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"Responsabilidade de proteger" dos Estados e sua dimensão jurídico-normativa; The responsability to protect and its juridical-normative dimension

Ramos, Mariana dos Anjos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/11/2013 Português
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Inicialmente, esta dissertação apresenta o marco teórico conceitual em que se situa a sociedade internacional contemporânea, as fontes tradicionais do direito internacional expostas no art. 38 do Estatuto da Corte Internacional de Justiça, as possíveis novas fontes do direito internacional atos unilaterais de Estados, atos de organizações internacionais e Soft Law. É abordado em seguida o paradigma da soberania decorrente da modificação da sociedade internacional. Os fundamentos da Responsabilidade de Proteger (R2P) são levados a uma análise sob as diversas fontes do direito internacional. A R2P não se verifica como fonte autônoma do direito internacional nos princípios gerais de direitos, nas convenções internacionais e nos meios auxiliares da doutrina e da jurisprudência. Todavia, seu enquadramento é feito em duas teorias: branda e dinâmica. Em razão de seu caráter de formação de opinio juris e da prática reiterada, a teoria branda considera a R2P uma manifestação do costume internacional. Enquanto isso, a teoria dinâmica leva em consideração a evolução do direito internacional contemporâneo, que considera a Soft Law uma fonte autônoma, bem como as manifestações da R2P. Conclui-se, então, que a teoria da R2P está sedimentada nas fontes do direito internacional contemporâneo e clássico.; Firstly this thesis presents the conceptual framework in which lies the contemporary international society...

A responsabilidade de proteger enquanto proposta de código ético para as relações internacionais: o “sucesso” do caso líbio

Silva, Julio Henrique Correa
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: 61 f.
Português
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TCC (Graduação) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Centro Socioeconômico. Curso de Graduação em Relações Internacionais.; Este estudo procura compreender as condições que tornaram viável a utilização da doutrina da Responsabilidade de Proteger para intervir na Líbia em 2011. Em face da irregularidade com que se procede a intervenções humanitárias, pressupõe-se que um cenário de crise humanitária não constitui causa suficiente para que haja mobilização internacional. Dessa forma, o caso líbio será investigado de modo que se identifiquem as variáveis que concorreram para que a intervenção tivesse efeito. Por fim, serão tecidas algumas considerações acerca das implicações desse caso sobre a doutrina da Responsabilidade de Proteger.; This study seeks to understand the conditions that made possible the use of the doctrine of the Responsibility to Protect to intervene in Libya in 2011. Given the irregularity of humanitarian interventions, it is assumed that a humanitarian crisis scenario is not cause enough for there to be international mobilization. Thus, the Libyan case will be investigated to identify the variables that contributed to the intervention had effect. Finally, some considerations will be made about the implications of this case on doctrine of Responsibility to Protect.

A União Europeia e a responsabilidade de proteger : discurso e acção

Viana, João Sá Lima Pacheco
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Dissertação de mestrado em Relações Internacionais; Nos últimos anos assistimos, um pouco por todo o mundo - mas no Médio Oriente com uma dimensão particularmente alarmante - à eclosão de conflitos com uma característica em comum. Tratam-se de conflitos ligados à insurreição de populações que viveram à sombra de governos autoritários. Estes mantinham-se no poder há décadas e exerciam o seu direito de governar sem olhar aos direitos dos próprios cidadãos. Com o eclodir do que hoje conhecemos como ‘Primavera Árabe’, assistimos à luta das populações pelo respeito por parte dos governantes dos seus direitos e liberdades fundamentais. A Responsabilidade de Proteger, hoje um princípio adotado pela Assembleia Geral das Nações Unidas e pelo seu Conselho de Segurança, surgiu em resposta a experiências de falhanço da comunidade internacional em impedir ou fazer cessar casos extremos de violações maciças e sistemáticas dos direitos humanos (por exemplo Ruanda em 1994 e Srebenica em 1995). Essa dissertação tem como principal objetivo estudar este novo conceito, ainda em evolução, tomando como objeto de estudo a União Europeia, o que permitirá tirar elações sobre a sua expansão e aceitação...

