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11.235 Analyzing Projects and Organizations: How Organizations Behave, Fall 2006; Analyzing Projects and Organizations: How Organizations Behave

Tendler, Judith
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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Seminar builds analytic skills for evaluating programs and projects, organizations, and environments. Subject covers: using proxy indicators with poor data and limited time; preparing for, conducting, and interpreting interviews; conducting cross-project and cross-organization comparisons; and finding rationality in seemingly chaotic organizational and project environments. From the course home page: Course Description This class analyzes how organizations behave, both government and nongovernment, drawing on the literature of the sociology of organizations, political science, and public administration. The class seeks to demonstrate rationality in otherwise seemingly chaotic organizational environments and implementation experiences. It builds analytical skills for evaluating programs and projects, organizations, and environments, and draws equally on developing-country and developed-country literature.

Cooperação e competição entre políticas no Brasil: os cursos da governabilidade no presidencialismo da catalização

Rocha Neto, João Mendes da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Administração; Políticas e Gestão Públicas; Gestão Organizacional Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Administração; Políticas e Gestão Públicas; Gestão Organizacional
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
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Public policies have been studied in the various fields of humanities and social sciences, from different theoretical and technical aspects. However, there is still a lack of studies that incorporate the dimension that encompasses the political action and its interference in such actions, also recognizing the importance of the institutional setting of the Brazilian presidential model in implementing these policies. This fragmented and multiparty system has led to power heterogeneous sets of political parties. Thus, the ministerial offices, more than assisting the President´s government project, manage particularized agendas, which are party biased and have the influence of interest groups in hegemonic themes addressed by government agencies. When these agendas operate in sectoral and specialized policies, the friction level is apparently low. However, when this occurs in intersectoral actions, such as in regional development, there is evidence of strong signs of competition among government agencies, which in theory, should operate in an integrated manner. Although this is not a specific feature of Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva´s government- the period to be studied- there was similar behavior in Fernando Henrique Cardoso´s presidency...

L’influence de la gouvernance sur la capacité de changement du système de soins : l’exemple de l’implantation des groupes de médecine de famille

Gilbert, Frédéric
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Cette thèse s’intéresse à la gouvernance de changements en contextes pluralistes. Nous souhaitons mieux comprendre l’exercice de gouvernance déployé pour développer et implanter un changement par le biais d’une politique publique visant la transformation d’organisations pluralistes. Pour ce faire, nous étudions l’émergence et l’implantation de la politique encadrant la création de groupes de médecine de famille (GMF) à l’aide d’études de cas correspondant à cinq GMF. Les cas sont informés par plus de cents entrevues réalisées en deux vagues ainsi que par une analyse documentaire et des questionnaires portant sur l’organisation du GMF. Trois articles constituent le cœur de la thèse. Dans le premier article, nous proposons une analyse de l’émergence et de l’implantation de la politique GMF à l’aide d’une perspective processuelle et contextuelle développée à partir du champ du changement organisationnel, tel qu’étudié en théorie des organisations. Les résultats démontrent que la gestion du changement en contexte pluraliste est liée à de multiples processus prescrits et construits. Nous avons qualifié ce phénomène de régulation de l’action social (regulation of collective action). La conceptualisation développée et les résultats de l’analyse permettent de mieux comprendre les interactions entre les processus...

The use of presidential executive orders to control the management and administration of the federal government

Lynn, Dahlia Diane Bradshaw
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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As long as governmental institutions have existed, efforts have been undertaken to reform them. This research examines a particular strategy, coercive controls, exercised through a particular instrument, executive orders, by a singular reformer, the president of the United States. The presidents studied-- Johnson, Nixon, Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton--are those whose campaigns for office were characterized to varying degrees as against Washington bureaucracy and for executive reform. Executive order issuance is assessed through an examination of key factors for each president including political party affiliation, levels of political capital, and legislative experience. A classification typology is used to identify the topical dimensions and levels of coerciveness. The portrayal of the federal government is analyzed through examination of public, media, and presidential attention. The results show that executive orders are significant management tools for the president. Executive orders also represent an important component of the transition plans for incoming administrations. The findings indicate that overall, while executive orders have not increased in the aggregate, they are more intrusive and significant. When the factors of political party affiliation...

