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Immigration policy and Colombian textile workers in New England : a case study in political demography

Glaessel-Brown, Eleanor E
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (449 leaves); 23866386 bytes; 23866144 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Eleanor E. Glaessel-Brown.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1984.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND DEWEY.; Bibliography: leaves 440-449.

Labor export, development, and the state : the political economy of Portuguese emigration

Leeds, Elizabeth Rachel
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (355 leaves); 23117469 bytes; 23117227 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Elizabeth Rachel Leeds.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1984.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND DEWEY.; Bibliography: leaves 339-355.

Political creativity

Kubicek, Brett V. (Brett Vincent), 1972-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 297 p.; 15596899 bytes; 15636460 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis is about political change and the possibilities for politically creative individuals to achieve desired change. To identify such possibilities, I argue that we should employ a catalog of analytical tools from the social, psychological and cognitive sciences, organized in three sets. One covers social dynamics, the social mechanisms behind stability and change, either sudden or incremental; the second captures ordinary differences among group members in how they understand conditions, react to events, and connect to others; and the third set deals with extraordinary differences in mindsets and aptitudes which may enable individuals to exert considerable influence on conditions. A fundamental problem is the difficulty of separating the impact of individual action (agency) from effects of social conditions and trends (structure), given that political events involve interaction of the two. My solution is to focus onprojects for political change, which are long-term endeavors that go against prevailing conditions and conventional ideas, and which focus upon changing one broad element of the political landscape (such as to restructure inter-group relations, to empower a previously weak constituency, to change certain status quo ideas and practices...

Citizenship, exclusion, and political organizations : political response to immigrant policy

Jeffrey, David P., 1962-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 325 leaves; 21185643 bytes; 21200419 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by David P. Jeffrey.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 2000.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 304-325).

A thousand suns : political motivations for nuclear weapons testing

Raas, Whitney
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 84 leaves
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Nuclear weapon testing is the final step in the nuclear development process, an announcement of ability and strength. The consequences of a nuclear test are far from easy to bear, however: economic sanctions can be crippling and nuclear capability automatically makes one a nuclear target. Why, then, do states test nuclear weapons? This thesis aims to determine the answer to this question using India as a model. It is well known that India tested nuclear weapons in 1974 and in 1998, but less well known are the near-tests of 1983, 1995, and 1996. This thesis examines the situation in these years and the details of the nuclear decisions based on four hypotheses: technical concerns, security and power, domestic politics, and norms and ideas. This study shows that while all four of these theories play a role, technical concerns (contrary to popular belief) are very minor portion of the overall decision to test a nuclear weapon and are relegated to an excuse for scientists. Domestic politics, especially the political fortunes of those in power, play a large role, especially when combined with real, existential security concerns. Similarly, the prestige and status that leaders believe is imparted by nuclear ability is of major import. Understanding the reasons for nuclear testing will lead to fewer nuclear surprises in the future and may help to address the concerns of the growing number of states with latent nuclear capabilities.; by Whitney Lyke Raas.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

The political economy of technological innovation : a change in the debate; political economy of technological change : a change in the debate

Taylor, Mark Zachary
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 82 p.; 457531 bytes; 457324 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Why are some countries more technologically innovative than others? The dominant explanation amongst political-economists is that domestic institutions determine national innovation rates. However, after decades of research, the empirical evidence for this relationship remains equivocal. There are simply many countries with "good" institutions that do not innovate at the technological frontier, and many countries with "bad" institutions that have nonetheless built impressive records of technological progress. Therefore, in this dissertation, in order to probe the sources of variance in national innovation rates, I analyze quantitative data on innovation, various domestic institutions, and four types of international relationships. First, I review the National Innovation Systems literature. Second, I test the Varieties of Capitalism theory of innovation. Third, I ask whether decentralized states are better at technological innovation than centralized states. In each case, I find that there exists little empirical evidence for an aggregate relationship between domestic institutions and technological innovation. That is, although a specific domestic institution or policy might appear to explain a particular instance of innovation, they fail to explain national innovation rates across time and space.; (cont.) However...

