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Leitura e oralidade: as inscrições do desejo no percurso de formação do leitor.; Reading and orality: the inscriptions of desire in the reader's development process.

Lima, Sheila Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/11/2006 Português
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O percurso de formação do leitor, sobretudo na sua fase inicial, que coincide com a entrada da criança na escola, parece condicionado não apenas a uma ambiência de leitura bem constituída, estabelecida pelo contato freqüente com a cultura gráfica por meio de diversos suportes da escrita. Há, nesse processo de transição, caracterizado pela extrapolação de um domínio da língua por meio da fala para se efetivar a entrada na escrita, a relevância de uma ancoragem em um repertório de diversos gêneros da oralidade constituído ao longo da primeira infância, no ambiente parental. Buscando melhor compreender os fatores que condicionam a efetiva entrada da criança no universo da escrita gráfica e, desta forma, sua aprendizagem da leitura, esta pesquisa procura investigar três aspectos que parecem fundamentais: o conceito de língua, a concepção de leitura e a relação entre aquisição de língua, em suas diversas expressões e possibilidades subjetivas. Diante de tal quadro, apoiou-se a investigação em teorias oriundas da Lingüística, da Psicanálise e da Educação. Assim, num primeiro momento, procura-se explorar uma concepção de língua a partir do fato de que sua manifestação está referenciada ao desejo do sujeito que a põe no discurso...

Consciência fonêmica, nomeação automática rápida e velocidade de leitura em escolares do ensino fundamental; Phonemic awareness, rapid automatized naming and reading rate in students of elementray school

Soares, Aparecido José Couto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/09/2013 Português
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A leitura é uma habilidade complexa composta por múltiplos processos interdependentes e envolve a integração de diferentes habilidades linguístico-cognitivas, em particular aquelas relacionadas ao processamento fonológico como a consciência fonológica e a nomeação automática rápida. Nos últimos anos, os pesquisadores brasileiros tem estudado a fluência de leitura, que possui como componentes a velocidade e acurácia, porém utilizando medidas que não consideram as características das palavras, como extensão e estrutura silábica. Nesse sentido, nota-se a importância de investigar mais profundamente qual a relação existente entre as habilidades subjacentes da leitura e seus parâmetros de fluência bem como as possíveis implicações no processo de aquisição e desenvolvimento da leitura. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a influência da consciência fonêmica e da nomeação automática rápida na fluência de leitura de escolares do terceiro e quarto ano do ensino fundamental. Participaram desta pesquisa 29 crianças do terceiro ano (GP1) e 28 do quarto ano do ensino fundamental (GP2), num total de 57 sujeitos. As crianças foram avaliadas quanto à leitura por meio de textos adequados para sua escolaridade...

Age of first bilingual language exposure as a new window into bilingual reading development*

Kovelman, Ioulia; Baker, Stephanie A.; Petitto, Laura-Ann
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/2008 Português
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How does age of first bilingual language exposure affect reading development in children learning to read in both of their languages? Is there a reading advantage for monolingual English children who are educated in bilingual schools? We studied children (grades 2–3, ages 7–9) in bilingual Spanish–English schools who were either from Spanish-speaking homes (new to English) or English-speaking homes (new to Spanish), as compared with English-speaking children in monolingual English schools. An early age of first bilingual language exposure had a positive effect on reading, phonological awareness, and language competence in both languages: early bilinguals (age of first exposure 0–3 years) outperformed other bilingual groups (age of first exposure 3–6 years). Remarkably, schooling in two languages afforded children from monolingual English homes an advantage in phoneme awareness skills. Early bilingual exposure is best for dual language reading development, and it may afford such a powerful positive impact on reading and language development that it may possibly ameliorate the negative effect of low SES on literacy. Further, age of first bilingual exposure provides a new tool for evaluating whether a young bilingual has a reading problem versus whether he or she is a typically-developing dual-language learner.

