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The social contract for science : Congress, the National Institutes of Health, and the boundary between politics and science

Guston, David H
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 394 p.; 34280553 bytes; 34280309 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by David H. Guston.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1993.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 369-394).

The local origins of United States national science policy

Genuth, Joel
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 422 p.; 40961766 bytes; 40961522 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Joel Genuth.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1996.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 390-422).

Sense and credibility : the role of science in environmental policymaking

Layzer, Judith A
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 605 p.; 44914071 bytes; 44913827 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Judith Amanda Layzer.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1999.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 561-605).

Experimental Methods in Economics and Political Science: The Design and Testing of Policy Options

Plott, Charles R.
Fonte: Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network Publicador: Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1994 Português
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[Introduction] Designer markets are becoming a reality: theoretical developments in economics and political science are now being combined with advances in laboratory technology to produce new uses of basic science and a new approach to policy. In essence the approach is similar to that of engineering, in which scientific principles and practical knowledge from laboratory experiments arc used to design systems or devices to perform a specific function. The new research efforts can be understood as involving a design methodology in the truest sense of the word. Policy issues are first cast as problems of decision process design and the architectures of decision mechanisms are then built on basic research foundations. Refinements and adjustments to institutions, organizations and procedures - which provide strength and desirability to a policy process - are then added as a result of the practical experience provided by laboratory experimentation and testing. The practical experience and testing are achieved by involving real people in controlled exercises that carefully replicate the constraints, the freedom for individual initiative, and the potential rewards of the process under test.

Digital literacies: tracing the implications for learners and learning

Livingstone, Sonia
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Conference or Workshop Item; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 Português
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This is a report on the third of our series of seminars, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council, to examine ‘The educational and social impact of new technologies on young people in Britain’. Its purpose is to bring together academics, policy makers and practitioners from many different backgrounds in order to consider the contexts and consequences of use of new information and communication technologies for children and young people, with a particular focus on the implications of technological change of formal and informal education. The first seminar scoped key theoretical frameworks, focusing on questions of age and development, on social approaches to technological change, and to diverse notions of learning. The report, titled ‘Theorising the benefits of new technology for youth: Controversies of learning and development’, can be freely downloaded from http://www.education.ox.ac.uk/ esrcseries/home/index.php. Seminar 2 concerned questions of space: we were interested in learning environments, seeking to understand how changing spatio-technical arrangements are affecting the learning environment in the classroom, school, home and community. The report, titled ‘Changing spaces: Young people...

Beck, Asia and second modernity

Calhoun, Craig
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2010 Português
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The work of Ulrich Beck has been important in bringing sociological attention to the ways issues of risk are embedded in contemporary globalization, in developing a theory of ‘reflexive modernization’, and in calling for social science to transcend ‘methodological nationalism’. In recent studies, he and his colleagues help to correct for the Western bias of many accounts of cosmopolitanism and reflexive modernization, and seek to distinguish normative goals from empirical analysis. In this paper I argue that further clarification of this latter distinction is needed but hard to reach within a framework that still embeds the normative account in the idea that empirical change has a clear direction. Similar issues beset the presentation of diverse patterns in recent history as all variants of ‘second modernity’. Lastly, I note that ironically, given the declared ‘methodological cosmopolitanism’ of the authors, the empirical studies here all focus on national cases.

Between knotweed and the deep blue sky: exploring the debate about the value of science

Nerlich, Brigitte
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/06/2012 Português
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Is investment in blue-sky research only a good idea because it may lead to marketable discoveries? Brigitte Nerlich thinks not and warns that a stronger semantic link needs to be established between blue-sky research and non-instrumental research; one that cannot be gnawed through by those engaged in an academic rat-race.

How systematic surveys can help cities to better understand community perceptions of police accountability

Angelis, Joseph De
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/10/2015 Português
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While there is considerable social science research demonstrating that minorities such as African, Latino, and Hispanic Americans are less likely to express trust and confidence in police than whites, there is far less evidence concerning community confidence in police oversight. Using a large community survey from a Western city as a case study, Joseph De Angelis argues that such surveys can help local policy makers to proactively identify community concerns about policing before high profile events – such as police shootings – occur, and to help build a case for organizational reform.

