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Retrograde Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Shapes a Key Circadian Pacemaker Circuit

Gorostiza, E. Axel; Ceriani, M. Fernanda
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/01/2013 Português
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The neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) synchronizes molecular oscillations within circadian pacemakers in the Drosophila brain. It is expressed in the small ventral lateral neurons (sLNvs) and large ventral lateral neurons, the former being indispensable for maintaining behavioral rhythmicity under free-running conditions. How PDF circuits develop the specific connectivity traits that endow such global behavioral control remains unknown. Here, we show that mature sLNv circuits require PDF signaling during early development, acting through its cognate receptor PDFR at postsynaptic targets. Yet, axonal defects by PDF knockdown are presynaptic and become apparent only after metamorphosis, highlighting a delayed response to a signal released early on. Presynaptic expression of constitutively active bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors prevents pdfr mutants misrouting phenotype, while sLNv-restricted downregulation of BMP signaling components phenocopied pdf01. Thus, we have uncovered a novel mechanism that provides an early “tagging” of synaptic targets that will guide circuit refinement later in development.

microRNA Regulation of Synaptic Plasticity

Smalheiser, Neil R.; Lugli, Giovanni
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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28.244377%
microRNAs play an important role in regulating synaptic plasticity. For example, microRNAs target (and are targeted by) plasticity mediators such as CREB, MECP2, and FMRP. As well, specific microRNAs have been shown to be expressed within dendrites, where they regulate protein translation of targets mediating dendritic growth. Components of the RISC machinery have been implicated in long-term memory in Drosophila. Here, we review evidence from studies of adult mouse forebrain supporting a model wherein synaptic stimulation (above a threshold value) increases calcium within dendritic spines, activates calpain, and activates and releases dicer from the postsynaptic density. Dicer processes local pre-miRs into mature miRNAs that are incorporated into RISC complexes within or near the dendritic spine, and that bind available target mRNAs in the vicinity. These may repress protein translation under resting conditions, yet permit a phasic burst of translation to occur transiently following subsequent synaptic activity. Loaded RISC complexes that are not bound to local mRNAs may serve to bind and trap mRNAs that are being transported down dendrites. Thus, locally formed microRNAs may mark the location of previously activated synapses and perform a type of synaptic tagging and capture.

Rol del neuropéptido PDF en la adquisición y el mantenimiento de la estructura del circuito PDF; Role of the PDF neuropeptide in the acquisition and maintenance of the PDF circuit structure

Gorostiza, Ezequiel Axel
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 Português
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58.877295%
La ritmicidad comportamental en Drosophila es sostenida por una red neuronal que en el cerebro adulto comprende alrededor de 150 neuronas. Entre éstas, las sLNv han demostrado ser esenciales para el control de la actividad rítmica. Desde el punto de vista circadiano, las sLNv tienen dos características sobresalientes: expresan el neuropéptido PDF, y atraviesan cambios estructurales circadianos en sus terminales axonales, proceso denominado plasticidad estructural. En esta tesis estudiamos qué otros cambios ocurrían concomitantes con la plasticidad estructural. Encontramos que ésta es acompañada por aumentos en el número de sinapsis y disponibilidad de vesículas en momentos de mayor complejidad del árbol axonal, que luego caen durante la fase de menor complejidad. Además demostramos que la plasticidad estructural depende de los niveles de PDF y a raíz de este análisis descubrimos un nuevo rol para PDF durante el desarrollo de las sLNv. La arquitectura adulta de las sLNv necesita que PDF actúe sobre su postsinapsis temprano en el desarrollo larval, proceso que requiere su receptor canónico. Sin embargo, la ausencia de PDF produce defectos presinápticos evidentes luego de la metamorfosis. Comprobamos que previo a la metamorfosis la postsinapsis libera GBB...