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O Código Florestal e os processos de formulação do mecanismo de compensação de reserva legal (1996-2012): ambiente político e política ambiental; The Forest Act and the formulating processes of the mechanism Compensation of Legal Forest Reserve (1996-2012): political environment and environmental policy.

Cunha, Paulo Roberto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/05/2013 Português
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Esta dissertação tem como objetivo analisar os processos político-legislativos que culminaram na criação e nas modificações do mecanismo de compensação de reserva legal, previsto no revogado Código Florestal Brasileiro (Lei Federal nº 4.771/1965) e na lei que o substituiu (Lei Federal nº 12.651/2012). A questão central que orienta esta pesquisa é a seguinte: por que, desde o seu surgimento, a compensação de reserva legal sofreu constantes modificações? As hipóteses para a pergunta formulada consideram que, no complexo jogo político de alteração do Código Florestal, prevaleceram as proposições de dois agrupamentos de atores: o agronegócio (e de outros interesses associados, como mineradoras e hidrelétricas) e a bancada ruralista do Congresso Nacional. Assim, focalizando na compensação de reserva legal, estabeleceu-se um recorte temporal de 1996 a 2012, onde se analisou os processos políticos das seguintes etapas: (i) a formação da agenda governamental em 1996, que culminou na alteração do Código Florestal por medida provisória; (ii) a criação da compensação em 1998; (iii) a modificação desse instrumento no anteprojeto de lei do Conselho Nacional de Meio Ambiente (CONAMA) (2000); e (iv) a alteração proposta pelo projeto de lei aprovado na Comissão Especial Temporária do Código Florestal (2010)...

Political Christianity: Internal Organization, Preferences and Church Political Activity

Rhodes, Christopher
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
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This dissertation examines the role of internal structure of religious organizations in influencing these organizations’ interactions with incumbent governments and ultimately determining the political activities of religious groups. This dissertation fits within a body of literature known as the political economy of religion. I expand upon this literature by examining religious groups in terms of internal organization, focusing on Christian churches in Africa, with Kenya as my primary case country. The central argument of this dissertation is that churches (national-level denominations) with certain organizational features – centralized leadership, authoritarian decision-making procedures, and lack of internal accountability mechanisms – are more likely to have friendlier interactions with governments and therefore tend to adopt more pro-government political stances compared to churches that lack these features. This relationship operates through two mechanisms. First, centralized churches possess negotiation advantages over decentralized churches. Second, centralized, authoritarian churches can more easily be co-opted by incumbent governments. The dissertation also expand upon existing literature by offering a fuller and more nuanced understanding of the preferences of governments and churches vis-à-vis one another...

Is There Such Thing As Middle Class Values? Class Differences, Values and Political Orientations in Latin America

Lopez-Calva, Luis F.; Rigolini, Jamele; Torche, Florencia
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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Middle class values have long been perceived as drivers of social cohesion and growth. This paper investigates the relation between class (measured by position in the income distribution), values, and political orientations using comparable values surveys for six Latin American countries. The analysis finds that both a continuous measure of income and categorical measures of income-based class are robustly associated with values. Both income and class tend to display a similar association to values and political orientations as education, although differences persist in some important dimensions. Overall, there is no strong evidence of any "middle class particularism": values appear to gradually shift with income, and middle class values are between the ones of poorer and richer classes. If any, the only peculiarity of middle class values is moderation. The analysis also finds changes in values across countries to be of much larger magnitude than the ones dictated by income, education, and individual characteristics...

Essays on the determinants of private investment: The effects of relative price uncertainty and political instability

Escaleras, Monica Paulina
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The objective of this study was to provide empirical evidence on the effects of relative price uncertainty and political instability on private investment. My effort is expressed in a single-equation model using macroeconomic and socio-political data from eight Latin American countries for the period 1970–1996. Relative price uncertainty is measured by the implied volatility of the exchange rate and political instability is measured by using indicators of social unrest and political violence. ^ I found that, after controlling for other variables, relative price uncertainty and political instability are negatively associated with private investment. Macroeconomic and political stability are key ingredients for the achievement of a strong investment response. This highlights the need to develop the state and build a civil society in which citizens can participate in decision-making and express consent without generating social turmoil. At the same time the government needs to implement structural policies along with relative price adjustments to eliminate excess volatility in price movements in order to provide a stable environment for investment. ^

