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Science and technology in the British press - 1946 to 1986

Bauer, Martin W.; Schiele, B.; Amyot, M.; Benoit, C.
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Conference or Workshop Item; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/1994 Português
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Longitudinal content analyses of Science coverage in the media are expensive, laborious and therefore rare. None of the existing studies covers the entire post-war period. We are constructing a cultural indicator for Science in Post-War Britain. The newly established Media Monitor Archive at the Science Museum, London, will contain around 10'000 press articles on science news in daily newspapers. The collection is systematically drawn from a crosssection of the British national press between 1946 and 1986. Articles are coded on 70 variables. Variables refer to formal characteristics (e.g. size, illustrations, headline, citations, news section, and ratings on personalization or story tone) and to the structure of the news narrative: Who is the author? Who is the main agent? What is the event, and where (research involved, time horizon, locality)? What is the context? what are the consequences for whom? What is the moral of the story? These indices will allow us to create time-series data to characterize a) the cyclical nature of science coverage; b) the changing structure of science news stories; c) the differences between quality and popular newspapers in various aspects; d) the varied ways in which different areas of science and technology are covered. Initial results show the cyclical nature of science coverage and differences in that cycle between quality and popular newspapers over 40 years in British daily and national press.

Book review: Peer review, research integrity, and the governance of science: practice, theory, and current discussions

Laberge, Yves
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/06/2013 Português
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"Peer Review, Research Integrity, and the Governance of Science: Practice, Theory, and Current Discussions." Robert Frodeman, J. Britt Holbrook, Carl Mitcham, and Hong Xiaonan (Eds). People’s Publishing House and Dalian University of Technology. 2012. --- This book brings together leading academics from the United States, Europe, and China to discuss how peer review functions within Western society, and how Chinese institutions are developing their own models of peer review. Peer review today in the West is under considerable stress, with new demands being made on the process, leading to its restructuring and in some cases replacement as the means for governing science. At the same time, China is poised to take on a leading role in scientific and technical research. Yves Laberge finds that Peer Review, Research Integrity, and the Governance of Science is not only instructive, it will also delight scholars for its recognition of the everyday dynamics of academic life.

Book review: Remapping India: new states and their political origins by Louise Tillin

Godsmark, Oliver
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/01/2014 Português
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"Remapping India: New States and their Political Origins." Louise Tillin. C. Hurst & Co. October 2013. --- This book looks at the most recent episode of state creation in 2000, when the states of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Uttarakhand came into being in some of the poorest, yet resource-rich, regions of Hindi-speaking north and central India. Their creation represented a new turn in the history of the country’s territorial organisation. In this book Louis Tillin sets out to explain the politics that lay behind this episode of ‘post-linguistic’ state reorganisation and what it means for the future design of India’s federal system. Reviewed by Oliver Godsmark.

Political challenges of the macroprudential agenda

Chwieroth, Jeffrey; Danielsson, Jon
Fonte: Centre for Economic Policy Research, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Policy Research, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/09/2013 Português
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Central banks frequently lead the macroprudential policy implementation. The hope is that their credibility in conquering inflation might rub off on macroprudential policy. This column argues the opposite. The fuzziness of the macroprudential agenda and the interplay of political pressures may undermine monetary policy.

Fifty years after Martin Luther King’s speech, Obama’s gradual approach to political change still needs King’s visionary dream to play against

Kier, Ruth
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/09/2013 Português
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Last week saw the 50th anniversary of Martin Luther King’s ‘I have a dream’ speech, which was marked at an event by President Barack Obama. Rune Kier writes that while King’s speech was one which articulated abrupt and revolutionary change to achieve equality against an apparently stagnant establishment, Obama’s rhetoric is that of gradual, hard won, political change. Despite these differences, King’s speech is still the vision that Obama is striving for.

The practice of e-science and e-social science: method, theory, and matter

Scott, Susan V.; Venters, Will
Fonte: Information Systems Group, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Information Systems Group, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2006 Português
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Grid technologies are widely regarded as important innovations for drawing together distributed knowledge workers into virtual communities. After reviewing the developments in e-science, we examine the emergence of e-social science and its implications for information systems research practice. We consider what is new about this phenomenon and discuss the issues raised by this particular approach to the virtualization of research practices. Our analysis is organized into three sub-sections that focus on: developments in e-social science research methods; the theoretical issues involved in pursuing an e-social science agenda; as well as the status and nature of the research materials that it gives ruse to in information systems.

