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Under the Influence? Intellectual Exchange in Political Science

Spirling, Arthur P; Carter, David
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We study the performance of political science journals in terms of their contribution to intellectual exchange in the discipline. Relying on the interplay of citation patterns, our method is simple, cheap, objective and captures the influence of journals in a meaningful way. We find that the American Political Science Review , World Politics and International Organization lead the field. In contrast to previous sub jective studies, we also find that economics is a key influence on political science, much more so than sociology.; Government

Collective Action, Political Parties and Pro-Development Public Policy

Keefer, Philip
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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Broad consensus exists that the ability of political actors to make credible commitments is key to development. An important and little-explored determinant of the credibility of political commitments is the existence of organizations that facilitate citizen collective action to sanction political actors who renege. This paper focuses on one essential organization, the political party. Three measures of political parties are used to assess cross-country differences in the degree to which politicians facilitate the ability of citizens to act in their collective interest. Each of these measures is associated with superior development outcomes, above and beyond the effects of competitive elections. These results have implications for understanding the extraordinary economic success of some East Asian countries and notable lags among others: East Asian non-democracies exhibit more institutionalized ruling parties than other non-democracies, while East Asian democracies exhibit equally or less institutionalized parties. The evidence suggests that greater research and policy emphasis be placed on the organizational characteristics of countries that allow citizens to hold leaders accountable.

The Politics of Power : The Political Economy of Rent-Seeking in Electric Utilities in the Philippines

Hasnain, Zahid; Matsuda, Yasuhiko
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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This paper takes advantage of unique intra-country variation in the Philippines power sector to examine under what conditions politicians have an incentive to "capture" an electric utility and use it for the purposes of rent-seeking. The authors hypothesize that the level of capture is determined by the incentives of, and the interactions between, local and national politicians, where the concepts of "local" and "national" are context specific. A local politician is defined as one whose electoral jurisdiction lies within the utility s catchment area; by contrast, a national politician is defined as one whose electoral jurisdiction includes two or more utility catchment areas. These jurisdictional differences imply different motivations for local and national politicians: because of "spillover" effects, local politicians have a greater incentive to use the utility for rent-seeking than a national politician as they capture only a portion of the political gains from utility performance improvements as some of the benefits of improved service will go to other electoral jurisdictions within the utility s catchment area. The authors posit that three variables impact the magnitude of these incentives of local and national politicians: (i) the local economic context...

Political Reforms and Public Policy : Evidence from Agricultural and Food Policies

Olper, Alessandro; Fałkowski, Jan; Swinnenm, Johan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This paper studies the effect of political regime transitions on public policy using a new data set on global agricultural and food policies over a 50-year period (including data from 74 developing and developed countries over the 1955 2005 period). The authors find evidence that democratization leads to a reduction of agricultural taxation, an increase in agricultural subsidization, or both. The empirical findings are consistent with the predictions of the median voter model because political transitions occurred primarily in countries with a majority of farmers. The results are robust to different specifications, estimation approaches, and variable definitions.

Political Economy Analysis for Food and Nutrition Security

Reich, Michael R.; Balarajan, Yarlini
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The overall goal of this paper is to promote the use of political economy analysis in advancing more effective food and nutrition policies. The paper reviews the field of applied political economy for the food and nutrition sector, and offers practical guidance on how to conduct political economy analysis to better navigate the policy reform process. The paper is presented in three parts. Part I reviews the literature on political economy analysis (PEA) and its application in the food and nutrition fields, focusing on the applied literature in development. Three kinds of PEA are discussed: In-depth, Stakeholder, and Rapid Assessment PEA, which serve different purposes. The paper then introduces a structured qualitative method for conducting an in-depth PEA, based on four stages of the policy cycle: agenda-setting, policy design, policy adoption, and implementation. Part II provides an illustrative case study of an in-depth PEA for a specific food and nutritionrelated policy of India, the Integrated Child Development Services scheme. The analysis explains how the agenda was set and its consequences. Part III presents a newly developed tool to conduct a rapid assessment PEA for food and nutrition policy. This tool uses a questionnaire approach to evaluate the level of political commitment for food and nutrition security and opportunities for change...

