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Shear rheology and phase behaviour of sodium oleate/water mixtures

Antunes, Filipe E.; Coppola, Luigi; Gaudio, Danilo; Nicotera, Isabella; Oliviero, Cesare
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: aplication/PDF
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The knowledge of structural and dynamical properties in binary sodium oleate (NaO)/water mixtures represents a first step for studying new biocompatible structures. In addition, a deeper understanding of their flow behaviour is crucial to control their mechanical properties. The purpose of this investigation was to revisit the binary NaO/water phase diagram through a combined effort of shear-rheology, NMR-diffusometry, optical polarizing microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The preparation of NaO/water mixtures in this work fitted with the interesting regions of the phase diagrams where most of the new systems will be prepared (i.e. from 0.01 to 30 wt.% NaO and within the temperature range 5-70 °C).; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TFR-4M57J28-3/1/e8059503031b239fb1f4e2101ad70f57

Chocolate rheology; Reologia de chocolate

GONÇALVES, Estela Vidal; LANNES, Suzana Caetano da Silva
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Rheology is the science that studies the deformation and flow of solids and fluids under the influence of mechanical forces. The rheological measures of a product in the stage of manufacture can be useful in quality control. The microstructure of a product can also be correlated with its rheological behavior allowing for the development of new materials. Rheometry permits attainment of rheological equations applied in process engineering, particularly unit operations that involve heat and mass transfer. Consumer demands make it possible to obtain a product that complies with these requirements. Chocolate industries work with products in a liquid phase in conching, tempering, and also during pumping operations. A good design of each type of equipment is essential for optimum processing. In the design of every process, it is necessary to know the physical characteristics of the product. The rheological behavior of chocolate can help to know the characteristics of application of the product and its consumers. Foods are generally in a metastable state. Their texture depends on the structural changes that occur during processing. Molten chocolate is a suspension with properties that are strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Chocolate rheology is extensively studied...

The effect of hydrophobic and hydrophilic fumed silica on the rheology of magnetorheological suspensions

Alves, Sarah Isabel Pinto Monteiro do Nascimento; ALCANTARA, M. R.; Figueiredo Neto, Antonio Martins
Fonte: JOURNAL RHEOLOGY AMER INST PHYSICS Publicador: JOURNAL RHEOLOGY AMER INST PHYSICS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We investigate magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) prepared with carbonyl iron powder and different types of hydrophobic and hydrophilic fumed silica. The rheological properties of the MRF suspensions were investigated with and without an applied magnetic field. The MRF samples prepared with hydrophobic silicas presented a more pronounced thixotropic effect and a higher recovery rate than those prepared with hydrophilic silicas. The application of a magnetic field to all the MRFs samples investigated leads to an increase in the viscosity and the thixotropic effect. MRF prepared with hydrophobic silicas presented smaller values of the viscosity than those prepared with hydrophilic silicas. At low applied magnetic fields, the type of the silica used to prepare the MRF leads to noticeable differences in the shear stress. However, these differences disappear at high magnetic fields. The results obtained showed that MRF samples prepared with the hydrophobic silica with the biggest particle diameter presented better characteristics for magnetorheological fluids, with higher values of yield stress, recovery rate, and elastic modulus. (C) 2009 The Society of Rheology. [DOI: 10.1122/1.3086870]; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); FAPESP (Fundacao de Amparo Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); CNPq (Instituto do Milenio de Fluidos Complexos-IMFCx)

Laminar flow of soursop juice through concentric annuli: Friction factors and rheology

Gratao, A. C. A.; Silveira, V.; Telis-Romero, J.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1343-1354
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Laminar axial flow of a pseudoplastic fluid food (soursop, juice) in annular ducts has been experimentally investigated. In the first part of the manuscript, the rheological behavior of soursop juice, being essential for the annular flow analysis, was completely determined from 9.3 to 49.4 degrees Brix and temperatures from 0.4 degrees C to 68.8 degrees C, using a rotational rheometer equipped with coaxial cylinders. In order to test the adequacy of the rheology results, pressure loss data in the laminar pipe flow were collected and then experimental and theoretical friction factors were compared, showing excellent agreement, which indicated the reliability of the Power-Law model for describing the soursop juices. In the second part, pressure loss in annular regions was measured and used to estimate friction factors, which were then compared to those resulted from analytical and semi-analytical equations. The principal contributions of this article are to provide a review on the determination of friction factors-Reynolds number of pseudoplastic fluids in annuli, and also supply extensive new experimental data on the rheological properties and pressure loss of an important shear-thinning fluid food, which is of particular interest for the food engineering process design. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Characterization of galactomannans extracted from seeds of Gleditsia triacanthos and Sophora japonica through shear and extensional rheology : comparison with guar gum and locust bean gum