China’s language input system in the digital age affects children’s reading development

Tan, Li Hai; Xu, Min; Chang, Chun Qi; Siok, Wai Ting
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Written Chinese as a logographic system was developed over 3,000 y ago. Historically, Chinese children have learned to read by learning to associate the visuo-graphic properties of Chinese characters with lexical meaning, typically through handwriting. In recent years, however, many Chinese children have learned to use electronic communication devices based on the pinyin input method, which associates phonemes and English letters with characters. When children use pinyin to key in letters, their spelling no longer depends on reproducing the visuo-graphic properties of characters that are indispensable to Chinese reading, and, thus, typing in pinyin may conflict with the traditional learning processes for written Chinese. We therefore tested character reading ability and pinyin use by primary school children in three Chinese cites: Beijing (n = 466), Guangzhou (n = 477), and Jining (n = 4,908). Children with severe reading difficulty are defined as those who were normal in nonverbal IQ but two grades (i.e., 2 y) behind in character-reading achievement. We found that the overall incidence rate of severe reading difficulty appears to be much higher than ever reported on Chinese reading. Crucially, we found that children’s reading scores were significantly negatively correlated with their use of the pinyin input method...

Modelling reading development through phonological decoding and self-teaching: implications for dyslexia

Ziegler, Johannes C.; Perry, Conrad; Zorzi, Marco
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/01/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The most influential theory of learning to read is based on the idea that children rely on phonological decoding skills to learn novel words. According to the self-teaching hypothesis, each successful decoding encounter with an unfamiliar word provides an opportunity to acquire word-specific orthographic information that is the foundation of skilled word recognition. Therefore, phonological decoding acts as a self-teaching mechanism or ‘built-in teacher’. However, all previous connectionist models have learned the task of reading aloud through exposure to a very large corpus of spelling–sound pairs, where an ‘external’ teacher supplies the pronunciation of all words that should be learnt. Such a supervised training regimen is highly implausible. Here, we implement and test the developmentally plausible phonological decoding self-teaching hypothesis in the context of the connectionist dual process model. In a series of simulations, we provide a proof of concept that this mechanism works. The model was able to acquire word-specific orthographic representations for more than 25 000 words even though it started with only a small number of grapheme–phoneme correspondences. We then show how visual and phoneme deficits that are present at the outset of reading development can cause dyslexia in the course of reading development.

Modeling the Etiology of Individual Differences in Early Reading Development: Evidence for Strong Genetic Influences

Christopher, Micaela E.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Keenan, Janice M.; Pennington, Bruce; DeFries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik; Olson, Richard K.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We explored the etiology of individual differences in reading development from post-kindergarten to post-4th grade by analyzing data from 487 twin pairs tested in Colorado. Data from three reading measures and one spelling measure were fit to biometric latent growth curve models, allowing us to extend previous behavioral genetic studies of the etiology of early reading development at specific time points. We found primarily genetic influences on individual differences at post-1st grade for all measures. Genetic influences on variance in growth rates were also found, with evidence of small, nonsignificant, shared environmental influences for two measures. We discuss our results, including their implications for educational policy.

Unpacking the role of higher-level processing abilities in reading achievement: A review of the literature

Chan, Jessica
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Reading development related to academic achievement has been a widely studied subject. The purpose of reading is to develop a meaningful representation or understanding of the text. There are a multitude of cognitive processes that are involved in reading that have not yet been examined in theoretical models of reading development. Higher-level cognitive processes refer to cognitive functions that allow readers to be flexible with their learning when they encounter unfamiliar and novel situations by modifying what they already know and have experienced based on their prior knowledge and long-term memory. Two areas of interest are working memory, which describes the temporary storage and processing component, and executive function referring to the supervisory system that ensures that memory processes are operating in an accurate and efficient manner (Diamond, 2013). Our current understanding of reading acquisition and achievement isn’t complete, and recent research in the areas of higher-level cognitive processing may be considered predictors contributing to individual differences in reading ability. Moreover, the sub-components of higher-level cognitive processing warrant consideration in the learning process related to reading performance. The paper begins with a brief overview of higher-level cognitive processing...

