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Psicologia ambiental, Psicologia do Desenvolvimento e Educação Infantil: integração possível?; Environmental and Developmental Psychology and Early Childhood Education: is there a possible integration?; Psicología ambiental, Psicología del Desarrollo y Educación Infantil: ¿es posible esa integración?

CAMPOS-DE-CARVALHO, Mara; SOUZA, Tatiana Noronha de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.715156%
Objetiva-se mostrar como vem sendo feita a integração entre Psicologia Ambiental, Psicologia do Desenvolvimento e Educação Infantil, tendo como base pesquisas empíricas com foco na organização espacial em creches, agrupadas em duas linhas: (1) pesquisas sobre arranjo espacial (maneira como móveis/equipamentos estão posicionados em salas de crianças de 1-2/2-3/3-4 anos), evidenciaram como um dos elementos ambientais mediadores da interação criança-criança e criança-educador favorece certas práticas educativas e interativas e impede outras; (2) estudos sobre uma escala norte-americana de avaliação de qualidade de ambientes infantis coletivos e outro sobre análise de princípios de qualidade de creches em documentos nacionais e estrangeiros indicaram a adequabilidade da escala para nosso contexto e o compartilhamento de indicadores de qualidade. Tais dados empíricos demonstram a possibilidade de integração entre Psicologia Ambiental, do Desenvolvimento e Educação Infantil.; This paper aimed to show the integration between Environmental Psychology, Developmental Psychology, and Early Childhood Education, focusing on two groups of empirical studies on spatial organization in day-care centers: (1) studies on spatial arrangement (the way in which furniture / equipments are arranged in rooms for 1-2/2-3/3-4 year-old children); (2) studies on a North-American scale for assessing the quality of center-based child care...

Escolarização de pessoas com transtornos globais do desenvolvimento: possibilidades de atuação no campo da psicologia; SCHOOLING OF PEOPLE WITH PERSUASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER : POSSIBILITIES OF PERFORMANCE IN PSICOLOGY BRANCHES

Braunstein, Valeria Campinas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/06/2012 Português
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Este trabalho é resultado de uma pesquisa de cunho qualitativo, que teve como objetivos descrever os parâmetros que norteiam práticas em psicologia escolar frente às demandas relacionadas ao aluno com Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento. Apresenta a demanda, a compreensão desses transtornos dos pontos de vista médico e social, algumas possibilidades de atuação em psicologia e subsídios para a formação profissional. À luz de uma psicologia que se propõe crítica, discute-se a atuação de profissionais no trabalho junto a esses alunos, a escolas e equipes multidisciplinares. Ao final, discute um fazer do psicólogo, que espelha a diversidade, tanto da ciência psicológica, enquanto teorias e práticas, quanto da sociedade. Concluímos ser indispensável o trabalho do psicólogo nas escolas, porém nota-se a emergente necessidade de repensar as intervenções de modo que as mesmas possam contribuir coletivamente e efetivamente para a democratização do ensino e para a transformação social.; This work is the result of a qualitative research, which aimed to describe the parameters that guide the practice of school psychology to meet the demands related to the student with a Pervasive Developmental Disorder-PDD. Displays the demand...

The systems approach in developmental psychology: fundamental concepts and principles

Tinajero,Carolina; Páramo,M. Fernanda
Fonte: Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 Português
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37.641968%
Developmental Psychology seems to have come to an unifying theoretical framework which may make feasible to overcome the fragmentation so frequently referred to within the discipline. This is indicated by the widespread support being given to the systems approach, enriched by dialectic and contextual postulates. In this article, we briefly review the antecedents of this approach and explore its core concepts, indicating their roots and the precise way in which they are applied to developmental analyses today. We also examine the implications of the systems approach for developmental investigation, and its challenges.