Book review: the tyranny of utility: behavioral social science and the rise of paternalism

Vaganay, Arnaud
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/11/2011 Português
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Arnaud Vaganay finds a courageous and original contribution to the field of behavioural economics in The Tyranny of Utility, but is not convinced by the author’s call for value-based policies in the context of the current debt crisis.

The L’Aquila earthquake case is not “science on trial”: it is a challenge to the way public officials communicate risk

Etienne, Julien; Palermo, Tommaso
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/11/2012 Português
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Last week six scientists and a former government official were sentenced to imprisonment for their reassurances about safety prior to the 2009 earthquake in L’Aquila which killed over 300 people. While many commentators have expressed deep concern that this is a case of ‘science on trial’, Julien Etienne and Tommaso Palermo contend that the trial is one of public communication. They argue that in countries such as Italy, officials have sometimes downplayed natural or technological risks to reassure the public, at little cost to themselves if they happened to be wrong. The L’Aquila trial and verdict may be a sign that this is now changing.

Book review: Seeds, science, and struggle: the global politics of transgenic crops

Krupa, Joel
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/04/2013 Português
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In this study of social protest against genetically engineered food, Abby Kinchy takes a close look at the scientization of public debate about the “contamination” of crops resulting from pollen drift and seed mixing. Kinchy focuses on social conflicts over canola in Canada and maize in Mexico, drawing out their linkages to the global food system and international environmental governance. Kinchy’s book is a valuable contribution, and should be required reading for those interested in further examining the overlap of social justice and genetic engineering, writes Joel Krupa.

Tactical voting will still occur under the alternative vote, but much less so than under first past the post

Hortala-Vallve, Rafael
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/10/2010 Português
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Exactly what will change if the UK adopts the Alternative Vote (AV) system in next May’s referendum? Reformers argue that AV removes any need for large numbers of voters to choose to vote tactically, rather than supporting their top preference party. But social science theory insists that tactical voting can occur under all voting systems, although showing up in different ways. Rafael Hortala-Vallve makes clear that AV will probably cut the incidence of tactical voting, but cannot get rid of it altogether.

A cooperative social science is needed to respond to the politics, policies, and problems facing global cities

Goldsmith, Mike
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/03/2013 Português
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There is a great need to understand the role of urbanisation in society and respond effectively, particularly given global economic and social insecurity, argues Mike Goldsmith. But the increasing specialisation within disciplines means that such vital dialogues on cities are becoming difficult. An interdisciplinary effort is needed to bring the study of cities, their politics, policies and problems back into the mainstream of social science and to do it on a genuinely comparative basis.

The political economy of government responsiveness: theory and evidence from India

Besley, Timothy; Burgess, Robin
Fonte: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2000 Português
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The determinants of government responsiveness to its citizens is a key issue in political economy. Here we develop a model based on the solution of political agency problems. Having a more informed an politically active electorate strengthens incentives for governments to be responsive. This suggests that there is a role both for democratic institutions and the mass media in ensuring that the preferences of citizens are reflected in policy. The ideas behind the model are tested on panel data from India. We show that public food distribution and calamity relief expenditure are greater, controlling for shocks, where governments face greater electoral accountability and where newspaper circulation is highest.

The territorial dimension of the Russian innovation paradox

Jaax, Alexander
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Conference or Workshop Item; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/05/2014 Português
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This poster expresses central ideas of the paper ‘The Territorial Dimension of The Russian Innovation Paradox’. The post stamp in the upper right hand corner symbolizes the Soviet Union’s relative strength in science. In the lower left hand corner, the oil pump behind the Russian flag refers to Russia’s dependence on natural resources. The map of Russia takes centre stage. It emphasizes the country’s territorial size, in line with the paper’s message that geography as a factor influencing Russia’s innovative performance should not be overlooked. The partially overlapping red rings represent ‘knowledge spillovers’: In the paper we examine to what extent Russian regions benefit from neighbouring regions’ investments in research and development. The red rings – i.e. interregional knowledge flows – are thick near innovation hubs such as Moscow, but become thinner as you move away from innovation centres.

A return to Teddy Roosevelt’s progressive tradition would help us to tackle the challenge of global warming

Lytle, Mark
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/11/2013 Português
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Like many Presidents and politicians before him, Barack Obama has pledged to deal with climate change, but domestic opposition and divisions over sovereignty during international negotiations have made his commitment a shallow one. Mark Lytle looks back to President Theodore Roosevelt’s Progressive tradition of over a century ago, whereby an interventionist government, given authority by science, was able to regulate towards sustainability. He argues that, in the face of populist denial of climate change, a return to the Progressive tradition may be what is now needed to address the challenges of climate change.