Laughing at leadership

Uhr, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 190385 bytes; 356 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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Laughing at leadership reconsiders an early chapter in the intellectual history of theories of leadership. This paper draws on British novelist Henry Fieldings forgotten attempt to evaluate political leaders against standards of leadership in his 1743 satirical novel Jonathan Wild, which models political leadership on the exploits of noted English thief-taker general Jonathan Wild, who was hanged in 1725. This work is a pioneer in leadership studies: it dates from the beginning of modern studies of the chief political executive, with a biting satire on the emerging power of the British prime-ministership under Walpole. Fielding was politically active as a member of the loyal opposition triggered into formation by Walpoles unprecedented pre-eminence as a party and parliamentary leader and his remarkable 21 year tenure as head of government (1721-42). Is Fielding laughing simply at Walpole, or at the office of the prime ministership or at political leaders as such? What is the standard of greatness against which Fielding measures political leadership? What constructive models of great political leadership would pass the laughter test?; no

Community after totalitarianism. The Eastern Orthodox intellectual tradition and the philosophical discourse of political modernity

STOECKL, Kristina
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf; digital
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Starting with a definition of political modernity from the angle of its greatest trial, namely totalitarianism, this study pursues two questions: How to conceptualize community after the experience of totalitarianism? And, what can the Eastern Orthodox intellectual tradition contribute to this debate? In both parts of Europe, totalitarianism raised the same political philosophical challenge: How to conceptualize the relationship between the individual and community in the light of the absolute communization of society and the simultaneous absolute atomization of individuals which totalitarianism had brought about? In contemporary Western political philosophy, the reflection upon this experience has taken three principled directions: the unequivocal embrace and conceptual elaboration of liberalism for which the works of John Rawls and Jürgen Habermas are exemplary, the communitarian critique of liberalism for which the works of Charles Taylor and Alasdair MacIntyre are representative, and the postmodern critique which, most clearly expressed in the works of Jean-Luc Nancy, ties the question of community back to the singular human being. In the present study, I add to these three approaches a viewpoint which challenges the limits of all of them. Focusing on the works of Sergej Horužij and Christos Yannaras...

Seeking the Political Role of the Third Government Branch: A comparative approach to high courts in Central America

MARTINEZ BARAHONA, Elena
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Until recently, Courts were not an important component of political science research on Latin America. The quantity of research on the judiciary does not compare even remotely to the vast literature on others institutions. However, despite the relative inattention to their role, courts are institutions whose performance has concrete and relevant effects on the socio-political system. Indeed, Courts have currently emerged as active participants in the political process offering new opportunities to citizens, social movements, interest groups, and politicians. Focusing on three countries of Central America (Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Guatemala), this dissertation illustrates how far the political system in these countries is shaped in significant ways by the role of Courts as political institutions. Throughout a comparative approach, this study offers what may be the first cross-national analysis explicitly designed to serve as a comprehensive measure of the political role of High Courts.; Defence date: 22 January 2007; Examining board: Prof. Pilar Domingo (Universidad de Salamanca) ; Prof. Carlo Guarnieri (Università di Bologna) ; Prof. Donatella Della Porta (European University Institute) ; Prof. Philippe C. Schmitter (European University Institute)(Supervisor)

Religion, modernization and politics in Iran: An analysis of clerical political behavior during the Pahlavi monarchy, 1925-1979

Yazdi, Majid
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: 171 p.; application/pdf
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This study is an analysis of the political behavior of the clergy in Iran during the Pahlavi monarchy (1925-1979) within the context of the interrelationship between religion and modernization. This period itself has been divided into three eras: the Riza Shah era (1925-1941), the nationalist era (1941-1953), and the post-nationalist era (1953-1979). The analytical framework adopted here is based on three behavioral motives for clerical political involvement: religious, national, and clerical corporate interests. Within this framework, various patterns of clerical political behavior are identified, each reflecting a different order of priority of interests and motives for political action. The main point emerging from this approach is that at no time throughout this period did the clergy act as a politically monolithic group. Such distinct patterns are particularly discernable during the nationalist era (1941-1953) because of the presence of greater socio-political freedom relative to the other two major eras. A major theme developed in this study is that while the greater functional differentiation and specialization caused by modernization resulted in the clergy's loss of influence and official power in the educational and legal systems...