The Tories attacks on the human rights act are nothing more than political noise-making

Gearty, Conor
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/10/2011 Português
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This week at the Conservative Party conference, the Home Secretary Theresa May attacked the Human Rights Act, calling for it to be scrapped. Conor Gearty argues that this move is a nakedly political tactic, and provides seven reasons why the discussion about the apparent failings of the Human Rights Act is a false one.

Executive orders are not a viable route around political gridlock

Chiou, Fang-Yi; Rothenberg, Lawrence S.
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/02/2014 Português
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In his recent State of the Union address, President Obama told Congress that if they continued to obstruct rather than act, he would move forward wherever he could without them. One avenue for such initiatives could be the increased use of executive orders; however, it is unclear if the president can actually wield true power in this way. Using data on executive orders from 1947-2003, Fang-Yi Chiou and Lawrence S. Rothenberg examine whether and how the president’s supposedly independent actions are constrained by outside forces. They conclude the president cannot achieve true additional power through unilateral action and executive orders are unlikely to provide a means to work around a gridlocked political process.

Political betting markets, like the now defunct Intrade, can provide important insights into campaigns

Grossman, Richard S.
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/11/2014 Português
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In this year’s midterm elections, those interested in campaigns had a seemingly vast array of polls and predictions to choose from. Richard S. Grossman argues that political betting markets can also have a role to play in providing information about election campaigns. Using the now closed Intrade.com prediction market as an example, he argues that such markets can provide important summaries that apply financial market mechanisms to politics for those interested in campaigns.

Biases in inferences about representatives’ motives may reinforce political acrimony

Doherty, David
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/01/2015 Português
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American politics is characterized by a high degree of partisan rancor, with seemingly little common ground between Democrats and Republicans at the state or national level. But why is compromise now so difficult to achieve? In new research which examines how people perceive politicians’ motives, David Doherty finds that factors such whether or not they agree with a representative’s position or their party affiliation can have a large influence. He writes that if people’s perceptions lead them to conclude that politicians are acting in bad faith, despite them agreeing on policy positions, then this will make political compromises even more difficult.

Book review: democracy, social resources and political power in the European Union

Houghton, Ruth
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/10/2013 Português
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In this book Niilo Kauppi develops a structural constructivist theory of the European Union and through French and Finnish empirical cases critically analyses the political practices that maintain the Union’s ‘democratic deficit’. Ruth Houghton recommends the work to those working with EU data, policy challenges, and studies of democracy.

Book review: muslim zion: Pakistan as a political idea

Mcdonagh, Luke T.
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/11/2013 Português
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Muslim Zion seeks to cut to the core of the geopolitical paradoxes entangling Pakistan to argue that it has never been a nation state in the conventional sense. It is instead a distinct type of political geography, ungrounded in the historic connections of lands and peoples, whose context is provided by the settler states of the New World but whose closest ideological parallel is the state of Israel. Luke McDonagh writes that Devji both challenges and provokes the reader, but always in the most measured, humanistic fashion, providing the reader with much food for thought.

Beppe Grillo’s success is not a rejection of austerity, but a protest against the corruption and inefficiency of the Italian political system

Simoni, Marco
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/03/2013 Português
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The success of Beppe Grillo’s ‘5 Stars Movement’ in Italy’s elections on the 24-25 February has been regarded by some commentators as a rejection of austerity by the Italian electorate. Marco Simoni argues that rather than rejecting austerity, Italian voters were primarily protesting against decades of economic stagnation, and a political system which is prone to corruption and clientelism. He concludes that unless mainstream politics can reorganise around a credible reform agenda, populist movements will continue to play a key role in the country.

Governors who refuse to expand Medicaid are doing so for political reasons, despite the needs of their state’s citizenry

Barrilleaux, Charles; Rainey, Carlisle
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/03/2015 Português
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One of the key provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or ‘Obamacare’ was the expansion of Medicaid program across the states. The Supreme Court struck down the requirement for states to expand the program in 2012, and 20 states have since opted out. In new research, Charles Barrilleaux and Carlisle Rainey look at why state government have opted out of the Medicaid expansion. They find that political variables, such as Obama’s 2012 vote share and the governor’s partisanship are the best predictors of opposition to Medicaid expansion, rather than measures of need, such as life expectancy or the number of people that are uninsured.