Developmental cognitive genetics: How psychology can inform genetics and vice versa

Bishop, Dorothy V. M.
Fonte: Psychology Press Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Psychology Press Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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37.641968%
Developmental neuropsychology is concerned with uncovering the underlying basis of developmental disorders such as specific language impairment (SLI), developmental dyslexia, and autistic disorder. Twin and family studies indicate that genetic influences play an important part in the aetiology of all of these disorders, yet progress in identifying genes has been slow. One way forward is to cut loose from conventional clinical criteria for diagnosing disorders and to focus instead on measures of underlying cognitive mechanisms. Psychology can inform genetics by clarifying what the key dimensions are for heritable phenotypes. However, it is not a one-way street. By using genetically informative designs, one can gain insights about causal relationships between different cognitive deficits. For instance, it has been suggested that low-level auditory deficits cause phonological problems in SLI. However, a twin study showed that, although both types of deficit occur in SLI, they have quite different origins, with environmental factors more important for auditory deficit, and genes more important for deficient phonological short-term memory. Another study found that morphosyntactic deficits in SLI are also highly heritable, but have different genetic origins from impairments of phonological short-term memory. A genetic perspective shows that a search for the underlying cause of developmental disorders may be misguided...

Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Anxious Adolescents: Developmental Influences on Treatment Design and Delivery

Sauter, Floor M.; Heyne, David; Michiel Westenberg, P.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Anxiety disorders in adolescence are common and disruptive, pointing to a need for effective treatments for this age group. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is one of the most popular interventions for adolescent anxiety, and there is empirical support for its application. However, a significant proportion of adolescent clients continue to report anxiety symptoms post-treatment. This paper underscores the need to attend to the unique developmental characteristics of the adolescent period when designing and delivering treatment, in an effort to enhance treatment effectiveness. Informed by the literature from developmental psychology, developmental psychopathology, and clinical child and adolescent psychology, we review the ‘why’ and the ‘how’ of developmentally appropriate CBT for anxious adolescents. ‘Why’ it is important to consider developmental factors in designing and delivering CBT for anxious adolescents is addressed by examining the age-related findings of treatment outcome studies and exploring the influence of developmental factors, including cognitive capacities, on engagement in CBT. ‘How’ clinicians can developmentally tailor CBT for anxious adolescents in six key domains of treatment design and delivery is illustrated with suggestions drawn from both clinically and research-oriented literature. Finally...

Beyond different levels: embodiment and the developmental system

Marshall, Peter J.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/08/2014 Português
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The value of studying a phenomenon at multiple levels of analysis is often emphasized in psychology, but a lack of clarity about the nature of levels and the relations among them remains an impediment to progress. The suggestion here is that an approach combining the tenets of embodiment with the construct of the developmental system provides a way forward. Embodiment opposes the splitting off and elevation of a level of mechanisms that has characterized much of cognitive science. In contrast, a constructivist embodied approach places a level of mechanisms in the context of a formal or systems level of analysis, with developmental process framing the interpenetrating relations between levels. Such an approach stems from a relational worldview that opposes conceptual splits and posits that levels of structure and process comprise an indissociable complementarity. The combination of embodiment and developmental systems within a relational worldview is discussed and elaborated through outlining the integrative approach of relational developmental systems, which has been proposed as a scientific paradigm within which formulations of the interrelations among brain, body, and mind can be advanced.

Developmental Trajectories of Resting EEG Power: An Endophenotype of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Tierney, Adrienne Leigh; Nelson, Charles A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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47.51863%
Current research suggests that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by asynchronous neural oscillations. However, it is unclear whether changes in neural oscillations represent an index of the disorder or are shared more broadly among both affected and unaffected family members. Additionally, it remains unclear how early these differences emerge in development and whether they remain constant or change over time. In this study we examined developmental trajectories in spectral power in infants at high- or low-risk for ASD. Spectral power was extracted from resting EEG recorded over frontal regions of the scalp when infants were 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. We used multilevel modeling to assess change over time between risk groups in the delta, theta, low alpha, high alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands. The results indicated that across all bands, spectral power was lower in high-risk infants as compared to low-risk infants at 6-months of age. Furthermore high-risk infants showed different trajectories of change in spectral power in the subsequent developmental window indicating that not only are the patterns of change different, but that group differences are dynamic within the first two years of life. These findings remained the same after removing data from a subset of participants who displayed ASD related behaviors at 24 or 36 months. These differences in the nature of the trajectories of EEG power represent important endophenotypes of ASD.