A political history of the Texas Republic, 1836--1845

Siegel, Stanley E.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: application/pdf
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The annexation of Texas by the United States brought to a close the nine year period of independent existence which the Republic of Texas had enjoyed. During this short era, which began in 1836 and reached its conclusion in 1845, Texas enjoyed all the attributes of a sovereign nation. This work is concerned with the political history of the Republic. It is true that political parties and divisions existed prior to the Revolution, and in this period political differences were based upon distinct principles. The faction led by William H. Wharton in the early stages of the trouble with Mexico was eager for a complete break; the faction led by Austin counseled a moderate program, and did not agree on the wisdom of independence until late in 1835. However, the political divisions on the basis of principles did not continue in the period of the Republic. Politics were almost wholly of a personal nature in the period, 1836--1845. The personality of Sam Houston dominated Texas in that era, and was responsible for the two Houston administrations, as well as the election of Anson Jones, who was Houston's chosen candidate. Also it can be said that the election of Lamar was nothing more than a reversion from the first Houston term in office. Finally...

Religion in the public square: what, exactly, do liberals want to quarantine, and why doesn't it work?

Maddox, Marion
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 369601 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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Fuelled by the power of the evangelical right, 'Religion and the public square' debates form a veritable industry in US political theory. Yet successive volumes frequently seem to retread old ground, making few advances. In the much less heated Australian religious atmosphere, such soul-searching can seem quaint or obsessive; yet recent political developments here, notably the success of 'family values' social conservatism, suggest that the relationship between political and religious views might merit further analysis here, too. I will take up recent US debates about the place of religion in public debate and argue that, although coming from widely divergent philosophical directions, they share a peculiar, and highly limiting, conception of the relationship between religious and political conviction. I will spell out where I think US debates grind themselves into an impossible corner and then point out how a more textured account of the political dimensions of religious belief can illuminate both US debates and the very different Australian religio-political climate.; no

A curious reconstruction? the shaping of 'Marketized' forensic science

Lawless, Christopher J
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Risk and Regulation, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Risk and Regulation, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2010 Português
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The integration of science into policing functions continues to be a subject of considerable official concern. Sociological study of forensic science has demonstrated great promise in illuminating the dynamics of the law-science relationship, but has yet to be fully extended to issues relating to policing. This paper seeks to address the importance of extending research activity in this area by addressing the effects of broader political and economic trends on the development of forensic science and its use in criminal investigations. It focuses on the influence of 'liberalizing' policies on policing functions, which have extended to the provision of scientific support to the police. Forensic scientific services in England and Wales are now procured via a market-led system, and an economic imperative can be seen to have permeated strongly into this domain. With recourse to examples of a series of initiatives, I show how the application of liberalizing processes has permeated into the science-police relationship in various ways, leading to the emergence of assemblages which serve to differentially reconstruct the relationship between forensic scientists and their chief 'customers', the police. I argue that these differences in reconstruction reflect ongoing tensions between two different interpretations of scientific integration - one which is science-led and another which is police-led. Drawing upon these examples...

Oil and women's political participation: a sub-national assessment of the role of protests and NGOs in Nigeria

Shochat, Sharon
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2014 Português
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The resource curse literature, which links natural resource abundance with negative political and economic outcomes, is largely based on large-N cross-national studies. This thesis examines the effects of oil production on women’s political participation at the sub-national level, comparing the 36 states in the Nigerian federation, of which some are oil-producing. Shedding new light on the negative effects of oil production at the local and community level, and exploring the gender-related dimensions of the resource curse, I argue that the effect of oil varies across different forms of political activity: while oil production may have a negative impact on women’s legislative participation, it can also have a positive impact on non-formal types of political participation, specifically protest and NGO activity. I further suggest that the underlying trigger for both of these effects is oil’s impact on women’s work, which is manifested differently at national and local levels. The analysis is based on a mixed-methods approach that combines quantitative and qualitative tools, including original datasets on oil production and legislative participation, women’s protests, and women-led NGOs across Nigeria’s states. The combination of evidence offers a wide-ranging repertoire of the impact of oil on women. Drawing on historical evidence and women’s testimonies...

