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Exploring the nature of early social preferences: The case of music

Soley, Gaye
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.141274%
This dissertation aims to explore the nature of early social preferences by testing attention to a cue that might have evolved as a reliable signal of shared group membership – shared cultural knowledge. Part 1 shows that children attend to this cue when making social choices: Children both prefer others who know songs they themselves know, and avoid others who know songs they do not know, while other cues such as shared preferences for songs are not as powerful drivers of social preferences. Part 2 shows that this cue affects how five-months-old infants allocate attention to human singers. After listening to two individuals singing different songs, infants look longer at singers of familiar songs than at singers of unfamiliar songs. When both songs are unfamiliar, infants do not show preferences for singers of songs that follow or violate Western melodic structure, although they are sensitive to these differences. In focusing on familiar songs but not musical styles, infants may selectively attend to information that might mark group membership later in life, namely shared knowledge of specific songs. Part 3 investigates whether children are selective in the properties they use to infer that two individuals belong to the same group...

The Development of Character Judgments From Faces

Cogsdill, Emily
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.896587%
First impressions play a central role in human social interaction. In particular, the face is a rich source of information that perceivers use in making both initial and lasting character judgments. Despite the large and growing body of work demonstrating that these judgments affect outcomes in domains as crucial as elections and criminal sentencing, little remains known about the ontogenetic origins of this consequential aspect of human social cognition. The purpose of this dissertation is to provide a set of early investigations into the development of face-to-trait inferences. Paper 1 demonstrates that, like adults, even children as young as 3-4 years of age provide consistent trait judgments when asked to judge two-dimensional computer-generated face images, suggesting that this general ability is so fundamental as to emerge strongly at the earliest ages tested. Paper 2 shows that this propensity is so deeply ingrained at an early age that similar consensus across the lifespan emerges in response to static faces belonging to adults, children, and even rhesus macaques. Paper 3 investigates the potential consequences of these judgments, showing that face-based character assessments influence attributions of trait-relevant behaviors and even cause children to modulate their own behaviors towards others. The findings of this dissertation clearly illustrate that face-to-trait inference emerges early in development...

Developmental and individual differences in novelty and error detection in 10-year-old children and young adults /

Santesso, Diane L.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.581655%
Event-related potentials were recorded from 10-year-old children and young adults in order to examine the developmental dififerences in two frontal lobe functions: detection of novel stimuli during an auditory novelty oddball task, and error detection during a visual flanker task. All participants showed a parietally-maximal P3 in response to auditory stimuli. In children, novel stimuli generated higher P3 amplitudes at the frontal site compared with target stimuli, whereas target stimuli generated higher P3 amplitudes at the parietal site compared with novel stimuli. Adults, however, had higher P3 amplitude to novel tones compared with target tones at each site. Children also had greater P3 amplitude at more parietal sites than adults during the novelty oddball and flanker tasks. Furthermore, children and adults did not show a significant reduction in P3 amplitude from the first to second novel stimulus presentation. No age differences were found with respect to P3 latency to novel and target stimuli. These findings suggest that the detection of novel and target stimuli is mature in 10-year-olds. Error trials typically elicit a negative ERP deflection (the ERN) with a frontal-central scalp distribution that may reflect response monitoring. There is also evidence of a positive ERP peak (the Pe) with a posterior scalp distribution which may reflect subjective recognition of a response. Both children and adults showed an ERN and Pe maximal at frontal-central sites. Children committed more errors...

Family and group cognitive behavior therapy: Evaluation of treatment outcome and treatment specificity

Moreno, Jacqueline
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.74193%
This dissertation examined the efficacy of family cognitive behavior treatment (FCBT) and group cognitive behavior treatment (GBCT) for reducing anxiety disorders in children and adolescents using several approaches: clinical significant change, equivalence testing, and analyses of variance. It also examined treatment specificity in terms of targeting family/parents (in FCBT) and peers/group (in GCBT) contextual variables using two main approaches: analyses of variance and structural equation modeling (SEM). ^ The sample consisted of 143 children and their parents who presented to the Child Anxiety and Phobia Program housed within the Child and Family Psychosocial Research Center at Florida International University. Diagnostic interviews and questionnaires were administered to assess youth anxiety. Questionnaires were administered to assess child and parent views of family/parents and peers/group contextual variables. ^ In terms of clinical significant change, results indicated that 84.6% of youth in FCBT and 71.2% of youth in GBCT no longer met diagnostic criteria for their primary/targeted anxiety disorder. In addition, results from analyses of variance indicated that FCBT and GCBT were both efficacious in reducing anxiety disorders in youth across both child and parent ratings. Results using both analyses of variance and structural equation modeling also indicated that there was no meaningful treatment specificity between FCBT and GCBT in terms of either family/parents or peers/group contextual variables. That is...

