael
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
Português
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This collection of three papers develops two statistical techniques for addressing canonical problems in applied computational social science: unsupervised text analysis and regression with dependent data. In both cases I provide a flexible framework that allows the analyst to leverage known structure within the data to improve inference. The first paper introduces the Structural Topic Model (STM) which generalizes and extends a broad class of probabilistic topic models developed in computer science. Crucially for applied social science, STM provides a framework for estimating the factors which drive topical frequency and content within documents. The second paper explores the challenge that non-convex likelihoods pose for applied research with topic models. The paper presents a series of diagnostics and discusses the under-appreciated role of initialization methods. The third paper introduces Latent Factor Regressions (LFR), a new set of tools for regression modeling in the presence of unobserved heterogeneity or dependence between observations. The approach uses interactive latent effects to provide a unified framework for modeling different data structures, including network, time-series cross-sectional and spatial data. Each of these methods is designed with a focus on applied work. Estimation algorithms are presented which are fast enough for applied work and software is either currently available (STM) or in development (LFR). The use of these techniques is illustrated with a range of applications from across political science.; Government

Uma (con) figuração social : cientistas sociais, antropólogos, sociólogos e cientistas políticos em saúde no Brasil; A (con) figuration : social scientists, anthropologists, sociologists and political scientists in the health fields in Brazil

Juliana Luporini do Nascimento
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/02/2011 Português
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A Saúde Coletiva brasileira delineia-se como um campo do conhecimento e de práticas multifacetado, estruturado a partir de três grandes eixos: a epidemiologia, o planejamento e as ciências sociais. As ciências sociais trouxeram para a área da saúde novas potencialidades a partir de marcos teórico e metodológico que possibilitaram novas reflexões, e foram fundamentais como geradores para uma reestruturação do ensino e da prática em saúde. Dentro dessa realidade e considerando a amplitude com que as teorias e idéias advindas das ciências sociais foram e são assimiladas pelo campo da saúde coletiva se torna fundamental conhecermos os profissionais que se institucionalizaram na área da saúde, que reconhecem a saúde coletiva como área de atuação profissional, e que tenham formação específica em antropologia, sociologia, ciências política ou ciências sociais. Para tanto, buscamos nesta pesquisa traçar, em todo o território nacional, o perfil dos profissionais que realizaram alguma etapa da sua formação nas áreas das ciências sociais, antropologia, sociologia ou ciência política, inseridos nas atividades de pesquisa, docência e extensão do campo da saúde. Os dados que nos permitiram criar a cartografia dessa área específica foram coletados a partir da Plataforma Lattes e da busca em sites de Faculdades de Medicina...

Americans don’t need to agree with elected officials in their districts, they just need someone in government to represent them

Harden, Jeff; Clark, Chris
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/08/2015 Português
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Modern electoral politics typically produces two narratives: competition between candidates in individual districts and competition for overall control of government. Which of these matters more for voters? Is it most important to have their preferred candidate win in their own districts, or would voters accept an electoral loss locally if their political preferences were represented in the legislature as a whole? In new research, Jeff Harden and Chris Clark find strong evidence supporting the latter perspective. It is much more important to Americans that their political preferences are represented by a group of legislators, even if that group does not include their own representative

Book review: think tanks: shapers of grand narratives or creatures of fashion?

Carolan, Liz
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/08/2012 Português
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The question of how a policy is made or why things simply stay the same in politics has long occupied the minds of political observers. This book explores the way in which very particular political actors made a difference to policy and politics. The analytical focus is on think-tanks: hybrid creatures which exist somewhere in the spaces between government, business and academia. Based on over 50 interviews with policy-makers, civil servants, analysts from think-tanks and party politicians, this book is an up-to-date overview of both countries’ think-tank landscapes, finds Liz Carolan. Think-Tanks, Social Democracy and Social Policy (New Perspectives in German Political Studies). Hartwig Pautz. Palgrave Macmillan. March 2012.

Book review: Global NATO and the catastrophic failure in Libya

von Weitershausen, Inez
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/07/2013 Português
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"Global NATO and the Catastrophic Failure in Libya." Horace Campbell. Monthly Review Press. March 2013. --- Horace Campbell investigates the political and economic crises of the early twenty-first century through the prism of NATO’s intervention in Libya. He traces the origins of the conflict, situates it in the broader context of the Arab Spring uprisings, and explains the expanded role of a post-Cold War NATO. This military organization is the instrument through which the capitalist class of North America and Europe seeks to impose its political will on the rest of the world, however warped by the increasingly outmoded neoliberal form of capitalism, Campbell argues. Reviewed by Inez von Weitershausen.