The evolution of an urban political machine: Republican Philadelphia, 1867-1933.

McCaffery, Peter
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1989 Português
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The persistence of the classic duel between reform and bossism as the dominant theme in the literature on American urban politics has been subject to increasing criticism in recent years. This conflict, it is now argued, provides an inadequate framework in helping us to understand the complexity of American municipal development. While accepting that initiatives suggesting alternative ways of viewing urban politics are long overdue, such efforts, in my view, can only achieve their purpose if they are based on an accurate understanding of the role that the political machine has played in the American city. Unfortunately the consensus that prevails in the abundant literature on this political institution fails to provide just such an understanding. In particular the existing literature fails to furnish satisfactory answers to such key questions as, How do we account for the emergence of the political machine. What functions did it fulfill in the American city. To what extent did so-called "bosses" control party organisations and city governments. Which sections of the urban population supported the machine and why. The aim of this thesis is to address these questions using the Republican political machine (or "Organisation") in Philadelphia as the model for inquiry. The thesis is divided into two parts...

Democracy and miracles: Political and religious agency in a convent and village of south central Romania.

Forbess, Alice I
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 Português
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This thesis investigates the strategic exercise of political and religious agency in a Romanian Orthodox convent and the village surrounding it, during the local and national elections of 2000. It examines how three groups living in an isolated river valley, Romanian peasants, Roma traders and Orthodox nuns, made use of two fields of social action newly opened by the collapse of socialism-democratic politics and religious devotion-in order to maximize their access to power and economic resources. Using archival research, oral histories, interviews and extensive participant observation, the thesis traces the political life of Horezu convent, an important estate of the Orthodox Church, over its 300-year history, focusing particularly on the socialist and post-socialist periods. It examines the shifts in the convent population and monastic ideology, relations with the surrounding village and with political authorities. Horezu convent became a focus of attention in post-socialist times when its founder, Prince Constantin Brancoveanu, was sanctified by the Orthodox Church in 1992. Linking religious and national symbolism, this sanctification was an expression of the efforts of the Church and of its allied political actors to distance themselves from associations with the socialist regime. During the socialist period...

Some aspects of the relationship between the military and polity in Israel 1947 - 1977

Peri, Yoram
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/1980 Português
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The protracted war and the centrality of security in Israel raises the Lasswellian question, can parliamentary democracy and political pluralism prevail under such conditions, without turning Israel into a Garrison State? The prevailing understanding of political-military relations in Israel is that the IDF is an instrumentalist army, that it serves as the executive tool of the legitimate political authorities and is not involved with state politics. Furthermore, it is accepted that the greatest achievement of David Ben Gurion, Israel's first Prime Minister and Defence Minister, and the architect of the defence establishment, was the de-politicization of the IDF and its disconnection from party politics. Both assumptions are challenged in this study. New evidence, and an analysis of existing material reveals the existence of a nominal control pattern, which has the formal appearance of an instrumentalist model, whereas the reality is otherwise. The IDF was not subordinate only to a state channel of political control, like other instrumentalist armies. In Israel there existed a unique pattern of political-military relations, a dual-control pattern. The political authorities exerted control through two channels, not only the state but also the party channel...

Political participation of older people in Europe.

Goerres, Achim
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 Português
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This thesis answers two questions: to what extent do older people in Europe differ from younger people in terms of their participation in politics, and why. It tests an age-centred model of political participation that is theoretically supported by prior knowledge about political-psychological thinking processes and the social behaviour of older people. The empirical innovation lies in a combination of quantitative survey analysis and the qualitative analysis of interviews with older people. The evidence comes from 21 European countries that were in the European Social Survey 2002/3, from British and West German national surveys of the post-war era and from interviews with older English protesters. The thesis focuses on voting participation, party choice and non-institutionalised political participation outside of organisations. Older people participate differently from younger people in politics because they have a different endowment of resources and motivation as well as of opportunities and exposure to mobilisation. This fact is due to a mixture of cohort effects, which are linked to the specific generation that the individuals are members of, and life cycle effects, which are grounded on varying social circumstances across the life cycle. Furthermore...

Three views of political philosophizing and the idea of state neutrality.