Justified Non-Intervention? International responsibility and grave humanitarian crises

PELTONEN, Hannes
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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The traditional debate concerning humanitarian intervention has changed since the publication of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) report. This thesis addresses both the debate before the publication of the R2P report and the report itself by examining in-depth the international responsibility, which the international community shares in relation to such grave humanitarian crises as genocide. It is argued that the debate before the R2P report made implicit assumptions about international responsibility. Moreover, international collective responsibility is examined both at a conceptual level and at a practical level, thus contributing to the discussion after the publication of the R2P report. It is argued that especially the conceptualization of international responsibility is lacking in the report, and this thesis suggests a conceptualization of international collective responsibility, which is then modeled in the second half of this thesis. Furthermore, the responsibility model and its functioning are illustrated first with the help of a thought experiment and then by examining the Rwandan genocide in 1994 and some of the international responses to the tragedy. The responsibility model serves also as a tool for evaluating the international responses...

The International Community and Global Governance of Human Security

PELTONEN, Hannes
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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This paper addresses the global governance of human security and particularly its provision across borders. It argues that the responsibility to protect (R2P) framework is part of global governance. Of special interest to this paper is the role the international community plays within the global governance of human security. The international community is assigned a collective responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity that becomes activated when an individual state fails in its primary, individual responsibility to protect. Moreover, the international community is assigned an on-going preventative responsibility. In a sense the international community is a “governor” of sorts. Yet, the R2P framework is unclear in its conceptualization of the international community. Evidently within the R2P framework the international community is not a world government, a formal international organization, or necessarily synonymous with the society of states. Yet, existing alternative conceptualizations of “international community” are unhelpful. Hence the paper offers a novel suggestion: the international community as “potentiality.” The concept refers to the possibility of forming a configuration of actors and networks for the purposes of solving global governance issues. My proposal captures both how the international community is in flux and ad hoc...

The Choice to Protect. Rethinking Responsibility for Humanitarian Intervention

RAO, Neomi
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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This Essay reexamines the responsibility to protect (“R2P”) from the perspective of states called to intervene—explaining the novelty of a third-party duty to help people in other states and the insufficiency of justifications offered for this moral responsibility. The Essay concludes that R2P will ultimately be defined by states contemplating intervention, in part because there are no agreed standards for responsibility and the doctrine has various triggering conditions that must be assessed by states, including the seriousness of the humanitarian crimes and the proportionality of any response. Moreover, domestic bureaucratic competition and conflict may make it difficult for a state to make a decision to intervene on primarily humanitarian grounds.

Evaluating the United Nation’s Agenda for Atrocity Prevention: Prospects for the International Regulation of Internal Security

Jacob, Cecilia
Fonte: Cogitatio Publicador: Cogitatio
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In recent years the UN Secretary-General has promoted mass atrocity prevention as the priority agenda for the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) at the UN, redirecting debates on R2P away from military interventionism towards improved state capacity to prevent atrocity crimes and protect populations. This focus has been illustrated in the UNSG’s annual reports on R2P since 2009, and the 2014 “Framework of Analysis for Atrocity Crimes”, that emphasise state institutional capacity and the identification of atrocity-risk indicators. Through a case-study of Pakistan, this article problematizes the relationship between internal security and the UN agenda on atrocity prevention to evaluate the viability of promoting atrocity prevention as currently conceived by the Office of the UNSG in high-risk contexts. It argues that an atrocity prevention agenda informed by a responsive regulation framework would be more effective in taking into ac-count the relational dynamics of atrocity crimes. This includes accounting for the interaction between the micro-dynamics of political violence with macro-dynamics created by lengthy historical conflicts and strategic repertoires.