Bourbon, A. I.; Pinheiro, A. C.; Ribeiro, Clara; Miranda, Cândida; Maia, J. M.; Teixeira, J. A.; Vicente, A. A.
Fonte: Elsevier Ltd. Publicador: Elsevier Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2010 Português
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The rheological behaviour, under steady and dynamic shear and extensional conditions, of two nonconventional galactomannans isolated from Gleditsia triacanthos and Sophora japonica is determined and compared to those of locust bean gum and guar gum. The studied galactomannans exhibit shear-thinning behaviour in the range of concentrations and shear rates evaluated. For similar concentrations and shear rates, the guar gum exhibits the highest viscosities. Experimental data in steady shear was correlated with the Cross model, which provided a good description of viscosity shear rate data. Under oscillatory shear, all gum solutions exhibited a behaviour typical of random-coil polysaccharide solutions. The extensional rheology experiments showed that by increasing the polymer concentration and decreasing the temperature, the relaxation times, elastic moduli and rupture times increase. These findings lead to the conclusion that G. triacanthos and S. japonica galactomannans can be used as efficient thickening hydrocolloids as alternative to conventional galactomannans.; Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT)

Repair of earth masonry by means of grouting : importance of clay in the rheology of a mud grout

Silva, Rui André Martins da; Schueremans, Luc; Oliveira, Daniel V.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 05/07/2010 Português
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Building with earth is one of the most ancient and traditional ways of building. Consequently, many historic and new-built earthen buildings can be found all over the world. However, the specific characteristics of earthen materials make the earth constructions very sensitive to external damaging agents. In particular, the weakness and fragility extensively recognized on earthen materials make this type of constructions very vulnerable from a structural perspective. In general, the structural damage on earth constructions occurs in the form of cracks, which debilitate the structural behaviour and compromise the durability. Injection of mud grouts can be seen as a reliable and economic solution for repairing earth constructions. The success of such intervention on a historical construction requires following an appropriated design methodology. However, the knowledge about mud grouts is still limited, and thus research efforts are needed in order to develop such methodology and to surpass many of the difficulties that the restorers of earth constructions are currently facing. Understanding the rheology of the mud grouts is one of the key issues of the all process. Hence, this paper explains an initial proposal of methodology for the design of mud grouts and an experimental campaign that aimed to understand the role of the clay fraction in the rheology of mud grouts.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)

Chocolate rheology

Gonçalves,Estela Vidal; Lannes,Suzana Caetano da Silva
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2010 Português
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Rheology is the science that studies the deformation and flow of solids and fluids under the influence of mechanical forces. The rheological measures of a product in the stage of manufacture can be useful in quality control. The microstructure of a product can also be correlated with its rheological behavior allowing for the development of new materials. Rheometry permits attainment of rheological equations applied in process engineering, particularly unit operations that involve heat and mass transfer. Consumer demands make it possible to obtain a product that complies with these requirements. Chocolate industries work with products in a liquid phase in conching, tempering, and also during pumping operations. A good design of each type of equipment is essential for optimum processing. In the design of every process, it is necessary to know the physical characteristics of the product. The rheological behavior of chocolate can help to know the characteristics of application of the product and its consumers. Foods are generally in a metastable state. Their texture depends on the structural changes that occur during processing. Molten chocolate is a suspension with properties that are strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Chocolate rheology is extensively studied...

Rheology and Dynamics of Associative Polymers in Shear and Extension: Theory and Experiment

Tripathi, Anubhav; Tam, Kam C.; McKinley, Gareth H.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Pré-impressão Formato: 942401 bytes; application/pdf
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We investigate the steady and transient shear and extensional rheological properties of a series of model hydrophobically modified ethoxylate-urethane (HEUR) polymers with varying degrees of hydrophobicity. A new nonlinear two-species network model for these telechelic polymers is described which incorporates appropriate molecular mechanisms for the creation and destruction of elastically-active chains. Like other recent models we incorporate the contributions of both the bridging chains (those between micelles) and the dangling chains to the final stress tensor. This gives rise to two distinct relaxation time scales; a short Rouse time for the relaxing chains and a longer network time–scale that depends on the aggregation number and strength of the micellar junctions. The evolution equations for the fraction of elastically-active chains and for the conformation tensors of each species are solved to obtain the total stress arising from imposed deformations. The model contains a single non-linear parameter and incorporates the non-linear chain extension, the shear-induced enhancement of associations and the stretch-induced dissociation of hydrophobic chains. In contrast to earlier closed-form models, we are able to obtain quantitative agreement between experimental measurements and the model predictions for three different series of telechelic polymers over a range of concentrations. The scaling of both the zero shear viscosity and the effective network relaxation time show good agreement with those measured in experiments. The model also quantitatively captures both the shear-thickening and subsequent shear-thinning observed in the rheology at high deformation rates and predicts transient extensional stress growth curves in close agreement with those measured using a filament stretching rheometer.; Submitted to Macromolecules...