Sofianopoulos, Christos
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1995 Português
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This thesis is an attempt to understand the Neutrality Debate, in the light of two basic distinctions: a distinction between political philosophy and politics, and a distinction between three different views of political philosophizing, which I call foundationalism, explanationism and interpretivism. According to foundationalism, the political philosopher starts with an account of what is essentially human and deduces from it moral/political principles, which should govern every human society. According to explanationism, the political philosopher seeks to understand a particular society (e.g. the Western state) sub specie aeternitatis, i.e. as an immutable, autonomous, self-sufficient world of ideas. Similarly, interpretivism focuses on a particular society (e.g. the Western state), but understands it as an ever-changing world of shared conceptions, understandings and self-perceptions, which are unearthed by the political philosopher. Of the three meta-theories only foundationalism and interpretivism are normative (regulative), whereas explanationism is an intellectual exercise. What is commonly known as "state neutrality" is actually three different philosophical positions each corresponding to a different one of the three meta-theories. Given that each one of these three state neutralities makes different epistemological assumptions...

The political evolution of the industrial bourgeoisie in Peru: Industrialists, bankers and the Garcia government, 1985-1990.

Sahley, Caroline M
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1995 Português
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This thesis examines the political evolution of the industrial bourgeoisie in Peru. It argues that the industrial bourgeoisie has been undergoing a rapid and dynamic process of economic development and political formation in the period since the reforms of 1968 which reduced the power of the landed oligarchy. The experience of the Garcia government (1985-1990) is used as a case study to illustrate the changing role of industrialists in the Peruvian development process. The Garcia government, a populist government with reformist tendencies and redistributive objectives, nonetheless attempted to forge an alliance with the industrial bourgeoisie as part of its heterodox economic strategy. This approach was later abandoned, as the government attempted to gain greater autonomy from the bourgeoisie through the expropriation of the financial system. This thesis examines the way in which the industrial bourgeoisie organises itself to intervene in politics, and considers the political and economic factors which acted to stimulate this political development. In this period, industrialists demonstrated an increased ability to forge alliances with other fractions of the bourgeoisie to act collectively in the political sphere; first, through the formation of a confederation of industrial organisations known as CONFIEP...

Political Islam and the United States' new "Other": An analysis of the discourse on political Islam (2001-2007).

Mullin-Lery, Corinna
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 Português
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In this thesis I examine how and why political Islam has come to occupy the position of ontological "other" for the United States, in particular in the period after September 11th and in the context of the "war on terror". In order to do this, I argue that much of the language employed in analyses of political Islam within the various genres of academic writing, political statements, opinion pieces and think-tank reports during this period can be seen to constitute a "discourse" in the Foucaudian sense. In considering its epistemological, historical and ideological roots and manifold contemporary expressions, I demonstrate how this discourse has come to perform both an identity-constructing/affirming role, as well as a politically expedient, rhetorical justificatory function in mainstream political thought and action vis-a-vis the Muslim world. Despite its seemingly hegemonic hold on mainstream perspectives on political Islam, I examine the increasing body of literature that attempts to subvert the discourse on political Islam through critical reflection on issues of U.S./western identity, deconstruction of the discourse's central assumptions and paradigms and, finally, the development of a counter-discourse in its place. These critical endeavours...

Modest praise for political deliberation

Gallardo,Javier
Fonte: Revista Uruguaya de Ciencia Política Publicador: Revista Uruguaya de Ciencia Política
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
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This text analyzes the relationship between political deliberation and democracy. Its content differs both from a scarcely normative idea of competitive politics, predominant in contemporary Political Science, and from a philosophical defense of the deliberation, founded on an idea of common reasonability or on an ideal of communicative speech. The central argument of the author is that deliberation constitutes a good instrument of improvement of competitive democracy. The reasons he gives are not those held by some contemporary political philosophers, inspired by problematic generalizations about the basic structures of the rationality and reasonability of citizens and their agents. The author stresses instead the capacity of deliberation to strengthen the epistemic and normative basis of the political decisions of the majority. The text discusses different visions of the benefits of political deliberation, some of then centered on their procedural conditions, others on the substantive quality of their results. Besides, this paper analyzes, from a perspective closer to a neo Aristotelian vision than to a modern contractualist tradition, the validity of the consensualist criteria to judge the quality of the deliberative reasons. Finally...