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Conflict Resolution in War-Torn Societies?: Delineating the Post-Conflict State-Building Dispositif

Blanco, Ramon
Fonte: Faculdade de Economia da Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Faculdade de Economia da Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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In our time, very much attention and intellectual effort are being directed to conflict-resolution activities in war-torn societies throughout the world. In this aspect, the centrality of the UN in terms of post-conflict reconstruction activities is notorious. Notoriously, state-building is a key enterprise in regard of addressing the international conflicts throughout the globe, being deployed as a key conflict-resolution tool applied globally. Although such activities are represented as mere techniques aiming to build peace, this peace is intimately associated with the institutionalization of liberal ideas in structuring realms such as the political, the economical and the social spheres. Here lays the objective of this paper. It aims, from a critical position, to discuss and deconstruct this UN model regarding the transformation of the international violent conflicts. Departing from Foucauldian concepts such as dispositif, government, discipline and biopolitics, it aims to critically analyze the post-conflict state-building practice. In a first moment, the paper delineates the conflict resolution mindset which state-building is commonly associated with and immersed. In a second moment, it seeks to (re)problematize the state-building practice as a post-conflict dispositif...

Do colapso à reconstrução: estados falidos, operações de nation-building e o caso do Afeganistão no pós Guerra Fria; From the collapse to the reconstruction: failed states, Nation-Building operations and the Afghan case in the post Cold War

Gomes, Aureo de Toledo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/06/2008 Português
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Após os atentados terroristas de Onze de setembro de 2001 os Estados Falidos passaram a ser considerados uma das principais ameaças à paz e segurança internacional. A maior parte dos estudos sobre o tema argumenta que a melhor maneira para se lidar com esta ameaça são as chamadas operações de Nation-Building, lideradas por agentes externos e cujos objetivos principais são reconstruir as instituições políticas, promover eleições democráticas e consolidar uma economia de mercado no país alvo. Assim sendo, na primeira parte do trabalho, intitulada O Colapso, esta dissertação almeja analisar as características do conceito de Estado Falido à luz do caso do Afeganistão. Na segunda parte, intitulada A Reconstrução, ambicionamos entender o que são e como são levadas a cabo as operações de Nation- Building, analisando as missões lideradas pela ONU e pelos EUA e realizando um estudo da atual operação no Afeganistão.; After the September 11th, 2001 terrorist attacks, Failed States have been considered one of the greatest threats to peace and international security. The great majority of the studies about this theme argue that one of the best ways to cope with this threat are the so-called Nation-Building operations...

Avaliação da qualidade ambiental interior de um edifício climatizado artificialmente com ênfase na análise do conforto térmico; Evaluation of indoor environmental quality of an artificially conditioned building, focusing on thermal comfort analysis

Silva, Ana Flávia Silveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/11/2010 Português
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Ocupantes de ambientes internos climatizados artificialmente estão expostos contínua e prolongadamente a condições ambientais muitas vezes desfavoráveis à execução de suas atividades e à manutenção da saúde. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar alguns parâmetros de qualidade do ar interior e de conforto térmico de um edifício climatizado artificialmente e relacioná-los à utilização de sistema de condicionamento de ar com distribuição pelo piso em ambientes que não são caracterizados como escritórios abertos. Considerando que o edifício estudado apresenta usos distintos de seus pavimentos, optou-se pela avaliação de dois deles, um pavimento cujo layout é de salas de aula e outro de escritório semi-aberto. Os parâmetros foram analisados em três momentos distintos. O primeiro se caracteriza por três ciclos semestrais de medições de temperatura, umidade relativa e velocidade do ar, concentração de aerossóis, dióxido de carbono e fungos. A segunda etapa consiste em uma campanha única de medições, com duração de quatro dias, permitindo a realização de perfis de temperatura e umidade relativa, avaliação das velocidades do ar em pontos de desconforto e cálculo dos índices de conforto térmico PMV (Predicted Mean Vote) e PPD (Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied). Em um terceiro e último momento...

Extraction of Building Roof Contours From LiDAR Data Using a Markov-Random-Field-Based Approach

Santos Galvanin, Edineia Aparecida dos; Dal Poz, Aluir Porfírio
Fonte: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Publicador: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 981-987
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); This paper proposes a method for the automatic extraction of building roof contours from a digital surface model (DSM) by regularizing light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. The method uses two steps. First, to detect aboveground objects (buildings, trees, etc.), the DSM is segmented through a recursive splitting technique followed by a region-merging process. Vectorization and polygonization are used to obtain polyline representations of the detected aboveground objects. Second, building roof contours are identified from among the aboveground objects by optimizing a Markov-random-field-based energy function that embodies roof contour attributes and spatial constraints. The optimal configuration of building roof contours is found by minimizing the energy function using a simulated annealing algorithm. Experiments carried out with the LiDAR-based DSM show that the proposed method works properly, as it provides roof contour information with approximately 90% shape accuracy and no verified false positives.

Building roof contour extraction from LiDAR data

Dal Poz, Aluir P.; Galvanin, Edinéia A.S.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 88-92
Português
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This paper proposes a method for the automatic extraction of building roof contours from a LiDAR-derived digital surface model (DSM). The method is based on two steps. First, to detect aboveground objects (buildings, trees, etc.), the DSM is segmented through a recursive splitting technique followed by a region merging process. Vectorization and polygonization are used to obtain polyline representations of the detected aboveground objects. Second, building roof contours are identified from among the aboveground objects by optimizing a Markov-random-field-based energy function that embodies roof contour attributes and spatial constraints. Preliminary results have shown that the proposed methodology works properly.