Political Budget Cycles and the Organization of Political Parties

Hanusch, Marek; Keefer, Philip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This paper introduces a new explanation for political budget cycles: politicians have stronger incentives to increase spending around elections in the presence of younger political parties. Previous research has shown that political budget cycles are larger when voters are uninformed about politician characteristics and when politicians are less credible. The effects of party age can be traced to organizational differences between younger and older parties that also affect voter information and politician credibility. Parties organized around particular individuals, rather than around policy labels or a party machine, are less likely to survive the departure of party leaders, to adopt organizational attributes that promote voter information and political credibility, and to limit political budget cycles. Previous research has also shown larger political budget cycles in younger democracies. Evidence presented here indicates that party age accounts for this effect.

New Tools and New Tests in Comparative Political Economy : The Database of Political Institutions

Beck, Thorsten; Clarke, George; Groff, Alberto; Keefer, Philip; Walsh, Patrick
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper introduces a large new cross-country database on political institutions: the Database on Political Institutions (DPI). The authors summarize key variables (many of them new), compare this data set with others, and explore the range of issues for which the data should prove invaluable. Among the novel variables they introduce: 1) Several measures of tenure, stability, and checks and balances. 2) Identification of parties with the government coalition or the opposition. 3) Fragmentation of opposition and government parties in legislatures. The authors illustrate the application of DPI variables to several problems in political economy. Stepan and Skach, for example, find that democracy is more likely to survive under parliamentary governments than presidential systems. But this result is not robust to the use of different variables from the DPI, which raises puzzles for future research. Similarly, Roubini and Sachs, find that divided governments in the OECD run higher budget deficits after fiscal shocks. Replication of their work using DPI indicators of divided government indicates otherwise...

Political Opposition and Authoritarian Rule in Egypt; Politische Opposition und autoritäre Herrschaft in Ägypten

Albrecht, Holger
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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The dissertation study has two aims: First to present a comprehensive account of contempo-rary Egyptian politics, with a particular focus on the years 2002-2007; second, the book con-tains a theoretical dimension in that it inquires into the role of political opposition in authori-tarian regimes and the core working mechanisms of state-society relations under authoritarian rule. It thus provides a substantial, empirically well-grounded contribution to the current ‘post-democratization’ debate that analyzes authoritarianism – largely understudied in political science analyses of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and particularly in Comparative Politics – as a prevalent type of political systems worth studying irrespective of whether it could experience transitions and become something else, possibly democracy. One core interest is to learn why and under what circumstances political opposition emerges under non-democratic settings. Second, the study informs about the dimensions of and opportunities for contentious activism outside of the realm of authoritarian decision-making. These puzzles are intriguing because, on the one hand, authoritarianism involves a limited readiness of incumbents to accept opponents; on the other hand...

Deliberative Democracy: The Effects of Participation on Political Efficacy

Nabatchi, Tina
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
Português
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Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, Public Affairs, 2007; This dissertation examines the relationship between deliberative democracy, the idea that public decisions should be made by discussion among free and equal citizens, and internal and external political efficacy. Internal political efficacy is the extent to which people feel they can competently participate in politics; external political efficacy is the extent to which people feel that government is responsive to their interests. Some scholars assert that deliberative democracy can increase perceptions of political efficacy; however, little empirical research has tested this proposition. To help fill that research gap, this study examines one deliberative process, the AmericaSpeaks 21st Century Town Meeting as convened by United Agenda for Children (UAC), a coalition of public and private organizations who joined to ensure a positive future for all the children (from birth to age 21) of Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. The primary research question is: What impact does participation in the AmericaSpeaks 21st Century Town Meeting have on participants' sense of internal and external political efficacy? This study uses a quasi-experimental research design, with survey data collected at three points in time from two non-equivalent comparison groups (participants and non-participants). Multiple analyses are conducted...