Multipolarity as resistance to liberal norms : Russia's position on responsibility to protect

KUROWSKA, Xymena
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In Western analysis, Russia's insistence on the supremacy of international law serves as little more than a strategy to sustain parity with the West. The Kremlin's justification of its use of responsibility to protect is seen as an abuse of humanitarian language and a smokescreen in the pursuit of geopolitical interests. Formulated from within the liberal paradigm, such interpretations underestimate the normative saturation of strategic action. This article examines Russia's discourse of multipolarity not as being purely strategic - as is widely held - but rather as a form of resistance to the perceived liberal hegemony of the West. The effects of such resistance resemble the outcomes of strategic manoeuvring but they should not be reduced to such. Bolstered by a sense of betrayal by the West, Russia's evolving discourse of multipolarity provides an alternative vision of the world order that contests the imposition of liberal values and bestows upon the authorities an actual responsibility to contain the West's dominance. Both Russia's interpretation of responsibility to protect and its position in the debate arise from this agenda.

Promoting the responsibility to protect : the way forward after Libya

Aharoni, Bechor
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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This report presents a range of criticisms of the Responsibility to Protect that arose in the aftermath of the 2011 international intervention in Libya. It evaluates the negative implications of these criticisms for the continued development and effectiveness of the Responsibility to Protect as an international norm, and proposes measures to address them. The research demonstrates that there are two broad categories into which the criticisms of the Responsibility to Protect may be divided. The first set of criticisms, voiced by a small number of states, rejects the idea of the Responsibility to Protect on the grounds that it is an illegitimate violation of the principle of state sovereignty. The second set of criticisms, which have resurfaced with greater force following the intervention in Libya, accepts the Responsibility to Protect in principle, but argues that it is susceptible to being abused when applied in practice. While rejecting the first set of criticisms, the report shows that the second set carries significant force. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that these criticisms have damaged the legitimacy of the Responsibility to Protect, and have made states reluctant to invoke the norm in relation to new situations of mass atrocities...

Au nom de l'humanité? : histoire, droit, éthique et politique de l'intervention militaire justifiée par des raisons humanitaires

Jeangène Vilmer, Jean-Baptiste
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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L’intervention militaire justifiée par des raisons humanitaires est une constante de l’ordre international, désignée par différentes appellations : intervention d’humanité au XIXe siècle, intervention humanitaire (humanitarian intervention) dans la tradition anglophone, droit ou devoir d’ingérence en France, responsabilité de protéger depuis quelques années. L’objectif de cette thèse interdisciplinaire est de comprendre ce phénomène complexe dans toutes ses dimensions – historique, juridique, éthique et politique – et d’élaborer une théorie réaliste de l’intervention par l’analyse de cinq critères : cause juste, autorité légitime, bonne intention, dernier recours et proportionnalité. Nous montrons que le réalisme n’est pas une conception amorale de la politique étrangère mais une exigence épistémologique d’analyser les relations internationales comme elles sont plutôt que comme l’on voudrait qu’elles soient. Que l’intervention dite humanitaire n’est pas, contrairement à un préjugé répandu, un phénomène récent, ni même hérité du XIXe siècle, mais qu’on peut en retracer la généalogie sur plusieurs millénaires dans plusieurs civilisations. Qu’aucune des terminologies employées n’est satisfaisante. Qu’il faut abandonner le critère de bonne intention car l’Etat intervenant n’est pas...

La responsabilité de protéger et l’intervention humanitaire : de la reconceptualisation de la souveraineté des États à l’individualisme normatif

