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Gramsci e Pareto : itinerários de ciência política; Gramsci and Pareto : itineraries of political science

Luciana Aparecida Aliaga Azara de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/02/2013 Português
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Embora o fenômeno das minorias dirigentes tenha sido tratado por diferentes autores, foi na Itália em finais do séc. XIX, por meio de Gaetano Mosca (1858-1941) e Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923), que encontrou sistematização suficiente para alcançar status de teoria política. Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937), nos Quaderni del Carcere estabelece importante diálogo com a teoria das elites, externando confluências e distanciamentos. Em comum com os autores elitistas possui a tradição maquiaveliana dos estudos políticos, isto é, o realismo maquiaveliano, que é responsável por algumas extraordinárias continuidades temáticas e afinidades nas formulações gerais de conceitos políticos entre estes autores. Contudo, existe uma discussão subjacente à teoria das elites, que, apesar de ser menos aparente, nem por isso é menos importante - o debate acerca da possibilidade de formulação de uma ciência das realidades políticas. Por meio deste debate o realismo maquiaveliano adquire diferentes feições. Pareto reivindica uma ciência livre de ideais fictícios, calcada na observação empírica e histórica, o que o leva a compreender a divisão entre governantes e governados como uma realidade imutável, correspondente às divisões do gênero humano. Gramsci...

Interpreting Moslem political behavior : an analytical framework and a comparative case study of the leadership styles of Kemal Ataturk and Anwar El-Sadat

Rehman, Ahmed Anisur
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. ([1], 399 [i.e. 398]); 23894236 bytes; 23893987 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Ahmed Anisur Rehman.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1985.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND DEWEY.; Includes bibliographical references.

The politics of the welfare state in Japan : political leadership in the policy processes for social services, health care and public pensions

Anderson, Stephen John
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (365 leaves); 24246165 bytes; 24245924 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Stephen John Anderson.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1987.; Bibliography: leaves 345-354.

Industrial strategy and political culture : elitism and bureaucracy in Israeli industry

Tamir, Boaz A. (Boaz Arnon)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (342 leaves); 24650153 bytes; 24649913 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Boaz A. Tamir.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1987.; Bibliography: leaves 336-342.

The political economy of industrial adaptation in Silicon Valley

Saxenian, AnnaLee
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (381 leaves); 30301844 bytes; 30301601 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by AnnaLee Saxenian.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1989.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 369-381).

The political universe of economic policy : rising peasantry, the state and food policy in India

Varshney, Ashutosh
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (ii, 359 leaves); 28078839 bytes; 28078599 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Ashutosh Varshney.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1990.; Includes bibliographical references.

Catalysts of conflict : how refugee crises lead to the spread of civil war

Lischer, Sarah Kenyon
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 364 p.; 30450345 bytes; 30450103 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The spread of civil war due to refugee crises has occurred repeatedly throughout history. In some refugee crises, the sending state pursues the refugees, subjecting them to military attack. In other cases, militant exiles use the refugee camps as rear bases in their attacks on the sending state. As the cross-border attacks escalate, the risk of international war grows. The refugee crisis spawned by the 1994 genocide in Rwanda provides the most extreme example of this phenomenon. The militant actions of the Rwandan Hutu refugees in Zaire eventually sparked two international wars that led to further massive population displacement in the region. The recurring pattern of violent refugee crises, prompts the following three questions: 1) How widespread is the phenomenon of political violence involving refugees? 2) Under what conditions do refugee crises cause a civil war to spread across borders? 3) What role can international actors, such as the United Nations or the United States government, play in preventing the spread of violence? To answer the above questions, this dissertation presents new time series data on refugee-related political violence and also systematically compares violent and non-violent crises involving Rwandan, Bosnian...