A Philosophy of Restraint: Justice and Pluralism in the New Theory of Political Liberalism

ROSAS, Joao
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
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Defence date: 2 February 2001; Supervisor: Steven Lukes ; Co-supervisor: Jeremy Waldron; In this dissertation I analyse and criticise the recent theory of political liberalism of John Rawls and Charles Larmore. Furthermore, I sketch an alternative solution to the challenge which this theory confronts. The main challenge in the political liberalism of Rawls and Larmore is the difficult reconciliation between, on the one hand, the value of justice seen as the ultimate and substantive standard for the assessment of institutions and policies and, on the other hand, the pervasive pluralism of ideas of the good life and their supporting world views, in contemporary liberal societies. Political liberalism reconciles these by considering that principles of justice can be consensual in a pluralist society because they are political, not comprehensive (according to Rawls) or neutral in their justifications (according to Larmore). In this way, contentious moralities and philosophies, whether religious or not, are precluded from political justification. I show the unfeasibility of this justificatory restraint both at the level of the idea of justice and in the account of pluralism provided by the advocates of political liberalism. Their implicit theories of pluralism require philosophical fallibilism in order to make sense. Moreover...

Changing frames: the discursive influence of the women's movements of New Zealand and Australia

Grey, Sandra J.
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Português
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This thesis examines the discursive influence of women’s movement activity in New Zealand and Australia from 1970 to 2000. The aim is to further understanding about how and when social movements influence cultural norms and reframe public policy. While there exists extensive sociological research into the conditions under which social movements emerge in societies, there is little empirical research into the effect of these phenomena. Similarly, the influence of social movements is under-researched within political science literature, where the focus has been on the impact of formal actors such as political parties and interest groups. Textual analysis is applied to public debate around the issues of childcare and unpaid work in Australia and New Zealand over a 30-year period. The four in-depth case studies identify the number and prevalence of discourses used in policy debates and the coalitions that defend these differing narratives. The analysis of discourses and coalition shows that women’s movement activity brought changes to policy discourse in New Zealand and Australia. This influence, however, was often only partial. ‘Radical’ messages put forward by social movements hindered their discursive influence in the political realm and the attempts of the Australasian women’s movements to alter policy debates were negatively affected by the introduction of neo-liberal narratives. Also limiting the impact of movement activity were the discursive legacies found in each of the policy debates...

The multiple dimensions of political trust in democratic Argentina

Jamison, Giselle De Bruno
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Why do Argentines continue to support democracy despite distrusting political institutions and politicians? Support for democracy is high even though performance of the regime is poor. One would suspect that poor economic and political performance would open the door for military intervention given the history of Argentina. What changed? What explains variance across the multiple dimensions of political trust, such as trust in the regime, trust in political institutions, and trust in politicians? This dissertation is a case study of political culture through public opinion exploring the multiple dimensions of political trust in Argentina during the 1990s. ^ Variance across the different dimensions of political trust may be an indicator of the rise of a new type of citizens called "critical citizens." Critical citizens are citizens who criticize the regime to obtain democratic reforms but support the ideals of democracy. In established democracies, the rise of critical citizens is explained by a shift in individuals' value priorities towards postmaterialism. Postmaterialism is a cultural change in the direction of values that emphasize self-realization and individual well-being. Postmaterialism influences various social and political attitudes. ^ Because Argentina is experiencing a cultural change and a rise of critical citizens similar to more advanced societies...

