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Use of Tunable, Pulsed Dye Laser for Quantitative Fluorescence in Syphilis Serology (FTA-ABS Test)

Kasatiya, S. S.; Lambert, N. G.; Laurence, R. A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1974 Português
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A pulsed dye laser was used as an excitation source in a fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test. A high precision in quantitative fluorescence was obtained with this high-power excitation source coupled to an electronic detection system and a storage oscilloscope by standardization of fluorescence evaluation and through elimination of human error. One 0.4-μs pulse exposure was sufficient to record fluorescence intensity data on the oscilloscope. Absence of fading of fluorescence after repeated excitation permitted multiple readings of the same microscope field. Almost 100% reproducible results were obtained for the FTA-ABS test with 40 samples. Electronic detection of fluorescence and the high sensitivity obtained with laser excitation raise doubts about the relative value of quantitative immunofluorescence in the FTA-ABS test.

Prevalence of trichinosis in Canadian swine determined serologically by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Smith, H J; Snowdon, K E; Bishop, L J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1988 Português
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Fifteen thousand three hundred and eighteen porcine sera from all regions of Canada were examined for the presence of anti-Trichinella antibodies using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with an excretory-secretory antigen. Four sera (0.026%) revealed the presence of anti-Trichinella antibodies, with titers (optical density readings) that fell in the low positive or high negative range on repeated examinations. One animal originated in British Columbia and three in Ontario. Serological examination of swine in the herds at time of traceback did not reveal further animals with anti-Trichinella antibodies.

Suprasternal Doppler ultrasound for assessment of stroke distance

Childs, C; Goldring, S; Tann, W; Hillier, V
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1998 Português
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An assessment of a non-invasive technique for measurement of stroke distance was made using a portable Doppler ultrasound machine. The aim was to determine the measurement error of repeated stroke distance measurements (within-observer variability) and to assess measurement agreement between two operators (between-observer variability). The measurement error (within-observer variability) for both operators was similar at approximately 2 cm. However, the measurements of the two operators (between-observer variability) did not agree well. Using the mean (SD) of three readings by each operator, the mean difference between the operators was −0.21 cm (1.96) giving a 95% confidence interval for the differences of −4.0 to +3.6 cm. There were significant positive and negative correlations between stroke distance and a variety of variables (age, height, weight, heart rate), but the relations were weak. The results indicate that the Doppler ultrasound technique for measurement of stroke distance would best be used to study trend changes in an individual patient, or subject, by a single operator. 



Mass volume measurement in severe head injury: accuracy and feasibility of two pragmatic methods

Stocchetti, N.; Croci, M.; Spagnoli, D.; Gilardoni, F.; Resta, F.; Colombo, A.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2000 Português
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OBJECTIVE—To assess the clinical feasibility and the accuracy of two pragmatic methods in comparison with a conventional computer based method of measurement of masses from CT.
METHODS—Nineteen CT scans of 11 patients with severe head injury, showing 34 traumatic lesions, were examined. The volume of every lesion was digitally measured, then a panel of three examiners independently repeated the measurement using the ellipsoid and the Cavalieri method in random order.
RESULTS—All the lesions were identified by all the readers and the mean volume measured by each examiner differed by less than 1.5ml. The average reading time for each scan was 4 minutes for the ellipsoid and 7 minutes for the Cavalieri method. The average volume of the lesions was 34.2 (SD 35) ml with the digital system, and 38.4 (SD 41) ml and 34.8 (SD 36) ml for the ellipsoid and the Cavalieri readings respectively. The average difference between the applied technique and the digital system was 0.57 (SD 9.99) ml for the Cavalieri direct estimator and 0.20 (SD 15.48) ml for the ellipsoid method. The 95% confidence interval for this difference fell between -2.75 and 3.89 ml for the Cavalieri, and between -4.94 and 5.35 ml for the ellipsoid method. There were 19 lesions >25 ml; the ellipsoid method identified 16 of them...

On the choice of fluid for the hydration of middle-aged marathon runners.

