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Jovens em conflito com a lei: a violência na vida cotidiana.; Young people in conflict with the law: the violence in the quotidian life.

Pereira, Fernanda Renata Paziani
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/09/2002 Português
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A violência urbana faz parte do cotidiano de nossa sociedade e vem incidindo especialmente sobre os adolescentes que praticam atos infracionais. A necessidade de conhecer as multiplas visões de algo tão complexo, que muitas vezes é reduzido a explicações causais, motivou a realização deste estudo, que teve por objetivos investigar os significados relativos: à violência na vida cotidiana; aos riscos que julgam correr em suas vidas, e às perspectivas para o futuro. Participaram deste estudo 45 adolescentes do sexo masculino, com idade entre 15 e 18 anos, internos na FEBEM-RP. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas individuais, “Oficinas sobre Risco” e notas de diário de campo. A abordagem adotada foi qualitativa, com enfoque interpretativista que privilegia os pontos de vista dos participantes. A análise dos dados mostra que os participantes começaram a praticar atos infracionais pela condição sócio-econômica; por influência dos amigos; pela violência doméstica, e por aliciamento feito pela família. A violência é concebida por eles como uma maneira de agir quando os meios legais não oferecem mais garantias de sobrevivência e de respeito à condição humana. Ao mesmo tempo em que os adolescentes praticam violência...

Risk in Irish society: moving to a crime control model of justice

Kilcommins, Shane
Fonte: The Probation Service Publicador: The Probation Service
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
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peer-reviewed; David Garland, in his book, The Culture of Control, has recently set out the following indices of change which he believes are evident in the criminal justice systems of many western countries. They are as follows: • the Decline of the rehabilitative ideal • the re-emergence of punitive sanctions and expressive justice • changes in the emotional tone • the return of the victim • the public must be protected • the politicization of law and order • the reinvention of the prison • the transformation in criminological thought • the Expanding Infrastructure of crime prevention • the commercialization of control • new management styles • a perpetual sense of crisis; PUBLISHED; peer-reviewed

The Development Impact of the Illegality of Drug Trade

Keefer, Philip; Loayza, Norman V.; Soares, Rodrigo R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This paper reviews the unintended consequences of the war on drugs, particularly for developing countries, and weighs them against the evidence regarding the efficacy of prohibition to curb drug use and trade. It reviews the available evidence and presents new results that indicate that prohibition has limited effects on drug prevalence and prices, most likely indicating a combination of inelastic drug demand (due to its addictive properties) and elastic supply responses (due to black markets). This should turn the focus to the unintended consequences of drug prohibition. First, the large demand for drugs, particularly in developed countries, generates the possibility of massive profits to potential drug providers. This leads to the formation of organized crime groups, which use violence and corruption as their means of survival and expansion and which, in severe cases, challenge the state and seriously compromise public stability and safety. Second, prohibition and its derived illegal market impose greater costs on farmers than on drug traffickers. In many instances...

Review of the application of science and technology to crime control

United States -- Congress. -- House. -- Committee on Science and Technology. -- Subcommittee on Domestic and International Scientific Planning and Analysis
Fonte: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington ) Publicador: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: vii, 25 p. : ; 23 cm.
Publicado em //1976 Português
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Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from LexisNexis Academic & Library Solutions.; CIS Microfiche Accession Numbers: CIS 77 H702-3; Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from Congressional Information Service, Inc.; At head of title: Committee print.; (Statement of Responsibility) Subcommittee on Domestic and International Scientific Planning and Analysis of the Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-fourth Congress, second session ...

Cross-border trafficking in human beings: prevention and intervention strategies for reducing sexual exploitation

van der Laan, Peter; Smit, Monika; Busschers, Inge; Aarten, Pauline
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Aufsatz; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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Over the years, growing attention has been given to the phenomenon of trafficking in human beings (THB). Sexual exploitation was until recently by far the most commonly identified feature of THB, followed by forced labour. Many activities to combat trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation have been initiated by numerous supranational, international as well as national organizations. Much is written about these initiatives, but some areas have been neglected. Knowledge on ‘what works’ is in particular limited. The growing attention to THB entails a demand for more information. The severity of the crime and the impact on its victims makes it of utmost importance to gain more insight into the working and effectiveness of anti-trafficking strategies and interventions. The main objective of this review was to assess the presently available evidence on the effects of interventions that aim to prevent and suppress trafficking in human beings.