The effects of parental nurturance and involvement on peer relationships and psychosocial functioning of young adults

Reid, Maria L
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.729688%
This study examined peer relationships and psychosocial functioning as a function of maternal and paternal involvement and nurturance along with the moderating effects of gender, family form, and ethnicity. Prior research has shown the influence of mother’s involvement on peer relationship quality but not of fathers. Further, previous studies did not examine moderation by family form, gender, or ethnicity. The sample consisted of 1359 students who identified their biological mother and father as the most influential parental figures in their lives. Their ages ranged from 18 to 26; Sixty-one percent of the sample was Hispanic, 13% non-Hispanic Black, 25% non-Hispanic White; 76% female and 70% from intact families. The analytical strategy included using bivariate correlations and structural equation modeling to examine these relationships. ^ All dimensions of maternal and paternal nurturing and involvement were positively related to positive characteristics of peer relationships, self-esteem and life satisfaction consistent with the multicultural findings of PARTheory (Rohner, Khalique, & Cournoyer, 2005). A structural model was developed that was able to adequately account for the relationship between parental influence, peer relationships...

Late adolescents in transition: Social networks, parent relations, and well -being

Silver, Marcia E
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.729688%
A two-year longitudinal study was conducted to investigate late adolescents in transition. An initial investigation with senior high school students assessed students prior to leaving home for college and after college entrance. Of the original 131 participants recontacted two years after their graduation, 78 returned surveys. The study (a) explored changes in social network structure and function, (b) determined whether late adolescent-parent-peer relations change over time, and (c) identified prospectively the impact of social support, adolescent-parent-peer relations, and attachment security on well-being and feelings about the transition after high school. Students attending college locally reported an increase in total network support at Time 2. Regardless of location, more support from friends was received after the transition from high school, whereas family support did not vary across time. Parent relations were closer after the transition and were predictive of various well-being measures and feelings about the transition from high school. ^

Operant and respondent procedures to establish social stimuli as reinforcers in children with autism

Rodriguez, Paloma
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.892485%
According to the DSM-IV- TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000), one of the core deficits in autism is in the impairment of social interaction. Some have suggested that underlying these deficits is the reality that individuals with autism do not find social stimuli to be as reinforcing as other types of stimuli (Dawson, 2008). An interesting and growing body of literature supports the notion that symptoms in autism may be caused by a general reduction in social motivation (Chevallier et al., 2012). A review of the literature suggests that social orienting and social motivation are low in individuals with autism, and including social motivation as a target for therapeutic intervention should be pursued (Helt et al., 2008). Through our understanding of learning processes, researchers in behavior analysis and related fields have been able to use conditioning procedures to change the function of neutral or ineffective stimuli, including tokens (Ayllon & Azrin, 1968), facial expressions (Gewirtz & Pelaez-Nogueras, 1992) and praise (Dozier et al., 2012). The current study aimed to use operant and respondent procedures to condition social stimuli that were empirically shown to not be reinforcing prior to conditioning. Further, this study aimed to compare the two procedures in their effectiveness to condition social stimuli to function as reinforcers...

Romantic Relationships and Adjustment in Early Adulthood: The Role of Cross-sex Experience in the Context of Social Norms and Support

Tamir, Hod
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.850986%
Attachment and interpersonal theory suggest a sequential pattern of relationships beginning in the earliest stage of development and progressing to social and eventually romantic relationships. Theoretically, cross-sex experiences have an important role in the progression of interpersonal relationships. Despite the prevalence of these theories about the nature of romantic relationship development, the linkage of cross-sex experience (CSE) to romantic relationships has not been established. Indeed, it is an intuitive assumption, especially within Western society and these theories do not consider socio-cultural factors that may influence CSE and relationship satisfaction. This study addresses the varying contextual factors that may contribute to relationship satisfaction and adjustment, aside from CSE, and is divided into two parts. Study 1, addresses CSE, relationship satisfaction, and adjustment in a unique population, ultra-Orthodox Jews. Among this population, social or romantic CSE is limited and sexes are effectively segregated. Study 2, expanded the study to a larger sample of U.S. college students, to assess the linkage of CSE to romantic relationship satisfaction in a more typical Western population. It included social norm and support variables to address the contextual nature of relationship development and satisfaction. Results demonstrated clear differences in the relation between CSE and relationship satisfaction in the two samples. In the first sample CSE was unrelated to relationship satisfaction; nevertheless...