Vézina, Louis-Philippe
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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La recrudescence des conflits internes dans le contexte post-guerre froide a permis de propulser à l’avant-plan la préoccupation pour les individus. Alors que la paix et la sécurité internationales ont historiquement constitué les piliers du système institutionnel international, une porte s’ouvrait pour rendre effectif un régime de protection des droits de l’homme par-delà les frontières. Pour les humanistes, l’intervention humanitaire représentait un mal nécessaire pour pallier aux souffrances humaines souvent causées par des divergences ethniques et religieuses. Pourtant, cette pratique est encore souvent perçue comme une forme de néo-colonialisme et entre en contradiction avec les plus hautes normes régissant les relations internationales, soit les principes de souveraineté des États et de non-intervention. La problématique du présent mémoire s’inscrit précisément dans cette polémique entre la préséance des droits de l’État et la prédilection pour les droits humains universels, deux fins antinomiques que la Commission internationales pour l’intervention et la souveraineté des États (CIISE) a tenté de concilier en élaborant son concept de responsabilité de protéger. Notre mémoire s’inscrit dans le champ de la science politique en études internationales mais s’articule surtout autour des notions et enjeux propres à la philosophie politique...

Actuación de UNAMID (operación híbrida de la Unión Africana y las Naciones Unidas en Darfur) en la defensa de los Derechos Humanos de las mujeres en el conflicto en Darfur (2008 – 2012)

Restrepo Rojas, Ingrid Tatiana
Fonte: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales Publicador: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2014 Português
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El interés de esta monografía es analizar los alcances y las limitaciones de la actuación de UNAMID en la defensa de los Derechos Humanos de las mujeres en el conflicto en Darfur (2008-2012). Lo anterior, para dar cuenta de que si bien UNAMID ha tenido avances significativos en el aumento de denuncias por violación sexual, en la educación y en la inclusión de la mujer en Darfur, la intervención tardía, la falta de personal cualificado y el lento despliegue ha limitado su actuación para erradicar la violencia sexual como arma de guerra. Sin embargo, la baja internalización de la norma por parte del Estado de Sudán ha sido el mayor limitante para la Misión de Paz. Este análisis se realiza mediante el concepto de Responsabilidad de proteger y el enfoque de Alexander Wendt y Nicholas Onuf.; The interest of this paper is to analyze the reach and limitations of UNAMID’s performance in defending Human Rights of women in the conflict in Darfur (2008-2012). All of the foregoing, to realize that although UNAMID has had significant progress in increasing reports of rape, in education and inclusion of women in Darfur, the late intervention, lack of qualified staff and the slow deployment has limited its action to end rape as a weapon of war. However...

State Responsibility and Prevention in the Responsibility to Protect: Communal Violence in India

Jacob, Cecilia
Fonte: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Publicador: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This article responds to the 2013 UN Secretary General's (UNSG) annual report on the Responsibility to Protect (R2P), titled 'State Responsibility and Prevention'. The orientation of R2P as a tool for addressing risk factors for atrocity crimes in domesti

Feminist Reflections on the Responsibility to Protect

Charlesworth, Hilary
Fonte: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Publicador: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This paper offers a feminist analysis of the responsibility to protect principle. It outlines some themes in feminist scholarship in international law and then uses these to explore the idea of a responsibility to protect. The paper argues that, despite some resonance with feminist concerns, the doctrine has been developed in a limited context, effectively privileging male elites and masculine modes of reasoning.

THE RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT AND THE USE OF FORCE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW

Piancastelli, Luís Paulo Bogliolo; Universidade de Brasília
Fonte: Revista dos Estudantes de Direito da UnB; Journal of Law Students from University of Brasilia Publicador: Revista dos Estudantes de Direito da UnB; Journal of Law Students from University of Brasilia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Avaliado por Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/02/2010 Português
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The following article deals with the developments in recent years on the debate concerning humanitarian intervention and the framework of public international law regarding the use of force. It specifically focuses on how the doctrine of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) has developed over the years and why it cannot be seen as a contribution to the affirmation of a so-called “right” of humanitarian intervention

The responsibility to protect as humanitarian negotiation: a space for the ‘politics of humanity’?