When Courts Manage: Judicial "Rowing" in Desegregation Governance

Christensen, Robert K.
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
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Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, Public Affairs, 2007; In this research I focus on courts in their roles as administrators and social policy actors. My research question is whether court administrative behavior alters policy outcomes. While Brown v. Board of Education researchers have typically explored the effectiveness of particular policy tools (e.g., busing, magnets, etc.), I focus here on the managerial and policy implications relative to how often and intensively courts use interventions. In other words, I focus on judicial administrative behavior as a possible, if partial, systematic explanation for judicial impact. Using panel data of approximately 125 school districts, my linear findings suggest that court interventions do manifest an impact on policy. However, nonlinear models suggest that the effect of judicial behavior is bounded by degree; extreme degrees on the adjudicative/political powerbroker continuum (see Diver, 1979) may not correspond with positive policy impact. The evidence from public school desegregation suggests that when one examines the question of degree, there are circumstances when judicial behavior closer by degrees to adjudication may be more effective than judicial behavior that is closer to political exchange. If...

Intra-disciplinarity and political study of regional integration : European Union studies, ‘new regionalism’ and democracy

Warleigh, Alex
Fonte: University of Limerick, Department of Politics & Public Administration Publicador: University of Limerick, Department of Politics & Public Administration
Tipo: Research paper; all_ul_research; none
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non-peer-reviewed; no abstract available

Deliberative Democracy: The Effects of Participation on Political Efficacy

Nabatchi, Tina
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
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Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, Public Affairs, 2007; This dissertation examines the relationship between deliberative democracy, the idea that public decisions should be made by discussion among free and equal citizens, and internal and external political efficacy. Internal political efficacy is the extent to which people feel they can competently participate in politics; external political efficacy is the extent to which people feel that government is responsive to their interests. Some scholars assert that deliberative democracy can increase perceptions of political efficacy; however, little empirical research has tested this proposition. To help fill that research gap, this study examines one deliberative process, the AmericaSpeaks 21st Century Town Meeting as convened by United Agenda for Children (UAC), a coalition of public and private organizations who joined to ensure a positive future for all the children (from birth to age 21) of Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. The primary research question is: What impact does participation in the AmericaSpeaks 21st Century Town Meeting have on participants' sense of internal and external political efficacy? This study uses a quasi-experimental research design, with survey data collected at three points in time from two non-equivalent comparison groups (participants and non-participants). Multiple analyses are conducted...

The impact of the Miami Cuban exile's political culture on the 1996 fiscal crisis of the city of Miami

Franco, Alexander
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The purpose of this study was to determine if the political culture of the Miami Cuban exile community was a significant factor in creating the environment that led to the 1996 fiscal crisis of the City of Miami. The study performed an ethnographic case study that utilized a triangulation strategy which included both qualitative and quantitative methods. Focus groups were conducted to ascertain qualitative and quantitative data as to differences among ethnic and generational groups regarding notions of governance, public administration practices, and overall political values and core beliefs. Quantitative data was obtained through a five year and seven month review of newspaper articles from two periodicals based in Miami-Dade County. A review was also conducted of secondary data in audit and management reports, blue ribbon commission studies, Certified Public Manager (CPM) enrollment, and legal case decisions to examine the administrative practices of the City of Miami leading up to and subsequent to its fiscal crisis. The study found that a political subculture of caudillismo was present in Cuban exile core areas of Miami that appears to have had an influence on the administrative practices and notions of governance that led to the fiscal crisis. The author concludes that an imported foreign political culture has imposed itself as a subculture in core areas of the exile community and that the operationalization of this subculture has manifested itself in non-mainstream notions of governance and public administration practices. ^

Variables affecting the success of older applicants for employment in a public organization: An age -cued cognitive model of administrative decision-making

Dunajick, Walter L
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The dissertation takes a multivariate approach to answer the question of how applicant age, after controlling for other variables, affects employment success in a public organization. In addition to applicant age, there are five other categories of variables examined: organization/applicant variables describing the relationship of the applicant to the organization; organization/position variables describing the target position as it relates to the organization; episodic variables such as applicant age relative to the ages of competing applicants; economic variables relating to the salary needs of older applicants; and cognitive variables that may affect the decision maker's evaluation of the applicant. ^ An exploratory phase of research employs archival data from approximately 500 decisions made in the past three years to hire or promote applicants for positions in one public health administration organization. A logit regression model is employed to examine the probability that the variables modify the effect of applicant age on employment success. A confirmatory phase of the dissertation is a controlled experiment in which hiring decision makers from the same public organization perform a simulated hiring decision exercise to evaluate hypothetical applicants of similar qualifications but of different ages. The responses of the decision makers to a series of bipolar adjective scales add support to the cognitive component of the theoretical model of the hiring decision. A final section contains information gathered from interviews with key informants. ^ Applicant age has tended to have a curvilinear relationship with employment success. For some positions...