Developmental trajectories of marijuana use and psychological distress : exploring the co-occurrence of these phenomena in early adolescence

Ziba-Tanguay, Kali
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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47.2%
Le début de l’adolescence est une période de changements rapides où la détresse psychologique et l’expérimentation de la marijuana sont choses fréquentes. Certaines études longitudinales ont démontré que ces deux phénomènes ont tendance à se manifester conjointement tandis que d’autres n’ont pu observer de tel lien. Ces résultats divergents suggèrent que plusieurs questions persistent concernant la nature de cette relation. Cette thèse a pour objectif d’explorer la consommation de marijuana et la détresse psychologique en début d’adolescence afin de mieux saisir les changements à travers le temps, ainsi que d’examiner si ces deux problématiques évoluent conjointement et s’influencent réciproquement. Un échantillon de 448 adolescents garçons et filles fréquentant deux écoles secondaires de Montréal, ont été suivi de secondaire I à secondaire III. De 1999 à 2001, les participants ont complété un questionnaire à chaque année de l’étude incluant des mesures portant sur la consommation de marijuana et la détresse psychologique (IDPESQ-14). Un modèle de mixture semi-paramétrique (Nagin, 2005) a été utilisé afin d’identifier les trajectoires développementales de la consommation de marijuana et de détresse psychologique. Des analyses ont également été effectuées afin d’établir les liens d’appartenance entre chacune des trajectoires de consommation identifiées et la détresse psychologique lors de la première année de l`étude...

Developmental and individual differences in novelty and error detection in 10-year-old children and young adults /

Santesso, Diane L.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Event-related potentials were recorded from 10-year-old children and young adults in order to examine the developmental dififerences in two frontal lobe functions: detection of novel stimuli during an auditory novelty oddball task, and error detection during a visual flanker task. All participants showed a parietally-maximal P3 in response to auditory stimuli. In children, novel stimuli generated higher P3 amplitudes at the frontal site compared with target stimuli, whereas target stimuli generated higher P3 amplitudes at the parietal site compared with novel stimuli. Adults, however, had higher P3 amplitude to novel tones compared with target tones at each site. Children also had greater P3 amplitude at more parietal sites than adults during the novelty oddball and flanker tasks. Furthermore, children and adults did not show a significant reduction in P3 amplitude from the first to second novel stimulus presentation. No age differences were found with respect to P3 latency to novel and target stimuli. These findings suggest that the detection of novel and target stimuli is mature in 10-year-olds. Error trials typically elicit a negative ERP deflection (the ERN) with a frontal-central scalp distribution that may reflect response monitoring. There is also evidence of a positive ERP peak (the Pe) with a posterior scalp distribution which may reflect subjective recognition of a response. Both children and adults showed an ERN and Pe maximal at frontal-central sites. Children committed more errors...

An investigation of multiple pathways of developmental intervention change

Eichas, Kyle Robert
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Convergence among treatment, prevention, and developmental intervention approaches has led to the recognition of the need for evaluation models and research designs that employ a full range of evaluation information to provide an empirical basis for enhancing the efficiency, efficacy, and effectiveness of prevention and positive development interventions. This study reports an investigation of a positive youth development program using an Outcome Mediation Cascade (OMC) evaluation model, an integrated model for evaluating the empirical intersection between intervention and developmental processes. The Changing Lives Program (CLP) is a community supported positive youth development intervention implemented in a practice setting as a selective/indicated program for multi-ethnic, multi-problem at risk youth in urban alternative high schools.^ This study used a Relational Data Analysis integration of quantitative and qualitative data analysis strategies, including the use of both fixed and free response measures and a structural equation modeling approach, to construct and evaluate the hypothesized OMC model. Findings indicated that the hypothesized model fit the data (χ2 (7) = 6.991, p = .43; RMSEA = .00; CFI = 1.00; WRMR = .459). Findings also provided preliminary evidence consistent with the hypothesis that in addition to having effects on targeted positive outcomes...