Pesquisa e produção de conhecimento sobre a América Latina na ciência política brasileira; Research and knowledge production on Latin America in the brazilian political science

Damasceno, João Pedro Tavares
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência Politica (FCS); Faculdade de Ciências Sociais - FCS (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência Politica (FCS); Faculdade de Ciências Sociais - FCS (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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The Brazilian Political Science has been studying a range of topics regarding Brazil itself or its states. Researches of Latin American approach still seem to be incipient. This work aims to discuss about the studies with reference to Latin America in Brazilian Political Science, i.e., the scientific production of who works with this subject regarding several topics involving Latin America, one or more countries of this zone, unless Brazil is not the only point of research. This exception means that a Brazilian case study realized by a professional of national Political Science cannot be part of what is produced in Brazil about Latin America, unless another point of observation is added to it. The database comes from CAPES, CNPq and some journals. Considering it, it is possible to understand that there was progress in scientific production about Latin America in the Brazilian Political Science, however this still is not enough for a country that aims to deepen its inclusion in the zone. One possible explanation is the methodological problems that national Political Science faces towards the use of tools that allows comprising a bigger number of case studies including other Latin Americans countries, besides Brazil.; A Ciência Política brasileira tem estudado uma série de temas com foco no próprio país ou nas suas unidades subnacionais. As pesquisas de abrangência latino-americana ainda parecem ser incipientes. Este trabalho trata do campo de estudos sobre a América Latina na Ciência Política brasileira...

A pox on perestroika, a hex on hegemony: toward a critical political science [January 2003]

Dryzek, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 69964 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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While the Perestroika reform movement that began in 2000 has shaken US political science, the paucity of productive methodological argument means that the dispute becomes political rather than intellectual. The discipline, like James Bond’s vodka martini, has been shaken but not stirred. The movement may change the balance of power within the profession, but otherwise leave the practice of political science unchanged. This paper is intended to help move methodological debate, with “methodology” taken in its broad sense of reflection upon the conduct of inquiry (so it also covers epistemology). The existing – now faltering – hegemony (identified with rational choice theory and quantitative methods) may be indefensible, but Perestroika may portend only an empty pluralism in its place. I discuss a critical disciplinary pluralism as a way of making the best of existing political science practice – and redeeming Perestroika’s promise. Space limitations preclude full documentation of the impoverished state of the methodological debate, though a flavor can be gained by a look at a symposium of disciplinary stars organized to address the issues raised in the Perestroikan critique, published in the June 2002 issue of PS: Political Science and Politics under the title of “Shaking Things Up? Thoughts About the Future of Political Science.” One common theme that emerges from the symposium is the degree to which the contributors point to their own work as a model. Asked to reflect upon the shape of the discipline...

Human well-being and the lost relevance of political science

ROTHSTEIN, Bo
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Outros Formato: application/pdf; digital
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Recently, a public debate has started questioning the relevance of political science. In the United States, public funding for political science research is under attack in the Congress and major newspapers have carried articles about this issue. In this talk, this problem is discussed from a standpoint arguing that most human misery in today’s world, by standard measures of human wellbeing, is caused by the fact that a majority of the world’s population lives under dysfunctional political institutions. It is argued that this is an issue that is ignored in most political science research. This analysis concludes by listing seven reasons (or sins) why political science does not realize the discipline’s potential for being relevant for human well-being.; The lecture was delivered on Wednesday 16 April 2014 at the Badia Fiesolana

On economic bicameralism

Ferreras, Isabelle, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 104 leaves; 5226359 bytes; 5238660 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) for both economic profitability and democratic justice, is explored after the roots of the idea of economic bicameralism in socio-economic history and existing socio-economic institutions (such as Works Councils) are reviewed. Economic bicameralism is thus an original form of governance of the firm with regards to both its philosophy and its institutions. It is founded on the recognition that two quests take place within the context of the firm, each of which is pursued primarily by one of the firm's two major agents, capital and labor. In the structure of economic bicameralism, two chambers, one representing each group of agents, govern the firm jointly. The Chamber of Capital assembles the investors in capital, who value an instrumental rationality while seeking profit as their foremost objective; and the Chamber of Labor assembles the investors in person, who display a political rationality and are best understood as seeking democratic justice as their primary goal. While investors in capital remain the sole legal shareholders of the bicameral firm, the governance of the firm is managed by these two chambers, which occupy an equal footing and are consequently bound to cooperate in order to allow the firm to function efficiently. The collaboration hence induced between investors in capital and investors in labor enables the firm to effectively respect the aspiration towards democratic justice that infuses the work experience with the objective of economic profitability that motivates first the investors in capital.; This study contributes to normative democratic theory by exploring the relevance of the democratic ideal within the context of the capitalist economic system. It reviews the five traditional arguments for economic democracy before advancing a sixth...