Hot spots policing effects on crime

Braga, Anthony A.; Papachristos, Andrew; Hureau, David
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Aufsatz; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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In recent years, crime scholars and practitioners have pointed to the potential benefits of focusing crime prevention efforts on crime places. A number of studies suggest that there is significant clustering of crime in small places, or “hot spots,” that generate half of all criminal events. A number of researchers have argued that many crime problems can be reduced more efficiently if police officers focused their attention to these deviant places. The appeal of focusing limited resources on a small number of high-activity crime places is straightforward. If we can prevent crime at these hot spots, then we might be able to reduce total crime. Objectives: To assess the effects of focused police crime prevention interventions at crime hot spots. The review also examined whether focused police actions at specific locations result in crime displacement (i.e., crime moving around the corner) or diffusion (i.e., crime reduction in surrounding areas) of crime control benefits.

Corporate Crime Deterrence: A Systematic Review

Simpson, Sally S.; Rorie, Melissa; Alper, Mariel; Schell-Busey, Natalie; Laufer, William S.; Smith, N. Craig
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Aufsatz; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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Corporate crime is a poorly understood problem with little known about effective strategies to prevent and control it. Competing definitions of corporate crime affect how the phenomenon is studied and implications for reducing it. Therefore, in this review, we use John Braithwaite’s definition (1984: 6) which specifies that corporate crime is “the conduct of a corporation, or of employees acting on behalf of a corporation, which is proscribed and punishable by law.” Consistent with this approach, this review focuses on various legal strategies aimed at companies and their officials/managers to curtail corporate crime. Interventions may be punitive or cooperative, but the goal is to prevent offending and increase levels of corporate compliance. Our overall objective is to identify and synthesize published and unpublished studies on formal legal and administrative prevention and control strategies—i.e., the actions and programs of government law enforcement agencies, legislative bodies, and regulatory agencies on corporate crime. We then assess the impact of these strategies on individual and company offending. Included are legal and administrative interventions such as new laws or changes in laws, inspections by regulatory agencies...

Effects of improved street lighting on crime

Welsh, Brandon C.; Farrington, David P.
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Aufsatz; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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Improved street lighting serves many functions and is used in both public and private settings. The prevention of personal and property crime is one of its objectives in public space, which is the main focus of this review. There are two main theories of why improved street lighting may cause a reduction in crime. The first suggests that improved lighting leads to increased surveillance of potential offenders (both by improving visibility and by increasing the number of people on the street) and hence to increased deterrence of potential offenders. The second suggests that improved lighting signals community investment in the area and that the area is improving, leading to increased community pride, community cohesiveness, and informal social control. The first theory predicts decreases in crime especially during the hours of darkness, while the second theory predicts decreases in crime during both daytime and nighttime. Results of this review indicate that improved street lighting significantly reduces crime. This lends support for the continued use of improved street lighting to prevent crime in public space. The review also found that nighttime crimes did not decrease more than daytime crimes. This suggests that a theory of street lighting focusing on its role in increasing community pride and informal social control may be more plausible than a theory focusing on increased surveillance and increased deterrence. Future research should be designed to test the main theories of the effects of improved street lighting more explicitly...

Effects of closed circuit television surveillance on crime

Welsh, Brandon C.; Farrington, David P.
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Aufsatz; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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Closed circuit television (CCTV) surveillance cameras serve many functions and are used in both public and private settings. The prevention of personal and property crime is among the primary objectives in public space, which is the main focus of this review. CCTV is viewed as a technique of “formal surveillance” and in this regard it is seen to enhance or take the place of security personnel. Results of this review indicate that CCTV has a modest but significant desirable effect on crime, is most effective in reducing crime in car parks, is most effective when targeted at vehicle crimes (largely a function of the successful car park schemes), and is more effective in reducing crime in the United Kingdom than in other countries. These results lend support for the continued use of CCTV to prevent crime in public space, but suggest that it be more narrowly targeted than its present use would indicate. Future CCTV schemes should employ high-quality evaluation designs with long follow-up periods.