Kavanagh, T.; Shephard, R. J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1977 Português
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Nine subjects (five well-trained post-coronary patients and four other middle-aged joggers) paticipated in a 42 km "Marathon" race. The course was covered in an average of 212 minutes under pleasantly warm conditions (Maximum 21.7 degree C, 69% relative humidity). Subjects were given initial hyperhydration and repeated subsequent doses of water, "Erg" (Na+ 19mE/l K+ 10.7mE/l, glucose 5.3g/100 ml) or a "Special Solution" (during the race Na+ 21mE/1 glucose 4.1g/100 ml; after the race Na+ 20 mE/l, K+ 4.7mE/l., glucose 4.1 g/100 ml). Weight loss averaged 2.2 kg and sweat production 3.3l taking account of water liberated from the hydration of glycogen and the oxidation of food stuffs, it was estimated that most subjects suffered relatively little dehydration over the race (0.4--0.8l). This was confirmed by a sustained urine production of greater than 100ml/hr. Nevertheless, rectal temperatures showed substantial elevation over the race (final readings 38.3 - 40.2 degree C). In terms of fluid balance and stability of plasma mineral composition, the runners drinking water performed slightly better than those receiving the other two solutions. Nevertheless, there may be merit in giving potassium solutions during recovery from vigorous effort.

Anesthetic efficacy of a combination of hyaluronidase and lidocaine with epinephrine in inferior alveolar nerve blocks.

Ridenour, S.; Reader, A.; Beck, M.; Weaver, J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 Português
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The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of a buffered lidocaine with epinephrine solution compared to a combination buffered lidocaine with epinephrine plus hyaluronidase solution in inferior alveolar nerve blocks. Thirty subjects randomly received an inferior alveolar nerve block using 1 of the 2 solutions at 2 separate appointments using a repeated-measures design. Mandibular anterior and posterior teeth were blindly pulp tested at 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes postinjection. No response from the subject to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive readings of 80 were obtained. A postoperative survey was used to measure pain and trismus. The results demonstrated 100% of the subjects had profound lip numbness with both solutions for inferior alveolar nerve blocks. The anesthetic success rates for individual teeth ranged from 20 to 80%. There were no significant differences (P > .05) between the 2 solutions. However, the combination lidocaine/hyaluronidase solution resulted in a significant increase in postoperative pain and trismus. It was concluded that adding hyaluronidase to a buffered lidocaine solution with epinephrine did not statistically increase the incidence of pulpal anesthesia in inferior alveolar nerve blocks and...

Anesthetic efficacy of infiltrations in mandibular anterior teeth.

Yonchak, T.; Reader, A.; Beck, M.; Clark, K.; Meyers, W. J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 Português
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The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to measure the degree of anesthesia obtained with a labial infiltration of either 2% lidocaine with 1:50,000 or 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in mandibular anterior teeth. Another objective was to measure the degree of anesthesia obtained with a lingual infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in mandibular anterior teeth. Through use of a repeated-measures design, 40 subjects randomly received a labial infiltration at the lateral incisor apex of either 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:50,000 epinephrine at 2 separate appointments. An additional 40 subjects received a lingual infiltration at the lateral incisor apex of 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. The mandibular anterior teeth were blindly pulp tested at 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes postinjection. No response from the subject to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive 80 readings were obtained. For the 3 infiltrations, success rates for the lateral incisor ranged from 43 to 50%. Adjacent teeth had success rates of 27 to 63%. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in success between the labial infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100...

Additional clinical observations utilizing bispectral analysis.

Sandler, N. A.
Fonte: American Dental Society of Anesthesiology Publicador: American Dental Society of Anesthesiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 Português
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Additional observations were made in the use of the bispectral (BIS) index with the use of ketamine and in performing general anesthesia without the use of local anesthesia in nonintubated patients. Twenty-five subjects undergoing extraction procedures in an outpatient setting were analyzed using bispectral analysis with ketamine and midazolam. Despite repeated injections of midazolam during the procedure, only transient decreases of the BIS occurred to the 80s, with a low value of 77 in all but 1 patient where ketamine was used. In comparison, values in the 50-70 range are typically seen immediately after the administration of sedative doses of midazolam, propofol, or methohexital. In the second study, once propofol anesthesia was initiated, BIS readings in the 30s were commonly seen in patients during their procedure. The lowest BIS level observed was 18. Bispectral analysis was useful to trend the present anesthetic state and adjust the dose of propofol accordingly. In no case was laryngospasm or total airway obstruction observed. In 1 case, partial airway obstruction secondary to retro-positioning of the tongue occurred with a subsequent decrease in oxygen saturation to 89%. This was rectified by repositioning the patient to alleviate the obstruction. Consistent with previous studies utilizing ketamine...