Illicit interest groups: The political impact of the Medellin drug trafficking organizations in Colombia

Micolta, Patricia Helena
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Although drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) exist and have an effect on health, crime, economies, and politics, little research has explored these entities as political organizations. Legal interest groups and movements have been found to influence domestic and international politics because they operate within legal parameters. Illicit groups, such as DTOs, have rarely been accounted for—especially in the literature on interest groups—though they play a measurable role in affecting domestic and international politics in similar ways. ^ Using an interest group model, this dissertation analyzed DTOs as illicit interest groups (IIGs) to explain their political influence. The analysis included a study of group formation, development, and demise that examined IIG motivation, organization, and policy impact. The data for the study drew from primary and secondary sources, which include interviews with former DTO members and government officials, government documents, journalistic accounts, memoirs, and academic research. ^ To illustrate the interest group model, the study examined Medellin-based DTO leaders, popularly known as the "Medellin Cartel." In particular, the study focused on the external factors that gave rise to DTOs in Colombia and how Medellin DTOs reacted to the implementation of counternarcotics efforts. The discussion was framed by the implementation of the 1979 Extradition Treaty negotiated between Colombia and the United States. The treaty was significant because as drug trafficking became the principal bilateral issue in the 1980s; extradition became a major method of combating the illicit drug business. ^ The study's findings suggested that Medellin DTO leaders had a one-issue agenda and used a variety of political strategies to influence public opinion and all three branches of government—the judicial...

Political Institutions and Human Development : Does Democracy Fulfill its 'Constructive' and 'Instrumental' Role?

Vollmer, Sebastian; Ziegler, Maria
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
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Institutions are a major field of interest in the study of development processes. The authors contribute to this discussion concentrating our research on political institutions and their effect on the non-income dimensions of human development. First, they elaborate a theoretical argument why and under what conditions democracies compared to autocratic political systems might perform better with regards to the provision of public goods. Due to higher redistributive concerns matched to the needs of the population democracies should show a higher level of human development. In the following they analyze whether our theoretical expectations are supported by empirical facts. The authors perform a static panel analysis over the period of 1970 to 2003. The model confirms that living in a democratic system positively affects human development measured by life expectancy and literacy rates even controlling for GDP. By analyzing interaction effects they find that the performance of democracy is rather independent of the circumstances. However...

Accountability and Corruption : Political Institutions Matter

Lederman, Daniel; Loayza, Norman; Reis Soares, Rodrigo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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Using a cross-country panel, Lederman, Loayza, and Soares examine the determinants of corruption, paying particular attention to political institutions that increase political accountability. Previous empirical studies have not analyzed the role of political institutions, even though both the political science and the theoretical economics literature have indicated their importance in determining corruption. The main theoretical hypothesis guiding the authors' empirical investigation is that political institutions affect corruption through two channels: political accountability and the structure of the provision of public goods. The results suggest that political institutions are extremely important in determining the prevalence of corruption: democracy, parliamentary systems, political stability, and freedom of the press are all associated with lower corruption. In addition, the authors show that common findings of the earlier empirical literature on the determinants of corruption related to openness and legal tradition to not hold once political variables are taken into account.

The Political Economy of Policy Reform : Issues and Implications for Policy Dialogue and Development Operations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
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This study addresses the political economy of sector reforms. Sustainable reform processes which improve equity, efficiency and effectiveness in key economic and social sectors are often important elements of national poverty reduction strategies in low- and middle-income countries. For international development agencies wishing to engage in these processes, understanding the significance of power relations within the sector, vested interests, and the links to national political processes can be critical to being an effective actor in policy dialogue. This study explores these issues through the analysis of case studies of World Bank engagement in two areas: agricultural liberalization, and public-private partnerships in water supply and sanitation. The objectives of the study are twofold: (a) to analyze the political economy of reform by looking at stakeholder interests, incentives, institutions, risks, opportunities, and processes from a social analysis perspective; and (b) to illustrate 'what works...