Review of algorithms for estimating the gap error correction in narrow gap parallel plate rheology

Kravchuk, O.; Stokes, J.
Fonte: Journal of Rheology Amer Inst Physics Publicador: Journal of Rheology Amer Inst Physics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Parallel plate geometry at narrow gaps allows one to perform rheology at high shear rates and with small volumes of fluid. The results from this analysis have to be corrected for a systematic error in the actual gap between the plates. We review the statistical and error analysis methodology for such applications and demonstrate that the process for estimating the gap error significantly impacts the overall accuracy of the analysis at narrow gaps. It is shown that the standard linear regression approach to the estimation of the gap correction is unsound and must not be used in practice. We highlight alternative methods and illustrate their accuracy with typical examples from narrow gap rheology.; Olena Kravchuk and Jason R. Stokes

Torque rheology of zircon feedstocks for powder injection moulding

Hidalgo García, Javier; Jiménez Morales, Antonia; Torralba, José Manuel
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em /12/2012 Português
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In this work, a cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) blend is used as the binder system in a zirconium silicate mineral powder feedstock for powder injection moulding. These irregular zircon powders make the mixing process and the selection of an optimal solid loading level a difficult task. Torque rheology methodologies combined with other techniques are used for evaluation of the parameters affecting the mixing process and determination of the critical powder volume concentration (CPVC). Temperature variations during the mixing process are monitored and used as an indicator of the friction energy of the system and thus for the optimal solid loading selection. There have thus far been limited amounts of work conducted on torque rheology of highly loaded feedstocks that incorporate a study of the system's temperature evolution. A detailed study could be a key factor for understanding the mixing behaviour of highly loaded feedstocks.; The authors would like to acknowledge the companies GUZMÁNGLOBAL S.L and ALFAMIMTech for their support and partnership in the project IPT-2011-0931-020000 granted from the Spanish Ministry of the Economy and Competitiveness and the European Funds for Regional Development (FEDER). They would also kindly thank the Applied Mechanics Department of FEMTO-ST Institute and the ENSMM (Besançon...

Effect of waxy flour blends on dough rheology and bread quality

Blake, L.H.; Jenner, C.F.; Barber, A.R.; Gibson, R.A.; O'Neill, B.K.; Nguyen, Q.D.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Although much research has been conducted on wheat flour dough rheology, the principal focus has been the role of the protein fraction. Starch is the main component of flour and plays a key role in dough dynamic properties, particularly during heating. This study assesses the effect of two different waxy flours, a durum and a bread wheat, and their blends with commercial bakers' flour on dough rheology during heating with a concurrent investigation into baking performance. Both waxy flour blends produced similar effects on dough rheological behaviour despite differences in protein content, acting to delay gelatinisation and reduce storage modulus. The main effects in bread were to increase loaf expansion during baking and reduce loaf firmness. It is postulated these effects are largely water mediated, with the higher swelling ability of the waxy starch granules reducing overall water availability and driving complete gelatinisation to higher temperatures.; Laura H. Blake, Colin F. Jenner, Andrew R. Barber, Robert A. Gibson, Brian K. O, Neill & Q. Dzuy Nguyen

PVC paste rheology: Study of process dependencies

Rasteiro, M. G.; Tomás, A.; Ferreira, L.; Figueiredo, S.
Fonte: Wiley Periodicals, Inc Publicador: Wiley Periodicals, Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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A plastisol is a dispersion (suspension) of fine particles of poly(vinyl chloride) with a plasticizer that is normally applied over a substrate, by spreading or coating, before the gelification and fusion into the final product. Because of the first step, the plastisol rheology study is a very important factor which has to be taken into consideration to determine and fine tune the process conditions. This work is concerned with the study of the rheology of plastisols from selected PVC samples produced by the emulsion process, correlating it with the particle size distribution and surface characteristics from the polymer's powder and modifications during the plastisol aging process. The results obtained show a significant influence of the original polymer properties in the viscosity aging and viscoelastic behaviour of the plastisol. First, a significant decrease in viscosity can be achieved by changing a particular surfactant during the polymerization step. Second, the type of particle aggregates present in the powder, can determine the evolution of the particle size in the plastisol which, in turn, correlates directly with the observed modifications in the aging and viscoelastic behavior