Radice, Henry
Fonte: Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Palgrave Macmillan
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2016 Português
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This article first situates the Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) in relation to humanitarianism and the ‘politics of humanity’ through which common humanity is understood, negotiated and defended in response to ‘crises of humanity’. It outlines the humanitarian negotiations at stake, connected with the mass atrocity crimes within the RtoP’s remit. Second, it argues that, like other claims made ‘in the name of humanity’, the power relations implicit in attempts to create, delimit and safeguard ‘humanitarian space’ need to be unpacked. Third, it assesses the RtoP’s potential to become a success with regard to the fulfilment of the humanitarian aspirations it represents, concluding that its inability to escape its political nature should be seen as a strength, not a weakness, but that the relationship between a humanitarian project like the RtoP and the notion of humanity will always be a dynamic, unpredictable and risky one, dependent on judicious political judgement.

Humanitarian intervention: from le droit d'ingérence to the responsibility to protect

Crossley, Noële
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: text
Publicado em //2015 Português
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The thesis addresses the question of whether the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) can be considered a consolidated norm in international society today. A consolidated norm in international society is defined here as a regularised pattern of behaviour that is widely accepted as appropriate within a given social context. The analysis is premised on the assumption that R2P could be regarded as a consolidated norm if it was applied consistently when genocide and other mass atrocities occur; and if international responses would routinely conform to core principles inherent in R2P: seeking government consent; multilateralism; prevention; and regionalism. Finnemore and Sikkink’s norm lifecycle model is used to determine the putative norm’s degree of consolidation. The analysis shows that R2P had fully emerged as a prospective norm by 2005. In-depth case studies of the international responses to crises in Darfur and Kenya serve to illuminate the findings. The author concludes that the Responsibility to Protect has not, as yet, fully consolidated as an international norm. The Responsibility to Protect has been remarkably successful at pervading the international discourse but has, as yet, been somewhat less successful at consistency in implementation in terms of adherence to its core principles as outlined above (the qualitative dimension of R2P); and it has been least successful...

The Responsibility to Protect as a General Principle of International Law

Kunadt,Nadja
Fonte: UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas Publicador: UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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The object of this essay is to explore the legal basis of the principle of RtP, a notion which has attracted deepened debate and scholarly attention within the last decade, and to determine which of its aspects have crystallized into positive international law. Therefore, the author will analyze the sources of international law as contemplated by Art. 38 of the ICJ Statute. It will be found that parts of the RtP are comprised by already existing international instruments and state practice as well as opinio juris of states and the UN support a responsibility to react to widespread human suffering.

The African Union and the responsibility to protect

Gumedze,Sabelo
Fonte: African Human Rights Law Journal Publicador: African Human Rights Law Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 Português
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This article discusses how the African Union, as a major contributor to peace and security, has embraced and further entrenched the concept of the responsibility to protect. It traces the concept from the time when the former Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, challenged the international community to agree on the basic principles and processes of when intervention should occur in order to protect humanity against gross violations of human rights. It further discusses how the government of Canada responded to this challenge through the establishment of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, which undertook extensive work in an attempt to unpack the meaning of the concept. The article makes reference to the 2005 World Summit where the Heads of State and Government of the United Nations unanimously affirmed the concept of the responsibility to protect, as well as to the 2005 Common African Position on the Proposed Reform of the United Nations (Ezulwini Consensus) wherein the Executive Council of the African Union affirmed this concept. The article further makes linkages between the concept of the responsibility to protect and the notions of human rights, human security and international security. Focusing on the African Union...

South Africa, the African Union and the responsibility to protect: The case of Libya

Africa,Sandy; Pretorius,Rentia
Fonte: African Human Rights Law Journal Publicador: African Human Rights Law Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
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International relations are regulated by a system of norms and laws that has evolved over a long period. The responsibility to protect is an evolving normative framework shared by a significant number of international actors, but it failed to create normative cohesion and unity of action during the Libyan crisis in 2011 due to issues of interpretation and application. The article examines the application of the responsibility to protect framework when violence broke out in Libya. Contradictory strategies by the United Nations and the African Union divided the international community and rekindled old divisions and mistrust, resulting in claims by some within the AU - South Africa particularly - that the African effort was being undermined. The international community must urgently strengthen the common understanding and institutional framework for the responsibility to protect.