A developmental intervention science outreach research approach to promoting positive youth development

Rinaldi, Roberto L
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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47.096133%
Recent intervention efforts in promoting positive identity in troubled adolescents have begun to draw on the potential for an integration of the self-construction and self-discovery perspectives in conceptualizing identity processes, as well as the integration of quantitative and qualitative data analytic strategies. This study reports an investigation of the Changing Lives Program (CLP), using an Outcome Mediation (OM) evaluation model, an integrated model for evaluating targets of intervention, while theoretically including a Self-Transformative Model of Identity Development (STM), a proposed integration of self-discovery and self-construction identity processes. This study also used a Relational Data Analysis (RDA) integration of quantitative and qualitative analysis strategies and a structural equation modeling approach (SEM), to construct and evaluate the hypothesized OM/STM model. The CLP is a community supported positive youth development intervention, targeting multi-problem youth in alternative high schools in the Miami Dade County Public Schools (M-DCPS).^ The 259 participants for this study were drawn from the CLP’s archival data file. The model evaluated in this study utilized three indices of core identity processes (1) personal expressiveness...

On the developmental continuity /discontinuity of early adolescent patterns of racial identity salience: Relations with later identities and psychosocial adjustment

Burrow, Anthony L
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.2%
Given the significant amount of attention placed upon race within our society, racial identity long has been nominated as a meaningful influence upon human development (Cross, 1971; Sellers et al., 1998). Scholars investigating aspects of racial identity have largely pursued one of two lines of research: (a) describing factors and processes that contribute to the development of racial identities, or (b) empirically documenting associations between particular racial identities and key adjustment outcomes. However, few studies have integrated these two approaches to simultaneously evaluate developmental and related adjustment aspects of racial identity among minority youth. Consequently, relations between early racial identity developmental processes and correlated adjustment outcomes remain ambiguous. Even less is known regarding the direction and function of these relationships during adolescence. To address this gap, the present study examined key multivariate associations between (a) distinct profiles of racial identity salience and (b) adjustment outcomes within a community sample of African-American youth. Specifically, a person-centered analytic approach (i.e., cluster analysis) was employed to conduct a secondary analysis of two archived databases containing longitudinal data measuring levels of racial identity salience and indices of psychosocial adjustment among youth at four different measurement occasions.^ Four separate groups of analyses were conducted to investigate (a) the existence of within-group differences in levels of racial identity salience...

Predictors of developmental gains in children enrolled in an early intervention setting

Maring, Joyce R
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The purpose of this research was to determine whether initial developmental delay, site of intervention, frequency of intervention, age of the child, socio-economic status (SES), gender and ethnicity significantly predict developmental gains in a group of children enrolled in an early intervention setting. The records of 134 children enrolled in an inner-city program in Miami, Florida were reviewed for inclusion in this study. ^ Demographic variables, site placement and treatment frequencies were collected during a retrospective chart review. Level of delay was expressed using the developmental quotient and developmental gain was calculated using the mean gain on age equivalent scores or developmental tests. A multiple regression analysis was performed to determine which of the above variables significantly predicted developmental gains. Multivariate analysis compared developmental gains for all the developmental domains based on intervention site (center versus home-based) while controlling for developmental delay. ^ Children made greater developmental gains if they had higher developmental quotients and if they were younger at the time services were initiated. Frequency of intervention significantly improved developmental outcomes in children attending center-based programs. Children attending center-based programs also made significantly greater gains in gross motor skills compared to children attending home-based programs. ^ These findings emphasize the importance of early screening and referral of children with developmental delay and adjusting intervention for the child's developmental quotient. Children should receive intense treatment to maximize results. Decisions regarding program placement should be individualized according to the child's unique developmental pattern. Policy and program decisions affecting the curriculum of a child in early intervention need to reflect these multivariate considerations. ^

A Developmental Perspective on Children and Adolescents who Bully and are Victimized by Peers