Mentoring and minority student development

Waid, Lisa D
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.668457%
Positive student development is a complex and multidimensional process, and is therefore best understood through interdisciplinary approaches. Recently, researchers studying the optimization of student development have responded to the challenge by using and integrating concepts from both educational and human developmental theories (King & Magdola, 1999). This theoretical confluence holds significant promise for ethnic minority college students due to the particular challenges these students often encounter. This research assesses individuals involved in an undergraduate educational and professional development mentoring intervention designed to optimize student development for ethnic minority students. First, in order to explore how development is fostered for minority college students, three objectives were pursued. The first objective was to assess the goals that students set for themselves and the degree of personal expressiveness they have in relation to their chosen goals. The second objective was to identify the types of challenges and obstacles that minority students perceive during their college years. The third objective was to identify the need for and availability of resources and support in overcoming obstacles to college success. Specifically...

Age differences and conformity in juror decision -making

Prager, Irene Rose
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.9365%
The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether older adults conform more than young and middle-aged adults on a juror decision making task. Degree of group pressure, personality characteristics, gender, and social influence processes were also examined.^ Registered voters (208 participants) completed a personality questionnaire. Several weeks later, groups of six participants listened to a robbery case that portrayed the defendant as guilty. Afterwards, participants completed the first of two ballots. On the first, participants rated the defendant's degree of guilt and scored their degree of certainty in this verdict rating. They also indicated in writing which piece of information (a statement of evidence) from the robbery case supported their verdict ratings. Next, participants reviewed photocopies of five contrived first ballots. Then participants completed second ballots, in which they again rated the defendant's degree of guilt and scored their degree of certainty in this verdict rating. Finally, participants rated the importance of the five contrived first ballot verdict ratings (normative social influence) and statements of evidence (informational social influence) in reaching their second ballot verdict ratings.^ The results demonstrated that not only did older adults conform as expected...

Children's perceptions of marital conflict, parent -child relations and anxiety in children: A proposed systemic model

Galliano, Karin Pia
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.837666%
This study tested a systemic model in which internalizing behaviors in a clinically-referred sample of children are predicted by children's perceptions of marital conflict in the context of three additional, well-researched, familial variables: parent-child relations, mother's emotional functioning, and children's perception of social support. After finding preliminary support for the model, its generalizability was tested in a combined sample of the clinically-referred group and a community-based group of elementary school children. ^ The clinical group consisted of 31 participants from a specialty clinic for children's anxiety disorders: 15 boys and 16 girls, aged 6 to 16, from both intact and divorced homes. Children's reports and mothers' reports of children's internalizing behaviors were submitted to separate analyses. Mothers' reports of children's internalizing behaviors were predicted only by mothers' emotional functioning. As hypothesized by the model, children's own reports of their internalizing behaviors were predicted significantly by children's perceptions of marital conflict. Parent-child relations, children's perception of social support, and one interaction term, children's perception of marital conflict x children's perception of parental rejection...

The impact of social comparison processes on hoped-for possible selves, self-regulatory processes, and mental health outcomes in young adults

Wang, Rebecca Ann
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.24153%
In exploring the role of social influences in the development of the self, the current study evaluated whether young adults use social comparisons in developing their hoped-for possible selves and, if so, whether their developmental process correlates with self-regulatory processes and positive mental health outcomes. The current study found the following: (1) the domains of hoped-for possible selves among young adults were related to the gender of the social comparison target, (2) the direction of young adults' social comparison processes (upward or downward) did not significantly influence self-regulatory processes (self-efficacy and outcome expectancy) toward achieving their hoped-for possible selves, (3) strong masculine gender identification related to greater outcome expectancy, while strong feminine gender identification related to both greater self-efficacy and outcome expectancy, and (4) self-efficacy related to less state anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression, while outcome expectancy related only to less trait anxiety. Males and females were found to use traditional gender role identification in forming their hoped-for possible selves.^

The influence of fathers and other significant male figures on girls' well -being and achievement in early adolescence