Rheology and flow of crystal-bearing lavas: Insights from analogue gravity currents

Rust, A. C.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Castruccio Alvarez, Angelo
Fonte: ELSEVIER Publicador: ELSEVIER
Tipo: Artículo de revista
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The rheology of suspensions of cubic crystals in viscous liquids was investigated with a series of experiments, consisting of the release of a fixed volume of fluid inside a horizontal channel. A Herschel–Bulkley rheology was assumed and the consistency K and the shear rate exponent n of this constitutive equation were calculated using the evolution of the flow front; the yield strength was calculated using the final shape of the flow. A solid fraction by volume of ϕ=0–0.67 and a liquid viscosity range of 1–370 Pa s were used in the experiments. Results show an increase in K when crystal content increases. The mixtures start to show a shear thinning behaviour at ϕ~0.3 with n values going from approximately 1 (Newtonian behaviour) to 0.5 at ϕ=0.6. Yield strength was detected at the same ϕ as the beginning of shear thinning behaviour and increases with a power-law relationship with crystal content. Suspensions with bimodal size distribution of crystals show a dramatic decrease of the apparent viscosity compared to unimodal suspensions, especially at the higher total crystal concentrations. The results were applied to theoretical 2-D flows on a slope, showing large variations in velocity profiles for the same crystallinity depending on the rheology assumed. A case study of a 2002 lava flow from Etna volcano demonstrates that measured lava flow speeds are similar to speeds calculated from 2-D theory with rheologies of lava based on laboratory experiments and measured lava crystal content. The results illustrate that the dynamics of lava flows depend on the crystal size distribution in addition to the total crystal concentration.

Rheology and surface tension of water-based flexographic inks and implications for wetting of PE-coated board

Rentzhog, Maria; Fogden, Andrew
Fonte: AB SVENSK PAPPERSTIDNING Publicador: AB SVENSK PAPPERSTIDNING
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This study systematically characterises a matrix of water-based flexographic inks with respect to their rheology, surface tension and wetting of liquid packaging board, to provide a basis for interpretation and prediction of their printing performance. Fo

Characterising the rheology of non-Newtonian fluids using PFG-NMR and cumulant analysis

Blythe, T. W.; Sederman, A. J.; Mitchell, J.; Stitt, E. H.; York, A. P. E.; Gladden, L. F.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; published version
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This is the final published version. It first appeared at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1090780715000798#.; Conventional rheological characterisation using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) typically utilises spatially-resolved measurements of velocity. We propose a new approach to rheometry using pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR which readily extends the application of MR rheometry to single-axis gradient hardware. The quantitative use of flow propagators in this application is challenging because of the introduction of artefacts during Fourier transform, which arise when realistic sampling strategies are limited by experimental and hardware constraints and when particular spatial and temporal resolution are required. The method outlined in this paper involves the cumulant analysis of the acquisition data directly, thereby preventing the introduction of artefacts and reducing data acquisition times. A model-dependent approach is developed to enable the pipe-flow characterisation of fluids demonstrating non-Newtonian power-law rheology, involving the use of an analytical expression describing the flow propagator in terms of the flow behaviour index. The sensitivity of this approach was investigated and found to be robust to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and number of acquired data points...

Gels formed from amino-acid derivatives, their novel rheology as probed by bulk and particle tracking rheological methods

Frith, W. J.; Donald, A. M.; Adams, D. J.; Aufderhorst-Roberts, A.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; published version
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This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnnfm.2014.09.008; We discuss the use of dynamic light scattering based particle micro-rheology to probe the lengthscale dependence of the microstructures formed by Fmoc-tyrosine gels. Past studies on these systems using dye diffusion have shown that Fmoc-tyrosine is capable of forming gels that can entrap molecules if they are large enough, unlike those gels formed by Fmoc-phenylalanine (Sutton et al., 2009). This result seems at odds with microscopic studies of the gel microstructure, which indicate porosity on much larger lengthscales than the molecular probes used. Here, we use particle probe based micro-rheology to investigate the porosity of the gels on larger lengthscales than is possible using molecular diffusion studies and show that there is considerable evidence of larger scale structures present in the gel. In particular we see that at no point does particle probe based micro-rheology reproduce the bulk properties of the gels, and also that there is strong dependence of the probe behaviour on particle size. Both of these results indicate the presence of microstructural features in the gel that are of the order of the particle size.; Parts of this work are drawn from the doctoral thesis of A.A-R...