Cognitive Predictors of Reading Achievement in Chinese English Immersion Students

Li, Miao
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 466366 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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The cognitive processes underlying reading achievement in Chinese English immersion students are not yet clear. This study investigated the effects of phonological awareness (PA) and naming speed (NS) on reading achievement and explored the evidence for cross-linguistic transfer in Chinese English immersion students. In addition, the differences between immersion and non-immersion students on Chinese measures were examined. The participants were 135 English immersion students and 103 non-immersion students from Grades 2, 4, and 6 in mainland China. For English immersion students, English predictors proved to be strong predictors of English reading achievement at the three grade levels. However, the unique predictors of English reading achievement were English PA in Grades 2 and 4, but English NS in Grade 6. Chinese PA was a significant predictor of Chinese achievement, but only in Grade 2. There was little evidence of cross-linguistic transfer. With regards to the Chinese performance of the two groups of students, English immersion students demonstrated an advantage over non-immersion students in Grade 6, but no significant differences were found in Grades 2 and 4; these results suggest either the long-term effect of a bilingual program or a selection effect. Results are discussed in terms of theories of reading development...

Multiple Perspectives on the Connection between Temporary Conductive Hearing Loss and Reading Development

BRIAND, PAMELA FRANCES
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Children have difficulty with reading for a number of reasons. One of these reasons may be temporary conductive hearing loss (TCHL) in preschool, which can be caused by otitis media (persistent fluid build-up in the middle ear), one of the most frequent medical issues in preschool children (Burt & Schappert, 2004). While otitis media can be treated medically, the duration of hearing loss and the age at which the hearing loss occurred may contribute to future reading difficulties (Easterbrooks, Lederberg, Miller, Bergeron & Connor, 2008). The literature surrounding the connection between otitis media, TCHL, and reading development is inconclusive. In addition, the nature of interdisciplinary communication to discuss the potential future challenges for children who have had TCHL is unclear. Little is known about how professionals communicate with parents about these challenges, and about how parents can best support their children. This research focused on providing detailed descriptions of how medical and educational professionals reported they communicated with each other and with parents about the potential reading risks associated with TCHL. This study followed standard qualitative research methods to conduct in-depth interviews with six medical and educational professionals and with two parents of children with TCHL. Results from this study have revealed important aspects that characterize what...

A meta-analysis of functional reading systems in typically developing and struggling readers across different alphabetic languages

Pollack, Courtney Morgan; Luk, Gigi; Christodoulou, Joanna A
Fonte: Frontiers Media SA Publicador: Frontiers Media SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Functional neuroimaging research has identified multiple brain regions supporting reading-related activity in typical and atypical readers across different alphabetic languages. Previous meta-analyses performed on these functional magnetic resonance imaging findings typically report significant between-group contrasts comparing typical readers and readers with reading difficulty or a clinical diagnosis of developmental dyslexia. In order to advance our understanding of cross-linguistic convergence of reading-related brain activations for these reader groups, analyses using activation likelihood estimation were carried out separately for typical and atypical readers who ranged from children to adults. Contrasts were analyzed for tasks involving rhyming or reading of letter or word stimuli presented visually in English, Dutch, Italian, German, French, or Norwegian. Typical readers showed reliable activation in only left lateralized regions, including the inferior frontal area, precentral area and middle temporal gyrus. Atypical readers also showed activation in the left inferior frontal area and precentral region, in addition to significant activations in the right hemisphere, including the superior, medial and inferior frontal regions...

Vocalnayno: Designing a Game-Based Intervention to Support Reading Development in Primary Schools

Scott, Michael 'Adrir'
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/04/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Encouraging children to read frequently and helping them to develop their reading skills as effectively as possible can be a challenge for some primary schools. This research questions whether the use of a game-based intervention can integrate into the existing teaching culture to aid volunteer teaching assistants in achieving a more significant impact on pupil reading development. A prototype based on the initial process of requirements gathering is presented using Multimedia Fusion Developer 2. The design incorporates a game-like exercise where a foam volcano character releases bubbles containing letters and words. Pupils must read these aloud in order to burst them open, which is recorded as a metric of reading ability.; Comment: Presented at the 6th European Conference on Games-Based Learning, Oct 4-5, 2012, Cork, Ireland