Selection and passage of county land preservation voter referendum: The role of government

Beaghen, Susan Peabody
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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County jurisdictions in America are increasingly exercising self-government in the provision of public community services through the context of second order federalism. In states exercising this form of contemporary governance, county governments with "reformed" policy-making structures and professional management practices, have begun to rival or surpass municipalities in the delivery of local services with regional implications such as environmental protection (Benton 2002, 2003; Marando and Reeves, 1993). ^ The voter referendum, a form of direct democracy, is an important component of county land preservation and environmental protection governmental policies. The recent growth and success of land preservation voter referendums nationwide reflects an increase in citizen participation in government and their desire to protect vacant land and its natural environment from threats of over-development, urbanization and sprawl, loss of open space and farmland, deterioration of ecosystems, and inadequate park and recreational amenities. ^ The study's design employs a sequential, mixed method. First, a quantitative approach employs the Heckman two-step model. It is fitted with variables for the non-random sample of 227 voter referendum counties and all non-voter referendum counties in the U.S. from 1988 to 2009. Second...

Partnership, politics and public administration: a case study of the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources

Robbins, Sharon B.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Efforts to reform the public sector reflect the social, political and economic environment within which government must function. The recent demands by the public for more consensual decision-making, as well as more efficient, effective and responsive public service, have resulted in a number of reform initiatives, including an emphasis on partnership development. The purpose of this thesis is to examine partnership arrangements within the public sector. Specifically, the thesis will assess the value of partnerships and their impact on government by examining six partnership arrangements involving the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR). The OMNR, having recently been awarded the 1992 Institute of Public Administration of Canada Award for Innovative Management, on the theme of partnership development, is being lauded as an example for other government agencies considering similar alliances. The thesis begins by introducing the concept and practice of partnership within the public sector in general and the OMNR specifically. Descriptive analysis of six OMNR partnerships is provided and a number of criteria are used to determine the success of each of these arrangements. Special attention is paid to the political implications of partnerships and to those attributes which appear to contribute to the successful establishment and iii maintenance of partnership arrangements. The conclusion is drawn that partnerships provide the government with an opportunity to address public demands for greater involvement in decision-making while accommodating government's limited financial resources. However...

The pobladores and local democracy in Chile : the case of El Bosque and Peñalolén

Rivera-Ottenberger, Anny Ximena, 1955-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 444 p.; 23249902 bytes; 23311779 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) models of local governance, questioning blanket statements about the virtues of political decentralization. The managerial elitist" model favors individual participation and technical/centralized decision-making that precludes public deliberation. It hardly engages the pobladores' organizations in the local polity and policymaking, fostering organizational fragmentation, selective deactivation and cientism. The "participatory-deliberative" style combines innovative adaptation of public policies to "fit" the local demand, extensive use of networks and public forums. It generates pre-political spaces that pave the way for the pobladores' organizations to scale-up decisionmaking in the local government or along policy networks at higher levels.; In the 1990's, two state reforms in Chile placed the grassroots organizations of the pobladores--the once powerful urban squatters' movement--in a unique position to use their organizational experience in self-govenment and small-scale service delivery. Decentralization endowed the municipalities with enhanced resources and authority and new decentralized social policies demanded community participation. This favorable context was offset by institutional constraints on the national political system and by the mayor-centric and managerial design of the new municipality...

The Greek government’s target of zero public sector layoffs and the troika’s of 150,000 over ten years are both ultimately self-defeating

Featherstone, Kevin
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/07/2012 Português
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The new Greek government recently announced that there would be no layoffs in the public sector, flying in the face of the country’s agreements with the IMF and the ECB to implement public administration reforms. For Kevin Featherstone, the futility of this target is matched by the troika’s (the ECB, EU, and IMF) demand for 150,000 public sector job cuts over the next 10 years. He argues that both of these targets are self-defeating and will do nothing to encourage Greece to change its priorities towards designing a new economic model for the country.

The Public Administration Select Committee continues to push for greater leadership on reforms and for more strategic thought at the heart of government

Jenkin, Bernard
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/01/2012 Português
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One of the main accusations that have been levelled at the current government, despite its ambitious reform agenda, is that it does not ‘do’ strategy. Ahead of a lecture at the LSE tonight, the Chairman of the Public Administration Select Committee, Bernard Jenkin MP, looks at the recent work of the committee that aims to redress this criticism through many enquiries, including reducing the number of ministers, using IT in government much more intelligently and efficiently, reforming the civil service, and implementing the Big Society agenda.

Book review: Elite statecraft and election administration: bending the rules of the game?

Brighton, Paul
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/03/2013 Português
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Electoral administration is a topic that only occasionally and dramatically breaks into the public consciousness, but is otherwise the province of the political obsessive. Paul Brighton finds that some of the most important examples of such moments are surprisingly absent from Elite Statecraft and Election Administration, but nonetheless he believes that Toby S. James has written a timely book which serves as a useful reminder that the prominence of electoral administration constitutes a barometer for democratic vitality.