McGugan, Margaret J.
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 293744 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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The present study examined developmental changes in the prevalence, stability, and developmental pathways associated with Bully/Victim status in order to increase our understanding of this high-risk group. In addition, this study investigated changes within individuals and their social context that are associated with moving into, or out of, the Bully/Victim group. This study was guided by the theory of developmental contextualism, which suggests that bullying involvement is likely to change over the course of development and that these changes are likely related to changes within individuals and their social contexts. One thousand six hundred seventy-seven elementary school students and 1402 high school students participated in this longitudinal study. Data were collected three times from each sample. Developmental changes in Bully/Victim status were assessed through a series of log-linear analyses and changes in individual and their peer relationships associated with transitions in bullying status were assessed through a series of multinomial logistic regression analyses. The results supported developmental contextual theory. Bully/Victim status became less prevalent over the course of development and was particularly unstable over three points of time in both elementary and high school. Individuals who became part of the Bully/Victim group were likely to have a history of involvement in bullying...

L'alimentation selon l'âge et la culture : une analyse logico-naturelle des représentations construites par des enfants canadiens/québécois et roumains

Grabovschi, Cristina
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Cette recherche s’intéresse à la question des représentations que les enfants construisent au sujet de l’alimentation dans une perspective épistémologique constructiviste, ancrée dans les traditions de la communication et de la psychologie sociale. Notre but a été de déterminer si les représentations de l’alimentation chez les enfants pouvaient être comprises en tant que représentations sociales, et si la construction de ces représentations variait selon l’âge et selon l’appartenance socioculturelle des enfants. Pour ce faire, nous avons analysé les discours sur l’alimentation des enfants de 7 à 12 ans issus de trois contextes culturels différents. Ainsi, nous avons comparé les représentations de l’alimentation construites par des enfants nés, élevés et éduqués en Roumanie et au Québec, ainsi que celles des enfants nés (ou élevés depuis un très bas âge) au Québec, mais provenant de familles d’immigrants roumains. La méthodologie de recherche a reflété une intégration instrumentale des perspectives issues de la psychologie sociale et de la communication, en étant dérivée de la logique naturelle et des théories sur les représentations sociales. Nos résultats suggèrent que les enfants construisent des représentations sociales de l'alimentation et que ces représentations progressent en complexité...

Cross-Dimensional Mapping of Number, Length and Brightness by Preschool Children

de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Vanderslice, Monica; Spelke, Elizabeth S.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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37.520227%
Human adults in diverse cultures, children, infants, and non-human primates relate number to space, but it is not clear whether this ability reflects a specific and privileged number-space mapping. To investigate this possibility, we tested preschool children in matching tasks where the dimensions of number and length were mapped both to one another and to a third dimension, brightness. Children detected variation on all three dimensions, and they reliably performed mappings between number and length, and partially between brightness and length, but not between number and brightness. Moreover, children showed reliably better mapping of number onto the dimension of length than onto the dimension of brightness. These findings suggest that number establishes a privileged mapping with the dimension of length, and that other dimensions, including brightness, can be mapped onto length, although less efficiently. Children's adeptness at number-length mappings suggests that these two dimensions are intuitively related by the end of the preschool years.; Psychology

Extended evolutionary psychology: the importance of transgenerational developmental plasticity

Stotz, Karola
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/08/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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What kind mechanisms one deems central for the evolutionary process deeply influences one's understanding of the nature of organisms, including cognition. Reversely, adopting a certain approach to the nature of life and cognition and the relationship between them or between the organism and its environment should affect one's view of evolutionary theory. This paper explores this reciprocal relationship in more detail. In particular it argues that the view of living and cognitive systems, especially humans, as deeply integrated beings embedded in and transformed by their genetic, epigenetic (molecular and cellular), behavioral, ecological, socio-cultural and cognitive-symbolic legacies calls for an extended evolutionary synthesis that goes beyond either a theory of genes juxtaposed against a theory of cultural evolution and or even more sophisticated theories of gene-culture coevolution and niche construction. Environments, particularly in the form of developmental environments, do not just select for variation, they also create new variation by influencing development through the reliable transmission of non-genetic but heritable information. This paper stresses particularly views of embodied, embedded, enacted and extended cognition...