Book review: Sensible politics: the visual culture of nongovernmental activism

Saffin, Kate
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/07/2013 Português
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"Sensible Politics: The Visual Culture of Nongovernmental Activism." Meg McLagan and Yates McKee. MIT Press. November 2012. --- Political acts are encoded in medial forms – punch holes on a card, images on a live stream, tweets about events immediately unfolding – that have force, shaping people as subjects and forming the contours of what is sensible, legible, and visible. In doing so they define the terms of political possibility and create terrain for political acts. Sensible Politics considers the constitutive role played by aesthetic and performative techniques in the staging of claims by nongovernmental activists. Relevant for students of anthropology and social psychology as well as media and communications and politics, the book will be equally useful to anyone who wants a deeper understanding of how images and visual culture surround and affect individuals and society, writes Kate Saffin.

Book review: Factional politics: how dominant parties implode or stabilize

Sieberer, Ulrich
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/08/2013 Português
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"Factional Politics: How Dominant Parties Implode or Stabilize." Françoise Boucek. Palgrave Macmillan. October 2012. --- Divisions within dominant political parties are nothing new, as has been illustrated by the Conservative Party’s renewed infighting over Europe. But how does internal party dissent begin, and what effects does it have on political parties in power? Ulrich Sieberer finds this book to be rich in empirical detail, praises its analysis of how some parties are able to manage internal divisions, whilst others are not, and recommends it as an insightful addition to the literature on intra-party politics.

Book review: Revolution stalled: the political limits of the internet in the post-Soviet sphere

Pirgova, Luba
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/08/2013 Português
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"Revolution Stalled: The Political Limits of the Internet in the Post-Soviet Sphere." Sarah Oates. Oxford University Press. May 2013. --- Can the internet fundamentally challenge non-free regimes? For many, the role that social networking played in political change in the Middle East and beyond raises important questions about the ability of authoritarian leaders to control the information sphere and their subjects. Revolution Stalled analyses the contemporary Russian internet, aiming to illuminate how and when online activity can spark political action. Luba Pirgova recommends the book to those interested in media history, social media, and public life in Russia.

Book review: Spaces of contention: spatialities and social movements

Walklate, Jenny
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/08/2013 Português
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"Spaces of Contention: Spatialities and Social Movements." Walter Nicholls, Byron Miller, and Justin Beaumont (eds.). Ashgate. July 2013. --- As social movements have become more complex, geographers are increasingly studying the spatial dynamics of collective resistance, and sociologists and political scientists are increasingly analysing the role of space, place and scale in contentious political activity. Occupying a position at the intersection of these disciplinary developments, this book aims to examine how social movements have employed spatial practices to respond to and shape changing social and political contexts. Reviewed by Jenny Walklate.

Book review: Ted Grant: the permanent revolutionary

Bannerman, Gordon
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/08/2013 Português
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"Ted Grant: The Permanent Revolutionary." Alan Woods. Wellred Publishing. April 2013. --- This work aims to cover the life and ideas of Ted Grant, one of the most well known figures in the international Marxist movement. Author Alan Woods aims to outlines Grant’s important theoretical contribution to Marxism and provide insights into a subject that remains a closed book to most political analysts even now. Gordon Bannerman feels that the book fails to fully engage with its subject, but Woods’ account does have some value in its often gritty portrayal of extra-parliamentary political movements.

Book review: women’s policy issues in American politics: how women represent women

Evans, Elizabeth
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/07/2012 Português
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Though the number of women elected to the U.S. state legislatures has increased substantially in the last forty years, researchers still struggle to connect the presence of women in the legislature to public policy outcomes that affect women. One reason for this struggle is that we lack a complete understanding of how political parties modify the relationship between women legislators’ interests in representing women and the creation of public policies that concern them. In How Women Represent Women, Tracy L. Osborn argues that political parties fundamentally shape the pursuit of women’s policy issues in American politics. When women represent women, they do so as partisans. Reviewed by Elizabeth Evans. How Women Represent Women: Political Parties, Gender and Representation in the State Legislatures. Tracy L. Osborn. Oxford University Press USA. March 2012.