Globalizing public administration: today's research and tomorrow's agenda

Gulrajani, Nilima; Moloney, Kim
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American Society for Public Administration Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American Society for Public Administration
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2012 Português
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What is the relationship between public administration scholarship and the study of developing countries? This article answers this question by presenting the intellectual history of administrative studies of the global South and by examining recent empirical studies of developing country administration. The results suggest that administrative research on the developing world published in leading international publications has become a small-scale, disparate, descriptive, qualitative, and noncomparative subfield dominated by researchers from the global North. This empirical finding provides a platform to end a false North–South administrative dichotomy and advance a vision for public administration as a global social science.

In quest for accountability in Greek public administration: the case of the Taxation Information System (TAXIS)

Prasopoulou, Elpida
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science, Hellenic Observatory Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science, Hellenic Observatory
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2011 Português
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The paper examines how specific properties of the Greek political system such as legalism, clientelism and an authoritarian notion of accountability influence the deployment of information and communication technologies in the public sector. The paper argues that the reasons for this should be traced in the way bureaucratic clientelism deploys ex-ante accountability combined with procedural ambiguity within public organisations as a mechanism for the solidification of patron-client relationships both at the top and bottom of the administrative echelon. As such, findings fill a lacuna in existing literature by showing how the practices and operation of Greek public administration condition ICT implementations in ways that are not conducive to actual reform. Thus, research in Greek public administration moves from traditional issues of clientelism and corruption to examine the underlying paradigm of action and the repercussions of the absence of a solid techno-scientific rationality for its operations.

Non-embedded autonomy: the political economy of Mexico’s rentier state, 1970–2010

Farfán-Mares, Gabriel
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2010 Português
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Due to its competitive political system and strong non-oil export capacity, Mexico is not considered an oil Rentier State. Yet, the consistent and intensive use of crude oil has fundamentally altered the trajectory of its political economy. State institutions, which had consistently relied on oil rents to finance their operations, tend to preserve social stability and political consensus rather than promote development. The central bureaucracy’s need to control oil rent strengthens and reinforces the role of budgetary institutions within politics and administration. Budget institutions provide the government with an inordinate degree of discretion to allocate the budget, a capacity that supports the State’s political legitimation and helps to overcome economic turmoil. Paradoxically, oil produces a policy curse that reinforces the State’s socio-political embeddedness at the expense of its economic leverage. Thus, undermining the incentives for public officials to tax and deliver expenditure quality, thereby deepening the State’s detachment from normal economic behaviour. Oil rent maximization serves to increase the size and cost of public employment and the magnitude of transfers and subsidies at the expense of gross fixed public investment...

Organisational politics and information systems implementation: the case of the Indian public administration.

Balakrishna, Sridharan
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1999 Português
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Today, many developing countries are embarking on ambitious programmes to develop large computer-based information systems within their public administration to promote socio-economic development. However, the overall objectives of these investments remain unfulfilled. Success and failures of information systems are largely determined by the performance of organizational members associated with the development and use of information systems. Performance of these members is primarily determined by individual competencies and the environment in which the activities of these members are taking place. Information systems related education and training to create competent individuals has always been a matter of great concern to almost all developing countries. However, public administration in developing countries is an intensely political affair. Organizational politics very often give birth to a number of macro and micro environmental conditions, which constrain certain courses of action of competent individuals. Therefore, individuals, however competent, cannot perform to the best of their abilities. This invariably results in information systems that are ineffective and inefficient. Systematic empirical studies that can increase our understanding of this domain are virtually non-existent. The current research aims to rectify this issue. The research methodology adopted for the current research assumes that organizational members...

Social scientists and public administration in the Lula da Silva government

Araujo,Maria Celina D'; Lameirão,Camila
Fonte: Brazilian Political Science Review (Online) Publicador: Brazilian Political Science Review (Online)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 Português
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We focus here on a new theme among studies on the Social Sciences in Brazil, namely, the presence of social scientists in high-level office in the federal government, whether as directors or advisers. In general, studies on the social sciences in Brazil are devoted to examining the academic profile of their founders, the contents prioritized in the disciplines, processes of institutionalization and methodologies adopted, among other aspects. However, there has never been an examination of the place of the social scientist in the division of labour of the state bureaucracy, in the market and close to those in power. By means of empirical research, we have ascertained that individuals with this academic background have a notable presence in the Lula da Silva government (2003-2006; 2007- ). Our hypothesis is that this presence cannot be explained chiefly by the specificity of the knowledge produced by this set of disciplines. Instead, one has to look at other variables, especially social scientists' link with the public service.