Women in politics : a cross-national demand and supply analysis

Prasad, Bela
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 157, [1] leaves; 13092110 bytes; 13091867 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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It is striking that the sharp increase in the number of countries moving towards self-governance and democracy has not been accompanied by more equal political representation of women. What is equally puzzling is the contrast in the share of women in positions of political authority observed between countries, with many developed nations having fewer women legislators than a number of lesser-developed countries. Why are there so few women in most parliaments and why is there such variation across countries? To understand gender-based inequality in political authority, we look at the various stages of candidacy and identify potential bottlenecks to women participation and election into public office. There are three stages which one must pass through successfully to become a legislator. The first is becoming eligible and a part of the pool from which politicians are drawn, then being selected as a candidate and finally being elected to office. Potential barriers to entry for women in the legislative process may exist at any or all of these three stages. Each of these candidacy stages is discussed through a cross-national analysis and a case study of India. The cross-national data is for 175 countries at three points in time: 1975, 1985 and 1995. The Indian case study looks at women in parliament from the first general elections in 1951-1952 and focuses most on the 1996 parliamentary data. We argue that the key factor limiting the recruitment of women into politics is women's sparse representation in the pool from which politicians are recruited. Just as in thecase of men...

The subnational politics of structured adjustment in Argentina : the case of San Luis

Guiñazú, María Clelia
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 220 leaves; 12624492 bytes; 12624295 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The launching of liberal economic reforms in emerging democratic societies during the 1980s and 1990s arouse widespread scholarly interest. The Argentine policy shift to structural adjustment under President Carlos Menem (1989-1995 and 1995-1999) was largely regarded by the literature as a successful example of radical market-oriented reforms. Despite major policy achievements, crisis and socio-political conflict in the provincial arena pervaded the Argentine road to structural adjustment. After the mid-1990s, it was clear that the political and fiscal situation of the provinces was one of the weakest spots the Argentine unconstrained model of liberal economic reforms. In a federal country characterized by dramatic regional asymmetries, the reversal of past equalizing polices had significant political and economic effects. Although subnational responses to structural adjustment varied, successful provincial performers were the exception rather than the rule. San Luis, an intermediate development province traditionally dependent on national revenue transfers appeared to be one of the most successful cases of policy adaptation to market-oriented reforms. Not only did San Luis perform quite successfully in the hostile environment of structural adjustment but the province represents an almost unique case of enduring late state-led industrialization and state building in a situation characterized by the decreasing capacity of the provincial administrations to efficiently manage the implementation of belt-tightening economic reforms. This thesis is about an unexpected subnational outcome:; (cont.) successful adaptation to structural adjustment associated with a one-party dominant provincial state and state-led development policies in a peripheral Argentine province. The research explains San Luis' peculiar road to structural adjustment and explores...

Creative cleavages : distributive politics and electoral alignment

Kim, Jiyoon, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 174 p.; 7830539 bytes; 7837846 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Distributive politics plays an important role for political elites for their electoral goal. Since the resources that politicians can distribute are limited, they have to decide how to distribute them in order to maximize their utility. And region becomes one of the most important yardsticks. Politicians first distribute public goods where they are supported. Economically rational voters react to what they receive and cast votes for those who have brought most benefits to them. This establishes the relationship between politicians and voters in a region, and solidifies regional voting behavior further. Therefore, regional voting is the product of politician's strategic distributive politics and rational voters' behavior. Regionalism does not only arise from economic or social cleavages that we are able to observe, but they are also intentionally cultivated. There are numerous possible reasons why regionalism started in the first place. It could have been from ethnic cleavages, unequal economic development or historical and political events that occurred in the past. However, whether or not to breed regionalism is determined by how regionalism works for the political purpose.; (cont.) As in the case of Korea, regionalism has been the best political tool for political parties to decide where to focus for their electoral success. It has been used for the efficient redistribution and deepened the regional cleavage in Korea as a result. Therefore...