Political satire makes young people more likely to participate in politics: Trevor Noah’s The Daily Show is likely to continue that trend

Becker, Amy Bree
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/04/2015 Português
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This week saw the announcement that comedian Trevor Noah will succeed Jon Stewart as host of Comedy Central’s The Daily Show, a program which increases the likelihood that young people who watch will participate in politics, according to research by Amy Bree Becker. She writes that such programs can have a real impact on voters’ attitudes and that Noah’s arrival occurs at a time when political comedy is benefiting from a new wave of talent, such as John Oliver of Last Week Tonight, which is likely to further increase the influence of the genre.

Online political discussions tend to be less civil when the participants are anonymous

Rowe, Ian
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/09/2013 Português
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Despite the internet’s unlimited potential in informing, engaging, and empowering citizens, it is all too often used as a forum for foul-tempered arguments behind a veil of anonymity, with obvious repercussions for our democracy. Drawing on a study of the content of comments left by readers of the Washington Post online, Ian Rowe argues that it is anonymity that is often to blame, and that the more accountable model used by Facebook holds hope for a more civil online political discourse.

Book review: Who’s asking? Native science, western science and science education by Douglas L. Medin and Megan Bang

Jarvis, Rebecca
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/06/2014 Português
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With ‘Respecting Indigenous and Traditional Knowledge and Culture’ announced as one of the key topics at the upcoming IUCN World Parks Conference, there is no better time to pick up a copy of "Who’s Asking?" by Douglas L. Medin and Megan Bang. The authors challenge stereotypes of science and culture, and demonstrate how community-based education programmes can enhance indigenous engagement and participation in science. The book examines how the answers to scientific questions depend on who’s asking, and argues that a greater diversity of scientists asking the questions will lead to better science for everyone. This thought-provoking book is highly recommended for anyone interested in knowledge, science, and scientific decision-making, writes Rebecca Jarvis.

Local political institutions and electoral context influence levels of campaign spending in mayoral elections

Weinschenk, Aaron C.
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/12/2013 Português
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Campaign spending is a perennial concern in both national and local elections, especially since the 2010 Citizens United Supreme Court ruling. Proponents argue that more spending increases interest in elections, while detractors claim that it creates biases in representation and public policy. Using an original dataset, Aaron C. Weinschenk examines campaign spending levels in mayoral elections, finding that the electoral context and local political institutions play the most important role in shaping levels of campaign spending across city elections. From these results, he identifies several ways to reduce campaign spending in mayoral elections, but notes that these changes may have unintended consequences. If levels of campaign spending decline due to institutional changes, cities elections, which often suffer from low voter turnout rates, might experience even lower levels of turnout.

The Iraqi Constitution: structural flaws and political implications

Jawad, Saad
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2013 Português
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Ten years after the US invasion, and following three rounds of elections, Iraq is one of the most dangerous, unstable and corrupt countries in the world. It is clear that the ill-conceived US experiment to remake Iraq has failed. The deep structural, legal and political failings of the Iraqi Constitution, for which both US officials and Iraqi politicians bear responsibility, have contributed greatly to this failure. In 2005, Iraqis approved the Constitution in a referendum, but they voted on an incomplete and badly written draft, not realising that the document would deepen Iraq’s misery. The hasty way the Constitution was drafted, the many unhelpful external interventions, the absence of Iraqi constitutional expertise and the side-lining of Sunni Arab representation have all contributed to the precarious situation in Iraq in the subsequent eight years. Considering the myriad confusions and divisions underlying the Constitution’s drafting process, it is not surprising that the document has created more problems than it has solved. The Constitution’s vagueness and ambiguity has hindered its application. The excessive concessions granted to the Kurds on the issues of federal government, natural resources and Kirkuk (and their subsequent refusal to renegotiate) have been a major factor in maintaining the chaotic situation that pervades most of Iraq.

The governance of the rule of law: an investigation into the relationship between the political theories, the legal system, and the social background in competitive society

Neumann, Franz
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1936 Português
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The thesis endeavours to show the interdependence of political theories, the social sub-structure, and the formal structure of the legal system in competitive society.