Hodgetts, Jennifer A
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.668457%
Changes in the demographic structure of American families have highlighted the need to reevaluate fatherhood. Research illustrates that paternal involvement positively affects child development, but father absence has increased due to rising rates of divorce, cohabitation, and non-marital childbirth. There is evidence that other male figures can function as effective father surrogates. However, information is limited, particularly with respect to female development. ^ This study examined differences in well-being, achievement, and paternal support among girls in four father categories: (a) Biological Father, (b) Step-Father, (c) Surrogate Father, and (d) No Father. Maternal support, economic hardship, and life stressors were included as potential covariates. Interviews were conducted with an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 694 sixth and eighth grade children. The sample included boys to assess the extent to which the findings were unique to girls. Measures included quantitative and qualitative support from father figures and indices of self-esteem, loneliness, and depression. Standardized test scores and classroom grades were also obtained from school records. ^ Girls with biological fathers had higher achievement test scores than girls in the other father categories...

A social-cognitive model of monitoring and its relationship to behaviour in a naturalistic observation : development and individual differences

Murphy, Wendy E.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.96532%
years 8 months) and 24 older (M == 7 years 4 months) children. A Monitoring Process Model (MPM) was developed and tested in order to ascertain at which component process ofthe MPM age differences would emerge. The MPM had four components: (1) assessment; (2) evaluation; (3) planning; and (4) behavioural control. The MPM was assessed directly using a referential communication task in which the children were asked to make a series of five Lego buildings (a baseline condition and one building for each MPM component). Children listened to instructions from one experimenter while a second experimenter in the room (a confederate) intetjected varying levels ofverbal feedback in order to assist the children and control the component ofthe MPM. This design allowed us to determine at which "stage" ofprocessing children would most likely have difficulty monitoring themselves in this social-cognitive task. Developmental differences were obselVed for the evaluation, planning and behavioural control components suggesting that older children were able to be more successful with the more explicit metacomponents. Interestingly, however, there was no age difference in terms ofLego task success in the baseline condition suggesting that without the intelVention ofthe confederate younger children monitored the task about as well as older children. This pattern ofresults indicates that the younger children were disrupted by the feedback rather than helped. On the other hand...

A Developmental Perspective on Children and Adolescents who Bully and are Victimized by Peers

McGugan, Margaret J.
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 293744 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.38865%
The present study examined developmental changes in the prevalence, stability, and developmental pathways associated with Bully/Victim status in order to increase our understanding of this high-risk group. In addition, this study investigated changes within individuals and their social context that are associated with moving into, or out of, the Bully/Victim group. This study was guided by the theory of developmental contextualism, which suggests that bullying involvement is likely to change over the course of development and that these changes are likely related to changes within individuals and their social contexts. One thousand six hundred seventy-seven elementary school students and 1402 high school students participated in this longitudinal study. Data were collected three times from each sample. Developmental changes in Bully/Victim status were assessed through a series of log-linear analyses and changes in individual and their peer relationships associated with transitions in bullying status were assessed through a series of multinomial logistic regression analyses. The results supported developmental contextual theory. Bully/Victim status became less prevalent over the course of development and was particularly unstable over three points of time in both elementary and high school. Individuals who became part of the Bully/Victim group were likely to have a history of involvement in bullying...

Romantic relationships and adjustment in early adulthood: The role of cross-sex experience in the context of social norms and support

Tamir, Hod
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.850986%
Attachment and interpersonal theory suggest a sequential pattern of relationships beginning in the earliest stage of development and progressing to social and eventually romantic relationships. Theoretically, cross-sex experiences have an important role in the progression of interpersonal relationships. Despite the prevalence of these theories about the nature of romantic relationship development, the linkage of cross-sex experience (CSE) to romantic relationships has not been established. Indeed, it is an intuitive assumption, especially within Western society and these theories do not consider socio-cultural factors that may influence CSE and relationship satisfaction. This study addresses the varying contextual factors that may contribute to relationship satisfaction and adjustment, aside from CSE, and is divided into two parts. Study 1, addresses CSE, relationship satisfaction, and adjustment in a unique population, ultra-Orthodox Jews. Among this population, social or romantic CSE is limited and sexes are effectively segregated. Study 2, expanded the study to a larger sample of U.S. college students, to assess the linkage of CSE to romantic relationship satisfaction in a more typical Western population. It included social norm and support variables to address the contextual nature of relationship development and satisfaction. Results demonstrated clear differences in the relation between CSE and relationship satisfaction in the two samples. In the first sample CSE was unrelated to relationship satisfaction; nevertheless...