Prevention of Organised Crime. A situational approach

Bunt, Henk van de; Schoot, Cathelijne van der
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Buch (Monographie); info:eu-repo/semantics/book
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This final report is part of the Falcone project entitled ‘The Identification and Prevention of Opportunities that Facilitate Organised Crime’. Four participating countries, namely Finland, Hungary, Italy and the Netherlands, have each drawn up a report in which 15 cases of organised crime are described and analysed. These descriptions are based on data from police files. The goal of this analysis is to reveal the interfaces between the legitimate and illegitimate environments and to generate possibilities for preventive action. These indications for possible preventive interventions are called ‘red flags’. This final report comprises these ‘red flags’ from the four national reports and examines four selected topics in more depth: the role of public administration and local businesses, the legal professions, official and informal financial services, and forged official documents. The preventive approach is not primarily aimed at the perpetrators of organised crime, but rather at the facilitating circumstances of organised crime. It addresses governments, civilians and enterprises and is an attempt to make them feel responsible for the prevention of organised crime. The message is actually quite simple: if criminal organisations are able to easily acquire or access resources...

Albania's counter-terrorism policy options: finding a strategy of common sense

Gjiknuri, Damian
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: x, 116 p. : col. maps
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Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; This research will assess the counter-terrorism policy options available to Albanian authorities. As part of this investigation, it will consider the nature of the terrorism threat, review the counter-terrorism policies that have been pursued in the past, and weigh the strengths and weaknesses of the current policy. These elements will provide background for an analysis of the available policy models on the basis of four main criteria: 1) political feasibility; 2) legal and constitutional constraints; 3) foreign policy objectives and 4) effectiveness. The state policy options this study will analyze can be placed under four broad categories: a) deterrence through hard line measures including military operation and emergency powers; b) co-option and conciliation; c) pursuit of sanctuary or a passive policy; or d) deterrence via criminal justice. All these options might be plausibly implemented by Albania; indeed they have been used at different times in different countries. The working hypothesis of this investigation is that a policy based mainly on deterrence through criminal justice will be the most effective way to counter the internal threats that Albania faces while improving the countrys international standing.; Civilian...

Policing the homeland : choosing the intelligent option

Guidetti, Raymond A.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 95 p. : ill. (col.) ;
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CHDS State/Local; Shortly after September 11, 2001, our nation's law enforcement community found itself ill prepared to handle the range of responsibilities required in a nation under the threat of terrorism. Police organizations hastily assigned resources to help mitigate areas hit hard by the attack while dispersing investigative capital to prevent future strikes. A stark realization would follow, exposing the demands of coping with counter-terrorism while balancing finite resources aimed at traditional crime fighting. These added challenges underscored the notion that American policing had entered a new era - Homeland Security. This thesis evaluates the options state police organizations have for adopting an appropriate style of policing for Homeland Security. A case study of the New Jersey State Police (NJSP) response to this challenge further examines how such organizations can transform their structures and processes to bolster their intelligence apparatus. The NJSP objective was to confront the challenges of Homeland Security while better equipping the organization to respond to its traditional investigative responsibilities. Using the example of the NJSP, the study provides a realistic set of solutions for other state police organizations to implement when setting their own course in the Homeland Security Era.; Detective Sergeant (DSG)...