Rhythmic perception and entrainment in 5-year-old children; An exploration of the relationship between temporal accuracy at four isochronous rates and its impact on phonological awareness and reading development; An investigation into how the structure of simple songs and nursery rhymes could best increase 'large grain' phonological awareness skills (rhyme and syllable awareness) in 4 to 5 year old children as part of a classroom based pre-literacy strategy

Verney, John Parker
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Faculty of Education; Centre For Neuroscience and Education Publicador: University of Cambridge; Faculty of Education; Centre For Neuroscience and Education
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
Português
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The thesis discusses the impact of rhythmic awareness on phonological awareness skills. It compares the effectiveness of various musical stimuli - drumming to music or a metronome and singing to simply chanting to an isochronous pulse rate.; Phonological awareness is an important component of early literacy and many children struggle to master its key elements, such as the ability to hear syllables and rhymes within the speech stream. The hypothesis explored within this study is that since music and language have parallel auditory perceptual mechanisms then training in rhythmic activities, such as music, could lead to increased understanding of the rhythmic nature required to decode early language and literacy skills. Previous research investigating the relationship between the constructs of music perception and phonological awareness has been promising, but generally inconclusive. Within the study I examine whether there is a link between the temporal processing required to process rhythmic entrainment in both phonological awareness skills and music. The data are interpreted with respect to a theoretical framework linking music and language based on temporal sampling. The ?temporal sampling theory? (Goswami, 2011) suggests that the decoding of both language and music is linked to the perception of accent and beat...

Implicit, Eclipsed, but Functional: the Development of Orthographic Knowledge in Early Readers

Kaefer, Tanya
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 855575 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Although most models of reading development present orthographic knowledge as a more advanced and later developing form of knowledge than phonological knowledge, this dissertation presents a model of the development of orthographic knowledge in which generalized orthographic knowledge, the knowledge of symbol patterns within and across words, develops early, at the same time as phonological knowledge and before lexicalized representations of a whole word. However, because phonological and generalized orthographic knowledge are not fully integrated, phonological knowledge masks orthographic knowledge in typical measures of literacy.

In study 1 pre-readers' knowledge of the elements that make up words was tested using eye-tracking as a measure of implicit knowledge. We find that pre-reading children as young as 3 have implicit orthographic knowledge regarding the elements that make up words. This supports the prediction that generalized orthographic knowledge develops before lexicalized knowledge.

In study 2, children's creative spellings were used to gauge children's implicit knowledge of letter patterns in a naturalistic setting. We find that kindergarteners in particular tend to rely on phonology over orthography when the two are in conflict. This supports the hypothesis that phonological knowledge can mask orthographic knowledge.

In study 3...

Teacher Knowledge of Literacy Content: Evaluation of Delaware Reading First

Ackerman, Cheryl M.; Grusenmeyer, Linda; Nian, Qinghua; Qiao, Xiaofen
Fonte: Delaware Education Research & Development Center Publicador: Delaware Education Research & Development Center
Tipo: Relatório
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In 2003, to improve the reading achievement of its kindergarten to third grade children, Delaware launched a five year, federally funded initiative called Delaware Reading First (DERF). A central component of the multi-faceted project was teacher training and professional development in Scientifically Based Reading Research (SBRR) practices. Program resources were directed each year toward teacher improvement goals, beginning with mandatory summer training institutes prior to Years 1 and 2 for all kindergarten to third grade general education, special education, and instructional support teachers in schools receiving DERF funding. As part of a five-year DERF program evaluation, this technical report examines teachers’ changes in literacy-related content knowledge, their sense of self-efficacy as reading teachers, and their perceptions and beliefs about early literacy instruction. Findings presented here are based on the analysis of two data sets. The first is a baseline set of 175 surveys from summer 2003 and the second includes 202 surveys of DERF k-3 grade teachers from fall 2007. In addition, a subset of 48 teachers’ with both baseline (summer 2003) surveys and year 5 (2007) responses was used for pre-post analysis.