On what citizens mean by feeling 'European' : perceptions of news, symbols and borderless-ness

Bruter, Michael
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2003 Português
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What is ‘Europe’ for citizens? What do people mean when they say that they feel, or not, European? A growing amount of literature has been produced by political scientists and journalists alike to try and assess the absence or existence of a European identity, but it is very unclear what people tell us when answering our questions on their political identities. Multiple theories of political identities exist, imposing fairly rigid and untested (and, essentially, quantitatively untestable) assumptions on what they mean. No deductive technique, however, would allow us to let citizens explain to us the deeper signification of citizens’ answers to our questions on who they are and how they perceive their attachment to varying political communities. Therefore, this paper presents an analysis of a series of focus group discussions run in France, the UK, and the Netherlands with over ninety participants on what citizens believe to be ‘Europe’ and ‘Europeans’. They tell us how they believe the media inform them on Europe, and how they perceive the main symbols of the European Union. They explain what matters to them in terms of their direct experience of European integration, and finally, what a ‘European identity’ means to them and whether they think of themselves and of their peoples as European or not. We discover that citizens are relatively cynical with regards to the perceived bias of the media on the European question...

The political economy of economic liberalisation in Venezuela

DiJohn, Jonathan
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2004 Português
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his article examines the political impact of economic liberalisation programmes in Venezuela from 1989 to 1998. Venezuela, a long-standing democracy, has experienced a virtual political implosion. The rapid downward spiral has seen an increasing crisis in governability that has been manifested by the collapse of the two main political parties, an increase in political polarization, more frequent coup attempts, alarming increases in voter absenteeism, the growing use of corruption scandals as instruments of political competition, the increasing frequency of mass and often violent street demonstrations, dramatic increases in crime, growing labour unrest including a two-month national workers strike, and the return of radical populist rhetoric and policy accompanied by a more authoritarian presidentialism that has been absent in Venezuela since the late 1940s. Accompanying the increase in ungovernability has been a severe economic crisis. In the period 1988-2002, per capita income declines have been consistently among the worst in Latin America and percentage increases in income inequality, poverty and informal employment have been among the highest on the continent. Regulatory deficiencies were also at the heart of one of Latin America's worst banking collapses in the 1990s. In this paper it is suggested that economic liberalisation and political decentralisation has not strengthened the state as the capability approach predicted. The idea that weak states will govern the economy better by intervening less - the so-called capability approach - has not been borne out by the trajectory of the Venezuelan economy. What is missing in the capability approach is an analysis of how capacity is constructed and...

The city as frontier: urban development and identity processes in Goma

Vlassenroot, Koen; Büscher, Karen
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2009 Português
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This innovative paper from the Crisis States Research Centre challenges traditional studies that explore sites located on borders from a central or capital city perspective. Focusing on processes and expressions of identity in the city of Goma, (capital of the North Kivu's, DRCongo), this paper illustrates how the struggle for political, social and economic control impacts local urban life and has broader implications for regional relationships and realities. Conclusions from this research suggest that Goma must be understood as a site of dynamic change and fluidity rather than (as borders are commonly depicted) a static and dependant environment. An increasing sense of independence and freedom in Goma, this paper argues, is directly linked to state decline and to the dynamics of regional conflict. Paradoxically, Goma has become an area of military rebellion, political struggle and economic competition. At the same time, it has evolved into a city of flourishing trans-border trade, political independence and economic opportunity. The presence of the international humanitarian community, the role of natural resource trade and trans-border mobility have shifted the structures of the city, altering both Goma's relationship with the state and its citizens' relationship with their city. This paper highlights the need to closely follow the increasing national and regional role that Goma...

Land institutions and political ethnicity in Africa: evidence from Tanzania

Boone, Catherine; Nyeme, Lydia
Fonte: The City University of New York Publicador: The City University of New York
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2015 Português
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Existing work on land politics in Africa suggests that governments, by creating and upholding neocustomary land tenure regimes, create powerful incentives for individuals to embrace state-recognized ethnic identities. This paper strengthens this argument about the institutional determinants of ethnicity's high political salience through the use of contrasting evidence from Tanzania. In Tanzania, non-neocustomary land tenure institutions prevail, and the political salience of ethnic identity is low. Even in a hard-test region of high in-migration and high competition for farmland, the political salience of ethnic identity in land politics is low. The findings suggest that political science needs to take seriously the role of state institutions in producing politically-salient ethnic identities in Africa.