The tools of prevention : building prevention and deterrence into exercise programs

Meehan, Michael K.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 122 p. : ill. ;
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CHDS State/Local; This thesis will briefly explore the questions surrounding why prevention has typically not been incorporated into homeland security exercises and strives to document and demonstrate that prevention can be exercised. It will look at various prevention strategies, most notably, "All-Crimes," Information Sharing, Private Sector Security, Attack Trees, Red-Teaming, and Behavioral Analysis, to determine how these prevention-related tools can be integrated into exercise design and conduct. These tools can be used in exercises individually or in groups. They are, however, not the end-state, as other tools undoubtedly exist. Prevention as a science and a skill is still in its infancy; with additional research, analysis, and practice, maturity will come. This thesis also endeavors to provide a road map for agencies desiring to understand and exercise prevention activities. Understanding that prevention can be practiced and exercised through the use of certain tools is one significant step in having the guidance necessary to begin a prevention exercise, or better, a complete prevention exercise program. Agencies using these tools, working within the Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) Guidelines, and using technical expertise available from local...

Community policing as the primary prevention strategy for Homeland Security at the local law enforcement level

Docobo, Jose Miguel
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 83 p. : ill. (some col.)
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CHDS State/Local; Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; In the wake of September 11, 2001, local law enforcement agencies throughout the country find themselves struggling to identify their responsibilities and define their future role in the effort against terrorism in our homeland. At a time when law enforcement organizations are competing for limited funds and resources, agencies will have to look at how to adapt existing policing philosophies and strategies, such as community-oriented policing, to address the issue of homeland security. The goal of terrorism is centered in creating an atmosphere of fear in society to achieve a philosophical goal. Terrorism is about the impact of its violence on society. This requires the application of the basic concepts of law enforcement: protection and prevention to terrorism. As a result of the events of September 11, 2001, law enforcement agencies have had to assimilate homeland security strategies into their existing responsibilities for combating crime and maintaining social order. This thesis will identify how homeland security prevention and deterrence responsibilities efforts can be effectively integrated into local law enforcement's existing community policing framework. This thesis will also study attempt to identify the extent to which local law enforcement agencies in the state of Florida have adopted community-policing efforts into their homeland security strategy.; Chief Deputy...

Spatial displacement and diffusion of benefits among geographically focused policing initiatives

Bowers, Kate; Johnson, Shane; Guerette, Rob T.; Summers, Lucia; Poynton, Suzanne
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Aufsatz; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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One of the most common criticisms of spatially focused policing efforts (such as Problem-Oriented Policing, police 'crackdowns' or hotspots policing) is that crime will simply relocate to other times and places since the ―root causes‖ of crime were not addressed. This phenomenon—called crime displacement—has important implications for many policing projects. By far, spatial displacement (movement of crime from a treatment area to an area nearby) is the form most commonly recognized. At the extreme, widespread displacement stands to undermine the effects of geographically focused policing actions. More often, however, research suggests that crime displacement is rarely total. On the other end of the displacement continuum is the phenomenon of ‗diffusion of crime control benefits‘ (a term coined by Ron Clarke and David Weisburd in 1994). Diffusion occurs when reductions of crime (or other improvements) are achieved in areas that are close to crime prevention interventions, even though those areas were not actually targeted by the intervention itself. Objectives: To synthesize the evidence concerning the degree to which geographically focused policing initiatives are related to spatial displacement of crime or diffusion of the crime control benefits. Main results: The main findings of the meta-analysis suggested that on average geographically focused policing initiatives for which data were available were (1) associated with significant reductions in crime and disorder and that (2) overall...

Crime, Violence, and Development : Trends, Costs, and Policy Options in the Caribbean

World Bank; United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
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The report on Crime, violence, and development: trends, costs, and policy options in the Caribbean, is organized as follows. It begins with an overview of crime in the region, separately considering conventional and organized crime. Two subsequent chapters examine risk factors and the costs of crime for the region as a whole. Next, a series of chapters presents case studies designed to highlight particular issues in specific countries. These case studies were chosen in order to provide a detailed analysis of the most pressing issues that are amenable to policy making at the regional and national levels. The specific issues were chosen in consultation with stakeholders in the region to ensure that the report was responding to their demands and needs. The report ends with a chapter on public policy responses to crime in the region. The report states that through multiple channels, crime and violence threaten the welfare of Caribbean citizens. Beyond the direct effect on victims, crime and violence inflict widespread costs...