Psicologia ambiental, Psicologia do Desenvolvimento e Educação Infantil: integração possível?; Psicología ambiental, Psicología del Desarrollo y Educación Infantil: ¿es posible esa integración?; Environmental and Developmental Psychology and Early Childhood Education: is there a possible integration?

Campos-de-Carvalho, Mara; Souza, Tatiana Noronha de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.715156%
Objetiva-se mostrar como vem sendo feita a integração entre Psicologia Ambiental, Psicologia do Desenvolvimento e Educação Infantil, tendo como base pesquisas empíricas com foco na organização espacial em creches, agrupadas em duas linhas: (1) pesquisas sobre arranjo espacial (maneira como móveis/equipamentos estão posicionados em salas de crianças de 1-2/2-3/3-4 anos), evidenciaram como um dos elementos ambientais mediadores da interação criança-criança e criança-educador favorece certas práticas educativas e interativas e impede outras; (2) estudos sobre uma escala norte-americana de avaliação de qualidade de ambientes infantis coletivos e outro sobre análise de princípios de qualidade de creches em documentos nacionais e estrangeiros indicaram a adequabilidade da escala para nosso contexto e o compartilhamento de indicadores de qualidade. Tais dados empíricos demonstram a possibilidade de integração entre Psicologia Ambiental, do Desenvolvimento e Educação Infantil.; El objetivo es demostrar como viene siendo hecha la integración entre Psicología Ambiental, Psicología del Desarrollo y Educación Infantil, teniendo como base investigaciones empíricas con foco en el tema organización de espacios en guarderías...

Escolha de parceiros sexuais e investimento parental: uma perspectiva desenvolvimental; Mate selection and parental investment: a developmental approach

Borrione, Roberta Tavares de Melo; Lordelo, Eulina da Rocha
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; avaliado por pares; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/10/2005 Português
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37.581655%
Este artigo apresenta duas teorias acerca da escolha de parceiro(a)s sexuais, assim como suas implicações para a Psicologia do Desenvolvimento. O campo de investigação objetiva explicar os mecanismos envolvidos na escolha de parceiro(a)s sexuais - atração sexual, desenvolvimento de vínculos e estabelecimento de relações duradouras. A Teoria da Estratégia Sexual possui como principal premissa o conceito de estratégia, que considera o comportamento humano como direcionado para objetivos específicos e para solucionar problemas de acasalamento, oriundos do ambiente evolucionário de adaptação da história humana. A adaptação decorre do contexto, especialmente da natureza das estratégias de acasalamento - curto ou longo prazo. Essas estratégias utilizariam o investimento parental como mecanismo psicológico de escolha de parceiro(a)s. Uma abordagem desenvolvimental, sobreposta à primeira, prioriza formação e manutenção de vínculos entre parceiro(a)s sexuais, proveniente de dois fatores: o primeiro constitui-se num mecanismo de escolha exaptado do mecanismo de apego e o segundo baseia-se nas características propensão...

Industrial psychology: Goodness of fit? Fit for goodness?

van Vuuren,Leon J.
Fonte: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology Publicador: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 Português
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ORIENTATION: This theoretical opinion-based paper represents a critical reflection on the relevance of industrial psychology. RESEARCH PURPOSE: Against a historical-developmental background of the discipline, the inquiry questions its goodness of fit, that is its contribution to organisation and society. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Regular introspection in the discipline ensures that it remains relevant in both science and practice. As such, such introspection calls for a meta-theoretical imperative, to ensure that industrial psychology is fully aware of how the theoretical models applied in the discipline influence people and the society that they form part of RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The question of industrial Psychology's potential fit for goodness that is broader than what is merely good for the organisation and its employees is explored with a view to enhancing its relevance. The exploration is conducted through the utilisation of theoretical argumentation in which industrial psychology is analysed in terms of contextual considerations that require the discipline to evaluate its real versus its potential contribution to society. MAIN FINDINGS: It is found that the fit is limited to its relevance for inwardly focused organisational behaviour due to its endorsement of the instrumental (strategic) motives of organisations that subscribe to an owner and/or shareholder agenda. PRACTICAL/MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: In light of the main finding...