A method for estimation of accuracy of dose delivery with dynamic slit windows in medical linear accelerators

Ravichandran, R.; Binukumar, J. P.; Sivakumar, S. S.; Krishnamurthy, K.; Davis, C. A.
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) clinical dose delivery is based on computer-controlled multileaf movements at different velocities. To test the accuracy of modulation of the beam periodically, quality assurance (QA) methods are necessary. Using a cylindrical phantom, dose delivery was checked at a constant geometry for sweeping fields. Repeated measurements with an in-house designed methodology over a period of 1 year indicate that the method is very sensitive to check the proper functioning of such dose delivery in medical linacs. A cylindrical perspex phantom with facility to accurately position a 0.6-cc (FC 65) ion chamber at constant depth at isocenter, (SA 24 constancy check tool phantom for MU check, Scanditronix Wellhofer) was used. Dosimeter readings were integrated for 4-mm, 10-mm, 20-mm sweeping fields and for 3 angular positions of the gantry periodically. Consistency of standard sweeping field output (10-mm slit width) and the ratios of outputs against other slit widths over a long period were reported. A 10-mm sweeping field output was found reproducible within an accuracy of 0.03% (n = 25) over 1 year. Four-millimeter, 20-mm outputs expressed as ratio with respect to 10-mm sweep output remained within a mean deviation of 0.2% and 0.03% respectively. Outputs at 3 gantry angles remained within 0.5%...

Depressive mood is independently related to stroke and cardiovascular events in a community

Yamanaka, G.; Otsuka, K.; Hotta, N.; Murakami, S.; Kubo, Y.; Matsuoka, O.; Takasugi, E.; Yamanaka, T.; Shinagawa, M.; Nunoda, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Shibata, K.; Saitoh, H.; Nishinaga, M.; Ishine, M.; Wada, T.; Okumiya, K.; Matsubayashi, K.; Yano, S.; Ishizuk
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2005 Português
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By means of a multivariate Cox model, we investigated the predictive value of a depressive mood on vascular disease risk in middle-aged community-dwelling people. In 224 people (88 men and 136 women; mean age: 56.8 ± 11.2 years) of U town, Hokkaido (latitude: 43.45 degrees N, longitude: 141.85 degrees E), a chronoecological health watch was started in April 2001. Consultations were repeated every 3 months. Results at the November 30, 2004 follow-up are presented herein. 7-day/24-h blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitoring started on a Thursday, with readings taken at 30-rain intervals between 07:00 h and 22:00 h and at 60-min intervals between 22:00 h and 07:00 h. Data stored in the memory of the monitor (TM-2430-15, A&D company, Japan) were retrieved and analyzed on a personal computer with a commercial software for this device. Subjects were asked to answer a self-administered questionnaire inquiring about 15 items of a depression scale, at the start of study and again after 1-2 years. Subjects with a score higher by at least two points at the second versus first screening were classified as having a depressive mood. The other subjects served as the control group.

Variability and misclassification of worker estimated hand force

Dale, AM; Rohn, AE; Patton, A; Standeven, J; Evanoff, B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Ergonomic studies often use worker estimated hand force reproduced on a dynamometer to quantify force exposures but this method has not been well-studied in real work settings. This study evaluated the validity of worker estimates of hand force in a field study and determined the misclassification of worker estimated hand force exposures compared to directly measured forces. Eight experienced sheet metal assemblers completed ¼-inch diameter fastener installations using 6 different pneumatic tools. Grip forces were recorded by a pressure mat and were compared to worker estimated forces demonstrated on a dynamometer. Directly measured and worker estimated readings showed moderate correlations (0.53–0.67) for four installation tools and fair to moderate for two tools. The coefficient for variation of force estimates was 65% within repeated subject trials and 78% between averaged subject trials but 69% between subject trials during actual tool installations. Misclassification of worker estimated exposures varied by two cut-points: 29% using 4.0 kg and 49% using 6.0 kg. The force match procedure may provide adequate differentiation of high and low exposures in some settings, but is likely to result in substantial misclassification in other settings.