Policy restrictions, democratic deficit and redistribution

Larcinese, Valentino
Fonte: Department of Government, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Government, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2008 Português
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Restrictions to the range of policies available to governments are often recommended as a solution to coordination failures or time inconsistency problems. However, policy restrictions can have important drawbacks that have been generally ignored so far. When the hands of governments are tied, citizens have lower incentives to be informed on political matters and to participate in collective decision-making processes, since private returns from political information are lower. This mechanism provides a micro-foundation for the idea that the so-called "democratic deficit" induces low participation in political life. Moreover, a fiscal policy restriction tends to reduce redistribution by inducing lower political information acquisition by part of poorer voters. We show that an exogenous restriction on the amount of public good that a government can supply (or on the taxes that can charge) may induce less public good supply (less taxation) with respect to its no-restriction level, independently of whether the restriction imposes a maximum amount, a minimum, or both. Perversely, the equilibrium outcome can be very different from what the restriction intended to achieve.

The gap between legality and legitimacy in Bolivia: visualising a process-tracing analysis

Bonifaz, Gustavo
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Conference or Workshop Item; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/05/2014 Português
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Since the year 2000 Bolivia has experienced a period of deep political instability. This period has been characterized by presidential crises in which popular mobilization has forced elected governments to resign their mandates, massive social protests, unrest and warlike confrontations between civilians and a sustained loss of legitimacy or representative institutions – parliament and political parties. Furthermore, as the crisis developed, the state itself began to be the subject of political contention - entering, thus, into a foundational legitimacy crisis. Finally, the crisis manifested itself in the opening of a gap between new sources of legitimacy (identity, regional and class oriented claims for a state re-foundation), and the constitutional structure in place of the country. The result was the call for a Constituent Assembly. This project aims to trace the process by which a gap between legality and legitimacy – understood as the cause of the crisis - was opened in Bolivia.

In states with more competitive elections, voters are more likely to know how their senators have represented them and to hold them accountable

Jones, Phil
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/11/2013 Português
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In recent months, much has been written about the level of political polarization in America, and the lack of political competition in many states. By surveying over 24,000 voters, Phil Jones gives further reason why political competition is important – states with greater political competition have greater levels of voter knowledge of, and responsiveness to, congressional representation. He also finds that unrepresented voters will only tend to desert the incumbent in competitive races, giving legislators in uncompetitive districts greater leeway to shirk from public opinion in making policy decisions.

The rise and fall of the hybrid regime: guardianship and democracy in Iran and Turkey

Akkoyunlu, Feyzi Karabekir
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2014 Português
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This research project has two interconnected goals. First, it attempts to unpack and redefine ‘hybrid regimes’ – a concept that has emerged from the ‘third wave’ democratisation literature in the late 1990s and shares with this literature its underlying cultural, ideological and teleological assumptions. I start with a critique of these dominant assumptions and point to the need to rethink hybrid regimes outside of these parameters. I then propose a more limited and lucid definition for hybrid regimes as political systems built on two contesting sources of legitimacy – elitist and popular – and corresponding institutions of guardianship and democracy. Hybrid regimes, in other words, are not ‘diminished democracies’ or ‘competitive autocracies’, but an altogether separate regime type that feature clearly defined tutelary and electoral institutions. Based on this redefinition, I present five hypotheses regarding the dynamics of change in hybrid regimes, which are subsequently applied to the two case studies: the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Turkey. The second goal of the thesis is to present a new comparative framework to analyse the post-Cold War dynamics of change in the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Turkey...

Essays in political economy: elections, public finance and service delivery in South Africa

Kroth, Verena
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2014 Português
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Who gets what, when and how? Each of the three papers in this thesis makes a distinct contribution to answering this question in the context of the political economy of South Africa. The first paper examines how South Africa’s public financial management system distributes central government funds to its provinces. Using a unique panel dataset comprising all provinces and three elections over the period 1995-2010, I demonstrate that provinces where the national ruling party has higher vote margins receive higher per capita equitable shares in pre-election years. This result suggests that even in a dominant party framework, electoral competition can function as an incentive to implement political budget cycles. The second paper evaluates how the extension of the franchise affected the delivery of electricity to South African households. The dataset combines nightlight satellite imagery, census data and municipal election results, making it possible to exploit the heterogeneity in the share of newly enfranchised voters across nearly 800 municipalities with a difference-in-differences approach. The analysis demonstrates that enfranchisement has a significant positive effect on household electrification. Moreover, the findings show that political parties have a potential mediating role in accounting for service delivery patterns in new democracies. The third paper addresses the problem of measurement in studying public service delivery by examining a novel methodology for combining census-based data with satellite imagery of the world at night. Using cross-national data and South African census data...