Political liberalism, social pluralism and group conflict

Manikkalingam, Ramanujam
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 221 p.; 21232938 bytes; 21232697 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This dissertation develops a political liberal approach to multiculturalism as an alternative to its dismissal by some egalitarian liberals and its celebration by some multicultural liberals. Some egalitarian liberals overstate the liberal tension with group-specific claims, disregard the role of culture in a person's life, and exaggerate the propensity of group-specific claims to exacerbate conflict. Confusing religion with culture, they assign to religion the status of an all purpose good that liberals traditionally assign to income and wealth. While political liberals require that the state grant exemptions to religious practices that violate uniform rules, these egalitarian liberals do not. Some multicultural liberals overstate the liberal failure to accommodate group-specific political claims, exaggerate the role of culture in a person's life, and ignore the invented nature of culture. Confusing culture with religion, they assign to culture the moral weight liberals traditionally assign to religion. Political liberals, however, assign to culture the same social weight they assign to a person's family, firm, neighborhood and other associations. Political liberals also distinguish encompassing groups, such as language-nations or factory-towns...

Entering one-party dominant democracy in South Africa : political institutions, social demographies and party strategies, 1994-1999

Piombo, Jessica R., 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 377 p.; 38246653 bytes; 38246409 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This study explains the construction and maintenance of a one-party dominant democratic political system in South Africa between 1994 and 1999. Against conventional explanations that rely on historical conditions and voting patterns driven by ascriptive identities, this study offers an explanation of events that focuses on the role of political institutions and social demographics in structuring the incentives that shape strategic choices made by political parties. The process by which the ruling African National Congress (ANC) entrenched its dominant position between 1994 and 1999 was attributable to a number of factors. The analysis found that the ANC actively manipulated political cleavages to perpetuate its hegemonic position in South African politics, rather than simply resting on its status as the liberation party or the ethnic loyalties of its supporters. The process of establishing and maintaining dominance, for the ANC, involved maintaining strategic alliances with labor and leftists, manipulating social and political discourse to reinforce the unity of the political community of non-Whites on whose electoral support the party relied; and finally, manipulating state institutions to help the party to reward supporters and maintain the focus of power on the national level. Through each of these strategies...

Essays on political representation

Ueda, Michiko
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 142 leaves; 9123145 bytes; 9130790 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The central goal of this dissertation is to contribute to our understanding of the link between political representation and policy outcomes. In particular, this collection of essays examines how the institutional arrangements and formal processes that precede and initiate political representation either promote or hinder the representation of various interests in society and thus determine whose interests shape public policies. The first chapter studies the relationship between descriptive representation of traditionally underrepresented minority groups and substantive representation of their interests. Examining the impact of increased African American representation from the early 1970s to the late 1990s, the chapter demonstrates that legislative representation of historically marginalized groups can lead to tangible changes in public policies. The second chapter attempts to understand why legislative representation of minority groups in American society remains low, even to this day. This chapter disentangles the impact of candidates' race on voting decisions from that of candidates' ideology, by focusing on the case of the representation of African Americans.; (cont.) Using extensive individual-level voting data as well as a unique data set on candidates' ideological positions...

Diversionary temptations : presidential incentives and the political use of force

Burbach, David T
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (458 leaves); 39577170 bytes; 39576925 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This dissertation assesses U.S. presidents' incentives for diversionary war. The political benefits of the use of force were measured and compared to the benefits of other dramatic foreign policy activities. Gains from force were modest, not unique, and discounted in many circumstances of political need. Statistical tests measured the changes in presidential approval ratings following uses of force, major diplomatic events, presidential speeches, and foreign travel by presidents, in the period 1953-2000. Historical sources and newspaper archives were used to identify and characterize uses of force and diplomatic events. Uses of force provide only modest and short-lived approval gains (average 6% increase with 3 month half life for major uses). Approval changes were greater with more media coverage, Congressional support, or popular goals (e.g., protecting American lives, not humanitarian intervention). Approval gains were higher during recessions, but losses occurred when prior approval was low for non-economic reasons (e.g., scandals). Diplomatic events produced slightly smaller benefits, conditioned by similar variables except for retaining their popularity during scandals. Foreign travel and speeches had little impact. The frequency of presidential activities changes in response to political variables...