Political theory and social practices: G.A. Cohen, Rawls, Habermas and the problem of self-grounding

Gledhill, James
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2010 Português
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In a time of transitions, post-Rawlsian political philosophy is itself in transition, engaged in a methodological dispute regarding the relationship between political theory and changing social practices. This thesis enters this dispute through engaging with John Rawls’s philosophical project and the two leading but contrasting critiques of Rawls’s constructivist methodology. I first seek to rescue constructivism from G.A. Cohen’s critique of its fact-dependence, but secondly argue with Jürgen Habermas for a shift from constructivism to reconstructivism. Part I establishes a theoretical framework. I analyse competing paradigms of the relationship between normative principles and social practices and situate them in relation to the problem of self-grounding. This is the methodological problem of how, in accordance with a conception of freedom as autonomy, philosophy can find normative foundations within existing social practices. While Cohen rejects this problem in arguing for a choice between realism and utopianism, Rawls’s realistic utopianism and Habermas’s utopian realism are both driven by the problem of self-grounding. Part II defends Rawls’s constructivism against Cohen’s criticism of its restricted focus on the basic structure of society and fact-dependence. Part III analyses and critiques the development of Rawls’s project. It analyses Rawls’s concern with the problem of stability and critiques from a Habermasian perspective the approach to the problem of self-grounding this represents. Part IV argues that post-Rawlsian deliberative democrats who have sought to combine ideas from Rawls and Habermas also fail to adequately address this methodological problem. Part V engages with Habermas on his own terms. I first analyse Habermas’s reconstruction of the tension between facticity and validity in morality and politics. On this basis...

Rethinking agency & responsibility in contemporary international political theory

Ainley, Kirsten
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2006 Português
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The core argument of this work is that the individualist conceptions of agency and responsibility inherent in the contemporary ethical structure of international relations are highly problematic, serve political purposes which are often unacknowledged, and have led to the establishment of an international institutional regime which is limited in the kind of justice it can bring to international affairs. Cosmopolitan liberalism has led to the privileging of the discourse of rights over that of responsibility, through its emphasis on legality and the role of the individual as the agent and subject of ethics; this has culminated in the establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC). The ICC, described by its supporters as the missing link in human rights enforcement, is a result of changing conceptions of agency and responsibility beyond borders – normative discourse has moved from state to individual, from politics and ethics to law, and from peace to justice, but I argue that it has not yet moved beyond the dichotomy of cosmopolitan and communitarian thinking. I contend that neither of these two positions can offer us a satisfactory way forward, so new thinking is required. The core of the thesis therefore explores alternative views of agency and responsibility – concepts which are central to international political theory...

The transition from war to peace: politics, political space and the peace process industry in Mozambique, 1992-1995

Ebata, Joanne Michi
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1999 Português
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The 'peace process' is a common expression in international politics. It describes and explains events in seemingly disparate locations as Northern Ireland, the Middle East, and Southern Africa, which share only the common occurrence of violent conflict. One outstanding feature of these peace processes is the active participation of international actors or external 'third parties'. Whether they are states, international organisations or nongovernmental organisations, these external actors comprise an industry focussed on the peace process. However, in providing assistance to countries making the transition from war to peace, as an industry these external third parties often reconfigure the political space of host societies in a manner which frustrates the intended goal of attaining peace. The following analysis focuses on the process of implementing a comprehensive peace settlement to show how the peace process industry operates, using the case of Mozambique. The Mozambican peace process was selected because it is generally presented as a success which justifies similar activities in future cases. Therefore it is crucial to examine whether the intervention was a success, what kind of success and a success for whom. As Mozambique was inundated with international actors engaged in all kinds of activities...

Relationships between institutional economics of cooperation and the political economy of trust

Vargas-Hernández,José G.
Fonte: Brazilian Political Science Review (Online) Publicador: Brazilian Political Science Review (Online)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
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The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationship between institutional economics of cooperation and the political economy of trust. Transactions costs, principal-agent theory, market power, increasing-returns theory and value creation, strategic management: competitive forces, resource-based theory, organisational knowledge and learning, strategic choice theory and collective efficiency theory are reviewed. Lastly, the political economy of trust is sustained.