Effect of functional neuromuscular stimulation on postural related orthostatic stress in individuals with acute spinal cord injury

Elokda, Ahmed S.; Nielsen, David H.; Shields, Richard K.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 Português
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The purpose of the study was to evaluate the cardiovascular responses of functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) on postural-related orthostatic stress in individuals with acute spinal cord injury. Two tetraplegics and three paraplegics participated in this study. A repeated measure design was used in which subjects underwent two graded-tilt table (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°) orthostatic stress tests with and without FNS (randomized treatment order) of the knee extensors and foot plantar flexors. Successive one-minute digital readings of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were obtained with an electronic pulse oximeter and automated blood pressure monitor, respectively. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed significant test position (tilt angle) and treatment condition (with or without FNS) main effects, but no significant interactions. Between-treatment pairwise contrasts showed that systolic blood pressure was lower without FNS for 15°, 30°, 45°g, and 60° of tilt, while diastolic blood pressure was lower without FNS at 30° and 45° of tilt. In contrast, HR showed a progressive rise with increasing tilt angle. Functional neuromuscular stimulation may be an important treatment adjunct to minimize cardiovascular changes during postural orthostatic stress in individuals with acute spinal cord injury.

Accuracy of CBCT Measurements of a Human Skull

Kamburoğlu, Kıvanç; Kolsuz, Eray; Kurt, Hakan; Kılıç, Cenk; Özen, Tuncer; Semra Paksoy, Candan
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) measurements of a human dry skull by comparing them to direct digital caliper measurements. Heated gutta-percha was used to mark 13 specific distances on a human skull, and the distances were directly measured using a digital caliper and on CBCT images obtained with Iluma (3M Imtec, OK, USA) and 3D Accuitomo 170 (3D Accuitomo; J Morita Mfg. Corp., Kyoto, Japan) CBCT imaging systems. Iluma images were obtained at 120 kVp and 3.8 mA and reconstructed using voxel sizes of 0.2 and 0.3 mm3. Accuitomo images were obtained at 60 kVp and 2 mA and a voxel size of 0.250 mm3. In addition, 3-D reconstructions were produced from images obtained from both systems. All measurements were made independently by three trained observers and were repeated after an interval of 1 week. Agreement between observers and image type was assessed by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients, with a level of significance set at p < 0.05. Pearson correlation coefficients between readings ranged from 0.995 to 1 for all image types. Correlations among observers were also very high, ranging from 0.992 to 1 for the first reading and from 0.992 to 1 for the second reading for the different image types. All CBCT image measurements were identical and highly correlated with digital caliper measurements. Accuracy of measurements of various distances on a human skull obtained from different CBCT units and image types is comparable to that of digital caliper measurements.

A Miniaturized Transcutaneous System for Continuous Glucose Monitoring

Croce, Robert A.; Vaddiraju, SanthiSagar; Kondo, Jun; Wang, Yan; Zuo, Liang; Zhu, Kai; Islam, Syed K.; Burgess, Diane; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Jain, Faquir C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2013 Português
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Implantable sensors for continuous glucose monitoring hold great potential for optimal diabetes management. This is often undermined by a variety of issues associated with: (1) negative tissue response; (2) poor sensor performance; and (3) lack of device miniaturization needed to reduce implantation trauma. Herein, we report our initial results towards constructing an implantable device that simultaneously address all three aforementioned issues. In terms of device miniaturization, a highly miniaturized CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) potentiostat and signal processing unit was employed (with a combined area of 0.665 mm2). The signal processing unit converts the current generated by a transcutaneous, Clark-type amperometric sensor to output frequency in a linear fashion. The Clark-type amperometric sensor employs stratification of five functional layers to attain a well-balanced mass transfer which in turn yields a linear sensor response from 0 to 25 mM of glucose concentration, well beyond the physiologically observed (2 to 22 mM) range. In addition, it is coated with a thick polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel with embedded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres intended to provide continuous, localized delivery of dexamethasone to suppress inflammation and fibrosis. In vivo evaluation in rat model has shown that the transcutaneous sensor system reproducibly tracks repeated glycemic events. Clarke’s error grid analysis on the as –obtained glycemic data has indicated that all of the measured glucose readings fell in the desired Zones A & B and none fell in the erroneous Zones C...