DE Reading First students' motivation and opportunity to read: Student survey results

Grusenmeyer, Linda; Uribe-Zarain, Ximena
Fonte: Delaware Education Research & Development Center Publicador: Delaware Education Research & Development Center
Tipo: Relatório
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This study surveyed and compared reading motivation and reading behaviors of first, second, and third graders in Delaware Reading First (DERF) schools with that of similarly aged students in comparison schools and a national sample. Data for this study was gathered in the fourth year of DERF’s five year implementation and was used to answer broader questions of the program’s impact on students: Do Reading First students read more frequently? Are they more positively disposed toward reading?

AN ANALYSIS OF STUDENT READING AS MEASURED ON THE DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT OF READING (DAR)

Baca, Jo-Ann M.; Shepperson, Barbara A.
Fonte: Delaware Education Research & Development Center Publicador: Delaware Education Research & Development Center
Tipo: Relatório
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As part of the reporting of Delaware’s State Improvement Grant (DelaSIG), the Delaware Education Research and Development Center (R & D Center) completed a study on the Diagnostic Assessment of Reading (DAR) scores of students whose teachers attended a professional development program designed to help focus teacher instruction of struggling readers in Grades 4 through 12. IMPACT, the acronym for Implementing Multiple Practices for Activating Comprehension in Teaching, is a 30 hour training component of the professional development program provided by the Delaware Department of Education (DDOE).This paper reports the findings of the fall and spring assessments of the DAR and discusses their results and implications. Program developers may find the perceptions of the IMPACT survey respondents informative; their perceptions regarding the influence of the IMPACT training on their classroom instruction and on their students’ reading provide insight into the context of the findings

Evaluation Of Delaware’s Reading First Initiative Year V Report

Grusenmeyer, Linda
Fonte: Delaware Education Research & Development Center Publicador: Delaware Education Research & Development Center
Tipo: Relatório
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The University of Delaware Education Research & Development Center is responsible for the evaluation of the State of Delaware’s Reading First Initiative. The evaluation focuses on the four major goals of the Reading First Program taken directly from the Delaware Reading First federal proposal.; Delaware Department Of Education

Evaluation of Delaware's Reading First Initiative-Year I Report

Noble, Audrey J.; Grusenmeyer, Linda
Fonte: Delaware Education Research & Development Center Publicador: Delaware Education Research & Development Center
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 729120 bytes; application/pdf
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The University of Delaware Education Research & Development Center is responsible for the evaluation of the State of Delaware’s Reading First Initiative. The evaluation focuses on the four major goals of the Reading First Program taken directly from the Delaware Reading First federal proposal.; Delaware Department of Education

Evaluation of Delaware's Reading First Initiative: Teachers' Use of SBRR Practices

Grusenmeyer, Linda; Sweetman, Heidi
Fonte: Delaware Education Research & Development Center Publicador: Delaware Education Research & Development Center
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 465935 bytes; application/pdf
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In its application for the federal Reading First Grant, the Delaware Department of Education proposed the following questions to evaluate particular project goals. When combined with other components of the evaluation plan, these may provide a detailed look at the program’s impact at the student, classroom, and system levels. • Did Reading First classrooms implement high-quality scientifically based reading research programs that include instructional content based on the five essential components of reading? • Did Reading First classrooms implement instructional designs that include explicit instructional strategies, coordinated instructional sequences, ample practice opportunities, aligned student materials, ongoing assessment, small, flexible groups and dedicated blocks of reading time? • What changes in the teachers’ reading pedagogy are evident? What is the structure of the reading lesson? How is the classroom set up? How are students grouped?; Delaware Department of Education

Reading Reading First Students' Motivation to Read: 2004 Baseline Data

Fifield, Steve; Shepperson, Barbara A.
Fonte: Delaware Education Research & Development Center Publicador: Delaware Education Research & Development Center
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 1124688 bytes; application/pdf
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One objective of Delaware’s Reading First Initiative is to increase students’ access to engaging reading materials. The Reading First evaluation plan calls for data on student reading motivation and reading behaviors to be collected in year 2 (2004-05) and year 4 (2006-07) of the project. These longitudinal data will permit a comparison between two cross-sections of the Reading First student population. This report contains 2004-05 baseline data on students’ motivation to read.