The Impact of Feminist Scholarship on Australian Political Science

Sawer, Marian
Fonte: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The discipline of political science has remained male dominated in most parts of the world. Women have organised within political science associations both to raise the status of women in the profession and to try to transform the discipline. This article is a personal account of the 25-year history of the Women's Caucus of the Australasian Political Studies Association and its successes and failures. While the status of women in the profession has improved and the journal has become more gender inclusive, the impact of feminist scholarship on political science curriculum remains patchy. Space has been made for gender scholarship and a chapter added to textbooks and disciplinary histories, but the approach is additive rather than transformative. One contributing factor may be increased fragmentation of the discipline.

How relevant is UK political science? A riposte to Matthew Flinders and Peter Riddell

John, Peter
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/04/2012 Português
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Criticisms of academics, particularly of political scientists, have dominated recent academic and media debates amid claims that the professionalization of the discipline has led to the subject becoming detached from public life. However, Peter John challenges the notion of a long-lost golden era and argues that in fact engagement is improving and has benefited from new digital tools.

Book review: models as maps: the search for better explanations of political phenomena

Lauderdale, Benjamin E.
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/06/2012 Português
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A Model Discipline continues the long-running debate on the role of formal, mathematical models in political science and whether purely theoretical work should be published in top journals. Benjamin Lauderdale finds the larger points in the book compelling despite disagreeing with its arguments on what should actually be demanded of theoretical models.

How relevant is UK political science? A riposte to Matthew Flinders and Peter Riddell

John, Peter
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/04/2012 Português
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Criticisms of academics, particularly of political scientists, have dominated recent academic and media debates amid claims that the professionalization of the discipline has led to the subject becoming detached from public life. However, Peter John challenges the notion of a long-lost golden era and argues that in fact engagement is improving and has benefited from new digital tools.

The London School of Economics and Political Science 2013/2014 RCUK open access compliance report

Cornée, Nathalie; Madjarevic, Natalia
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science, Library Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science, Library
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf; application/vnd.ms-excel
Publicado em /09/2014 Português
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In September 2014, the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) reported to Research Councils UK on the School’s compliance with the recently introduced RCUK Policy on Open Access (OA). This reports provides detail around the article processing charges (APC) data and RCUK Call for Evidence report. Background In April 2013, the revised RCUK Policy on Open Access came into effect. The policy requires journal articles or conference proceedings arising from research funded wholly or partially by a RCUK grant should be made freely available online (or “Open Access”). There are two main routes to make papers open access: a) the Green route, which is the LSE preferred route, when the full text of papers are deposited into an institutional repository such as LSE Research Online. To select this route, embargo periods must be no longer than the 12 months permitted by RCUK (no charge applies); b) the Gold route, which provides immediate, unrestricted access to the final version of the paper via the publisher's website, often using a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence - it may involve payment of an APC to the publisher. In 2013, we received the RCUK OA block grant for 2013/14 of £62,862. We set up the LSE Institutional Publication Fund using this grant and this was managed by the Library...

The politics of Piketty: what political science can learn from, and contribute to, the debate on Capital in the Twenty-First Century

Hopkin, Jonathan
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Thomas Piketty's imposing volume has brought serious economics firmly into the mainstream of public debate on inequality, yet political science has been mostly absent from this debate. This article argues that political science has an essential contribution to make to this debate, and that Piketty's important and powerful book lacks a clear political theory. It develops this argument by first assessing and critiquing the changing nature of political science and its account of contemporary capitalism, and then suggesting how Piketty's thesis can be complemented, extended and challenged by focusing on the ways in which politics and collective action shape the economy and the distribution of income and wealth. Although Capital's principal message is that ‘capital is back’ and that without political interventions active political interventions will continue to grow, a political economy perspective would suggest another rather more fundamental critique: the very economic forces Piketty describes are embedded in institutional arrangements which can only be properly understood as political phenomena. In a sense capital itself – the central concept of the book – is almost meaningless without proper consideration of its political foundations. Even if the fact of capital accumulation may respond to an economic logic...