Sedation of children for auditory brainstem response using ketamine-midazolam-atropine combination – a retrospective analysis

Bocskai, Tímea; Németh, Adrienne; Bogár, Lajos; Pytel, József
Fonte: Springer International Publishing AG Publicador: Springer International Publishing AG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/04/2013 Português
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Authors investigated sedation quality in children for auditory brainstem response testing. Two-hundred and seventy-six sedation procedures were retrospectively analyzed using recorded data focusing on efficacy of sedation and complications. Intramuscular ketamine-midazolam-atropine combination was administered on sedation preceded by narcotic suppository as pre-medication. On using the combination vital parameters remained within normal range, the complication rate was minimal. Pulse rate, arterial blood pressure and pulse oxymetry readings were stable, hypoventilation developed in 4, apnoea in none of the cases, post-sedation agitation occurred in 3 and nausea and/or vomiting in 2 cases. Repeated administration of narcotic agent was necessary in a single case only. Our practice is suitable for the sedation assisting hearing examinations in children. It has no influence on the auditory brainstem testing, the conditions necessary for the test can be met entirely with minimal side-effects. Our practice provides a more lasting sedation time in children during the examination hence there is no need for the repetition of the narcotics.

Robots with Display Screens: A Robot with a More Humanlike Face Display Is Perceived To Have More Mind and a Better Personality

Broadbent, Elizabeth; Kumar, Vinayak; Li, Xingyan; Sollers, John; Stafford, Rebecca Q.; MacDonald, Bruce A.; Wegner, Daniel M.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/08/2013 Português
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It is important for robot designers to know how to make robots that interact effectively with humans. One key dimension is robot appearance and in particular how humanlike the robot should be. Uncanny Valley theory suggests that robots look uncanny when their appearance approaches, but is not absolutely, human. An underlying mechanism may be that appearance affects users’ perceptions of the robot’s personality and mind. This study aimed to investigate how robot facial appearance affected perceptions of the robot’s mind, personality and eeriness. A repeated measures experiment was conducted. 30 participants (14 females and 16 males, mean age 22.5 years) interacted with a Peoplebot healthcare robot under three conditions in a randomized order: the robot had either a humanlike face, silver face, or no-face on its display screen. Each time, the robot assisted the participant to take his/her blood pressure. Participants rated the robot’s mind, personality, and eeriness in each condition. The robot with the humanlike face display was most preferred, rated as having most mind, being most humanlike, alive, sociable and amiable. The robot with the silver face display was least preferred, rated most eerie, moderate in mind, humanlikeness and amiability. The robot with the no-face display was rated least sociable and amiable. There was no difference in blood pressure readings between the robots with different face displays. Higher ratings of eeriness were related to impressions of the robot with the humanlike face display being less amiable...

A rapid non-destructive method for root dentin moisture measurements: In vitro pilot study

Komabayashi, Takashi; Zhu, Qiang; Jiang, Jin; Safavi, Kamran E.; Spångberg, Larz S.W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Dentin moisture content is important in adhesive bonding and structural strength research. However, there is no rapid method available to assess dentin moisture without sample destruction. This study examined the use of a digital grain moisture meter to measure root dentin moisture in vitro. Extracted mandibular single rooted teeth were sectioned at the CEJ. The moisture of the root dentin was measured at six measuring modes for different grains and repeated five times. Dentin weight changes before and after drying were measured to obtain control values. The control values were compared with machine readings. In conclusion, (1) Each non-destructive measurement took less than 30 seconds. (2) 24 hours storage at 37°C and 100 % humidity did not restore dentin moisture. (3) Five grain modes had a high validity, and could be used for dentin moisture measurements.