Infants' Understanding of Social Affiliation and Behavioral Conformity

Powell, Lindsey Jane
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.344233%
This dissertation engages in two major hypotheses regarding infants' naïve theory of social relationships. First, it proposes that infants may apply a domain-specific understanding to represent and reason about social groups defined by affiliation amongst their members. Second, it argues that infants may have an understanding of the causal role that behavioral conformity plays in promoting affiliation, and that this understanding may help to determine how infants reason about the coalitional social groups referred to in the first hypothesis. Experiments across three chapters address different aspects of these hypotheses. The experiments in Chapter 2 ask whether infants selectively use coalitional groups to make certain sorts of behavioral inferences, in contrast to the inferences they draw regarding other animate and inanimate categories. The experiments in Chapter 3 investigate the role of similarity of appearance in infants' representations of coalitional groups. Finally, the experiments in Chapter 4 look at how infants evaluate behavioral conformity and what they think it indicates about the attitudes of conformers and their targets. Chapter 5 synthesizes this work and discusses how it might apply to the study of imitation in both developmental and comparative fields.; Psychology

Predicting Leader Effectiveness: Personality Traits and Character Strengths

O'Neil, Dennis P
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 1629411 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 07/05/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.55915%
Personality traits have been used extensively over the past forty years in assessing leadership potential, with varying degrees of success. A major limitation of this research has been the measures of personality. Another important limitation has been the availability of quantifiable measures of leader effectiveness. A third limitation is the lack of longitudinal studies. Because of these limitations, researchers have had difficulty determining the strength of personality traits as predictors of leadership effectiveness over time. Recent studies have used the Five Factor Model of personality to predict leadership effectiveness (e.g., Hogan, Curphy, & Hogan, 1994; Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt, 2002; McCormack & Mellor, 2002); and researchers in positive psychology (e.g., Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005; Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000) have suggested that character strength and virtues (i.e., courage, temperance, and transcendence) might also offer an approach useful in predicting leadership success. This research builds on these approaches and examined two trait-based instruments, the Big Five instrument (NEO-PI-R) and the Values in Action Inventory of Strength (VIA-IS) instrument as they relate to leader effectiveness. Using undergraduates at the United States Military Academy as participants...

Object-Directed Action Experiences and their Effect on Cognitive and Social Development

Libertus, Klaus
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 10146684 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.314775%

Reaching is an important and early emerging motor skill that allows infants to interact with the physical and social world (e.g., when sharing objects). Despite the importance of motor experiences in early infancy, few studies have considered the influence of reaching behavior on cognitive, social, and motor development. In this dissertation, reaching behavior was selectively manipulated in 73 non-reaching three-month-old infants using four different training interventions. Infants' reaching and social cognition skills were assessed and compared, and the long-term effects of one particular training intervention were explored.

Of the four training interventions used here, one procedure--referred to as active training--facilitated domain-specific development (reaching and grasping behavior) and increased infants' preferential orienting towards faces in a visual-preference task (face preference). None of the remaining three training interventions facilitated motor development and only one increased face-preference behavior. However, a relation between face-preference behavior and motor experience was present in all trained infants as well as in three- to 11-month-old untrained infants. In untrained infants, face-preference behavior was the earliest social-cognition skill to emerge and was related to later emerging skills such as gaze following. Therefore...

Algumas relações entre psicologia e religião; Some linkages between psychology and religion

Paiva, Geraldo José de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/1990 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.91421%
Após breve indicação histórico-crítica da origem das ligações entre Psicologia e Religião, apresenta cinco exemplos de como contemporaneamente se tratam algumas dessas relações. Os exemplos, com uma exceção, foram extraídos das áreas mais estudadas de 1951 a 1980, segundo levantamento da literatura internacional realizado por Bergling (1986): Psicologia do Desenvolvimento, Psicologia Social, Revisões Críticas e Experiência Religiosa. Analisa também as pesquisas do ponto de vista conceitual e metodológico, concluindo que o fenômeno religioso é objeto legítimo e fecundo da investigação psicológica.; After a brief historical-critical indication of the origin of the linkages between Psychology and Religion, five current instances of how some of these relations are dealt with are presented. The instances, with one exception, are drawn out of the most studied areas from 1951 through 1980, according to the survey in international literature, by Bergling (1986): Developmental Psychology, Social Psychology, Reviews and Religious Experience. The researches are commented from a conceptual and methodological point of view and the conclusion is drawn that religious phenomena are both a legitimate and a fertile subject matter of psychological investigation.