Bond dynamics, microstructure, and rheology of colloidal gels

Whitaker, Kathryn A.
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Furst, Eric M.; This thesis introduces a new model colloidal gel for measuring particle interactions, microstructure, and rheology. The results from these measurements are analyzed to quantitatively predict the elastic modulus from the particle bond stiffness and microstructure. Many experimental model gels typically have a refractive index and density matched solvent that allow for confocal microscopy and rheometry experiments for studying the gel microstructure and bulk rheological properties of industrial relevance. In this work, a model gel is created by suspending fluorescent poly(12-hydroxysteric acid) (PHSA) stabilized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) particles in cyclohexane and cyclohexyl bromide with polystyrene depletant to induce an interparticle attraction. The solvent mixture is optimized in this depletion gel to provide the refractive index contrast needed for optical trapping without greatly diminishing the confocal imaging resolution. Optical trapping provides the ability to relate gel rheology to the dynamics of individual bonds and interparticle forces. Therefore, this model gel is unique because particle-level interactions, microstructure, and bulk rheology data can all be obtained from one set of materials. Optical tweezer experiments are used to directly measure the rupture forces between particles in this model system. Because the rupturing is controlled by thermally activated kinetics...

Shear rheology of concentrated emulsions at finite inertia: a numerical study

Srivastava, Priyesh
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Sarkar, Kausik; The dynamics and rheology of an emulsion of viscous drops in shear flow is investigated computationally. The simulations are performed using a three-dimensional front tracking method. An emulsion gives rise to an effective non-Newtonian rheology with finite normal stress differences and shear-dependent viscosity. Previous estimates about the bulk properties of emulsions were limited to Stokes conditions under which a positive first normal stress difference and a negative second normal stress difference are predicted. However, the introduction of finite inertia significantly modifies the behaviour of emulsions. The normal stress differences change sign and the emulsion shows a shear-thickening behaviour with inertia. Computed rheological properties (effective shear viscosity and first and second normal stress differences) in conditions close to Stokes limit match well with the existing theoretical and simulated results. The first component of the rheology arising from the interfacial stresses at the drop surface is investigated as functions of particle Reynolds number, capillary number and volume fraction. The sign change is caused by the increase in drop inclination in presence of inertia, which in turn directly affects interfacial stresses due to drops. Increasing volume fraction or capillary numbers increases the critical Reynolds numbers for sign reversals due to increasing alignment of the drops with the flow directions. The Reynolds stresses which form the second component of the stress formulation are also considered in detail. The primary components of the Reynolds stress showed a simple scaling with Reynolds number for moderate values of inertia. They showed a non-linear increase at larger values of Reynolds number. A comparison of the estimated effective viscosity with an established empirical relation is also presented. Presence of finite surface tension results in a characteristic stress relaxation time scale for emulsions. This is investigated for both dilute and concentrated systems and the results are verified against the standard theoretical expressions. Finally...

Nonlinear oscillatory rheology and structure of wormlike micellar solutions and colloidal suspensions

Gurnon, Amanda Kate
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Wagner, Norman J.; Gillespie, John W.; The complex, nonlinear flow behavior of soft materials transcends industrial applications, smart material design and non-equilibrium thermodynamics. A long-standing, fundamental challenge in soft-matter science is establishing a quantitative connection between the deformation field, local microstructure and macroscopic dynamic flow properties i.e., the rheology. Soft materials are widely used in consumer products and industrial processes including energy recovery, surfactants for personal healthcare (e.g. soap and shampoo), coatings, plastics, drug delivery, medical devices and therapeutics. Oftentimes, these materials are processed by, used during, or exposed to non-equilibrium conditions for which the transient response of the complex fluid is critical. As such, designing new dynamic experiments is imperative to testing these materials and further developing micromechanical models to predict their transient response. Two of the most common classes of these soft materials stand as the focus of the present research; they are: solutions of polymer-like micelles (PLM or also known as wormlike micelles, WLM) and concentrated colloidal suspensions. In addition to their varied applications these two different classes of soft materials are also governed by different physics. In contrast...

Relating experimental and geological rheology

Paterson, Mervyn
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This paper is concerned with the question of how to relate laboratory measurements of the rheology of rocks to the rheological assumptions that need to be made in geodynamic modelling. First, there is a brief resumé of the principal types of rheological