Organizing for Prosperity : Collective Action, Political Parties and the Political Economy of Development

Keefer, Philip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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The ability of citizens to act collectively plays a central role in major debates in the political economy of development, including the causes and consequences of democratization and clientelism. This essay uses two lines of research to underscore the importance of explicitly introducing the organization of collective action into these debates. Exhaustive research on the management of open access resources demonstrates that citizens' ability to act collectively depends on non-trivial organizational arrangements that allow leaders to sanction free-riding and allow members to replace leaders if they shirk. Other research demonstrates wide variability in the organization of political parties. In countries where political parties do not have these two organizational characteristics, public policies are less friendly to economic development. This evidence suggests that in future research on democracy, state-building and development, citizen organization should be a central object of analysis.

La responsabilité de protéger et l’intervention humanitaire : de la reconceptualisation de la souveraineté des États à l’individualisme normatif

Vézina, Louis-Philippe
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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La recrudescence des conflits internes dans le contexte post-guerre froide a permis de propulser à l’avant-plan la préoccupation pour les individus. Alors que la paix et la sécurité internationales ont historiquement constitué les piliers du système institutionnel international, une porte s’ouvrait pour rendre effectif un régime de protection des droits de l’homme par-delà les frontières. Pour les humanistes, l’intervention humanitaire représentait un mal nécessaire pour pallier aux souffrances humaines souvent causées par des divergences ethniques et religieuses. Pourtant, cette pratique est encore souvent perçue comme une forme de néo-colonialisme et entre en contradiction avec les plus hautes normes régissant les relations internationales, soit les principes de souveraineté des États et de non-intervention. La problématique du présent mémoire s’inscrit précisément dans cette polémique entre la préséance des droits de l’État et la prédilection pour les droits humains universels, deux fins antinomiques que la Commission internationales pour l’intervention et la souveraineté des États (CIISE) a tenté de concilier en élaborant son concept de responsabilité de protéger. Notre mémoire s’inscrit dans le champ de la science politique en études internationales mais s’articule surtout autour des notions et enjeux propres à la philosophie politique...

The Concept of Instability and the Theory of Democracy in the Federalist

Furlow Sauls, Shanaysha M
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 547073 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 18/04/2008 Português
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This dissertation describes instability as a problem with a variety of sources and explains Publius' contribution to understanding the importance of these problems for politics and political theory. Using the Federalist and Publius' reading in political theory, history, and politics to ground my analysis, I explain the concept of instability as a multi-faceted problem that requires different solutions. I show that instability arises from one or a combination of four distinct notions: stasis or factional conflict, corruption, the mutability of the laws, and changing global conditions. My dissertation suggests that one of the primary goals of ancient and modern democracies was to solve the political challenges posed by instability. I further argue that the sources of instability remain relevant because they allow us to describe the problem of instability in a way that is theoretically and practically useful for understanding the role that democracy plays in addressing them. Finally, I suggest that describing and addressing the patterns of instability were central to Publius' interpretation of history and political theory and that recognizing and tackling these patterns are a part of the scope of modern political science and are central to the study of democratic politics.; Dissertation

Constitutionalising political parties in Britain.

Kim, Jongcheol
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1998 Português
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Although Britain has developed a reasonably successful model of party democracy, there is little legal recognition of political parties in the constitutional order. My hypothesis is that the legal status of political parties relates to deep-seated political and social theories subsisting in British society. Britain's self-regulating political parties still adhere to the liberal theory of parliamentary democracy. However, there is increasing dissatisfaction with this status quo, which tends to ignore the pluralist reality. Therefore, demands are now being made for the creation of a new theory of democracy and for a range of constitutional reforms which such a theory requires. I propose to adopt a model of double democratisation which implies a refocusing of the liberal distinction between state and society. This model develops an equilibrium between state and society within a constitutional framework which can be called 'constitutionalised democratic autonomy'. I seek to argue that all agencies of power should be regulated within a constitutional framework which allows public scrutiny of the political system as a whole while affording, on the one hand, the greatest measure of freedom to civil society and, on the other, parity of autonomy to the state. The fact that political parties now play a powerful role within the state adds additional urgency to the task of reformulating the democratic agenda. In connecting a new perspective on political parties to the reformulated theory of democracy...