Prevención comunitaria del delito en América Latina: desafíos y oportunidades

Dammert, Lucía
Fonte: Universidade do Rosário Publicador: Universidade do Rosário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/04/2010 Português
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En la última década la prevención del delito se ha colocado en el debate académico y político de seguridad en América Latina. El involucramiento de la comunidad en este tipo de iniciativas ha tenido especial énfasis, sin embargo, las mismas han sido enfrentadas de forma confusa. Esta situación permite la consolidación de un discurso autoritario sobre la delincuencia y, a su vez, la aparición de procesos negativos como los linchamientos de supuestos delincuentes, actos que se presentan en la mayoría de países latinoamericanos. En este marco, el presente artículo define una aproximación conceptual a la participación comunitaria del delito, rescatando algunas prácticas prometedoras, así como identificando los principales desafíos pendientes para lograr una perspectiva integral y efectiva en la disminución de la violencia y la delincuencia.-----The prevention of the crime has been placed in the center of the academic and political security debate in Latin America. The involvement of the community has had special emphasis in this type of initiatives, nevertheless it has been faced not in a clear form. This situation encourages the consolidation of an authoritarian discourse and at the same time the emergence of negative processes such as lynching of supposed delinquents in many Latin-American countries nowadays. The present article defines a conceptual framework for community crime prevention...

O crime de lavagem de dinheiro: contexto nacional e internacional

Martins, Andrea
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: Texto
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O presente trabalho tem por objetivo demonstrar as ações internacionais e nacionais no combate ao crime de lavagem de dinheiro, bem como as iniciativas de organismos essenciais na prevenção e na implementação de leis que fiscalizem o sistema financeiro. A lavagem de dinheiro é um procedimento pelo qual se transforma os valores e bens patrimoniais adquiridos por meio de atividades ilegais, dando-lhes um aspecto de legalidade, integrando-os à economia ou ao sistema financeiro como resultado de uma operação aparentemente lícita. O trabalho apresenta os aspectos históricos; as etapas do processo de lavagem; os importantes instrumentos sobre o tema; as iniciativas de grupos que constituíram os pontos de partidas fundamentais no combate a esse fenômeno e apresentando os principais dispositivos legais adotados no Brasil a respeito do enfrentamento da questão.; The present work aims to demonstrate the international and national actions to combat the crime of money laundering, as well as initiatives of key bodies in the prevention and the implementation of laws that oversee the financial system. Money laundering is a procedure by which transforms the values and heritage assets acquired through illegal activities, giving them an appearance of legality...

Compendium of United Nations standards and norms in crime prevention and criminal justice

Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Sonstiges; info:eu-repo/semantics/other
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The first edition of the Compendium of United Nations Standards and Norms in Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice was published in 1992. Between the first edition of the Compendium and the present one, new standards and norms have been developed and five binding legal instruments have been negotiated and adopted by the international community: the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its three supplementary protocols (the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air and the Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition) and the United Nations Convention against Corruption. The standards and norms in crime prevention and criminal justice, developed over the last 60 years have paved the way to the adoption of those conventions and have provided a starting point for their negotiation. Now the hope is that those legal instruments will reinforce and strengthen the value and significance of the standards and norms, by eliciting the kind of system-wide cooperation that will give full weight to their further application. The present edition of the Compendium has been structured according to a new clustering system articulated as follows: (a) standards and norms related primarily to persons in custody...

Cyber trust and crime prevention: a synthesis of the state-of-the-art science reviews

Collins, Brian S.; Mansell, Robin
Fonte: Office of Science and Technology Publicador: Office of Science and Technology
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/06/2004 Português
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This report provides a synthesis of theoretical and empirical work in the sciences and social sciences that indicates the drivers, opportunities, threats, and barriers to the future evolution of cyberspace and the feasibility of crime prevention measures. It is based on 10 state-of-the-art science reviews commissioned by the UK Office of Science and Technology Foresight Project. Each of the papers highlights the current state of knowledge in selected areas as well as gaps in the evidence base needed to address issues of cyber trust and crime prevention in the future.