Sonographic assessment of fatty liver: intraobserver and interobserver variability

Cengiz, Mustafa; Sentürk, Senem; Cetin, Bulent; Bayrak, Aylin Hasanefendioğlu; Bilek, Senem Uysal
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/12/2014 Português
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease worldwide and ultrasonography is widely used in the diagnosis and the follow-up we purposed to assess intraobserver and interobserver variability in the sonographic evaluation of the existence and steatosis grades of NAFLD. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and AST to ALT (AST/ALT) ratio were compared between the grades of hepatosteatosis. Hepatic ultrasonography (US) examinations consisted of 5-10 static images of 113 successive adult patients, whose records were in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) of our hospital were retrospectively evaluated by two experienced radiologists. Hepatic images were graded into 4 groups; as normal, mild, moderate or severe hepatic steatosis. Evaluation of hepatic steatosis of the same set of images was repeated after one month under the same conditions. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement was assessed by using kappa (κ) statistics. In each group, the percentage of individuals with high ALT and/or AST, or AST/ALT ratio over 1 was calculated. The intraobserver agreement was 51%, fair kappa (κ=0.356) for observer 1; and 68%, moderate (κ=0.591) for observer 2. The interobserver agreements in the initial and second readings were 39% and 40%...

Robots with Display Screens: A Robot with a More Humanlike Face Display Is Perceived To Have More Mind and a Better Personality

Broadbent, Elizabeth; Kumar, Vinayak; Li, Xingyan; Sollers, John; Stafford, Rebecca Q.; MacDonald, Bruce A.; Wegner, Daniel M.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.868892%
It is important for robot designers to know how to make robots that interact effectively with humans. One key dimension is robot appearance and in particular how humanlike the robot should be. Uncanny Valley theory suggests that robots look uncanny when their appearance approaches, but is not absolutely, human. An underlying mechanism may be that appearance affects users’ perceptions of the robot’s personality and mind. This study aimed to investigate how robot facial appearance affected perceptions of the robot’s mind, personality and eeriness. A repeated measures experiment was conducted. 30 participants (14 females and 16 males, mean age 22.5 years) interacted with a Peoplebot healthcare robot under three conditions in a randomized order: the robot had either a humanlike face, silver face, or no-face on its display screen. Each time, the robot assisted the participant to take his/her blood pressure. Participants rated the robot’s mind, personality, and eeriness in each condition. The robot with the humanlike face display was most preferred, rated as having most mind, being most humanlike, alive, sociable and amiable. The robot with the silver face display was least preferred, rated most eerie, moderate in mind, humanlikeness and amiability. The robot with the no-face display was rated least sociable and amiable. There was no difference in blood pressure readings between the robots with different face displays. Higher ratings of eeriness were related to impressions of the robot with the humanlike face display being less amiable...

Mémoire juive et espace urbain dans Dora Bruder et La Québécoite

Aubin, Julie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Ce mémoire propose des lectures croisées de la mémoire urbaine dans Dora Bruder de Patrick Modiano et La Québécoite de Régine Robin. Les deux récits mettent en scène des narrateurs héritiers de la mémoire de la Shoah qui déambulent dans les villes de Paris et Montréal. La ville est espace d’intelligibilité dont les signes sont porteurs de sens à activer par l’observateur. À l’aide de la sémiotique de la ville (Benjamin) et des pratiques de la ville (De Certeau) et en tenant compte de la position particulière des narrateurs autour des enjeux du témoignage et de l’écriture, ce mémoire cherche à étudier comment la ville participe au déploiement d’une mémoire juive en même temps qu’elle contribue à son inévitable perte. La Deuxième Guerre mondiale a eu lieu en partie à Paris, qui en porte les traces dans une forte densité mémorielle, tandis que Montréal, ville diasporique où les événements ne se sont pas déroulés, accueille les mémoires écorchées qui se fixent d’une autre manière dans l’espace urbain. Dans les deux récits, l’espace urbain est nécessaire à la mise en texte de la rupture et de la perte, qui se dévoilent à la fois au niveau thématique (destruction urbaine, échecs répétés...