Simulated annealing for building roof contours identification from lidar data

Galvanin, Edinéia Aparecida dos Santos; Poz, Aluir Porfírio Dal
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This paper proposes a method by simulated annealing for building roof contours identification from LiDAR-derived digital elevation model. Our method is based on the concept of first extracting aboveground objects and then identifying those objects that are building roof contours. First, to detect aboveground objects (buildings, trees, etc.), the digital elevation model is segmented through a recursive splitting technique followed by a region merging process. Vectorization and polygonization are used to obtain polyline representations of the detected aboveground objects. Second, building roof contours are identified from among the aboveground objects by optimizing a Markov-random-field-based energy function that embodies roof contour attributes and spatial constraints. The solution of this function is a polygon set corresponding to building roof contours and is found by using a minimization technique, like the Simulated Annealing algorithm. Experiments carried out with laser scanning digital elevation model showed that the methodology works properly, as it provides roof contour information with approximately 90% shape accuracy and no verified false positives.

Second Life : representation and remediation of social space

Ferreira, Cátia Sofia Afonso
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em 01/10/2012 Português
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Ao longo da última década os jogos online e as plataformas sociais têm-se tornado cada vez mais populares, tendo vindo a contribuir para o desenvolvimento da internet. Os jogos online multiplayer têm conquistado cada vez mais utilizadores. Estes têm como locus a realidade virtual e como objetivo a recriação de um novo mundo. Um exemplo deste tipo de jogos é o Second Life, um jogo social que conta com um elevado número de utilizadores – cerca de 31 milhões de utilizadores registados. Esta plataforma foi desenvolvida pela Linden Lab e reúne as características de um mundo virtual: é um cenário digital tridimensional, no qual utilizadores de todo o mundo, representados por avatares, interagem em tempo real formando diversos tipos de redes sociais. Uma das suas características distintivas é o facto de 99% do conteúdo existente dentro do espaço virtual ter sido desenvolvido pelos utilizadores. Os jogadores, denominados residentes, estão a contribuir não só na construção do espaço, mas também para o desenvolvimento social deste mundo virtual. Para além disto, existem mais quatro características que tornam o Second Life um objeto de estudo interessante: todos os avatares são controlados por seres humanos em tempo real; o reconhecimento de direitos de propriedade intelectual; a existência de uma micro-moeda – o Linden Dollar; e o facto de todos os jogadores terem acesso a ferramentas básicas de construção...

Bioelectrocatalytic hydrogels from electron-conducting metallopolypeptides coassembled with bifunctional enzymatic building blocks

Wheeldon, Ian R.; Gallaway, Joshua W.; Barton, Scott Calabrese; Banta, Scott
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Here, we present two bifunctional protein building blocks that coassemble to form a bioelectrocatalytic hydrogel that catalyzes the reduction of dioxygen to water. One building block, a metallopolypeptide based on a previously designed triblock polypeptide, is electron-conducting. A second building block is a chimera of artificial α-helical leucine zipper and random coil domains fused to a polyphenol oxidase, small laccase (SLAC). The metallopolypeptide has a helix–random-helix secondary structure and forms a hydrogel via tetrameric coiled coils. The helical and random domains are identical to those fused to the polyphenol oxidase. Electron-conducting functionality is derived from the divalent attachment of an osmium bis-bipyrdine complex to histidine residues within the peptide. Attachment of the osmium moiety is demonstrated by mass spectroscopy (MS-MALDI-TOF) and cyclic voltammetry. The structure and function of the α-helical domains are confirmed by circular dichroism spectroscopy and by rheological measurements. The metallopolypeptide shows the ability to make electrical contact to a solid-state electrode and to the redox centers of modified SLAC. Neat samples of the modified SLAC form hydrogels, indicating that the fused α-helical domain functions as a physical cross-linker. The fusion does not disrupt dimer formation...

Tall Buildings. ‘Vertical facilities’ for the energy balance of the urban habitat; Tall Building. Infrastrutture verticali per il riequilibrio energetico dell’ambiente urbano.

FAIS, LUKIA
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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The Thesis has the general aim to inquire on tall buildings in relation to the quest for a more sustainable future, by going through research on their potential capability to produce energy from renewable sources. The final result is a systematic framework of tall buildings morphological and functional features related to building and renewable energy sources systems, and identifies critical elements and design variables as well, usefull for comparing tall buildings with targets such as Net Zero Energy Building and Plus Energy Building. The thesis is divided into three thematic areas. First of all, it investigates the tall buildings’ embodied and operational energy, by going through the most up-to-date literature and post occupancy evaluation data. The specific aim is to identify innovatory architectural strategies aimed at enhancing the energy efficiency of tall buildings. The second part of the research looks into the potential that tall buildings have of generating power from renewable sources. On the basis of an analysis of the technologies for generating power from renewable energy sources, the criticalities and the potential of each system implemented in tall buildings have been highlighted, focusing on the key issues of integration...

Capacity Building in Africa : The Role of International Financial Institutions

Nsouli, Saleh M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The note looks at the interrelation of three essential components to economic development: capacity building - the development of skills and institutions; good governance; and, economic reform, the two other components which cannot be implemented without well-functioning institutions. It further reviews the rationale and evidence of institutional capacity building, because it provides the framework within which people, and firms participate in the economy. Most importantly, the different specific objectives of international financial institutions are examined, first in their support to investments, e.g., infrastructure and capacity building within an adjustment program; second, in the achievement of economic and social policy; and, third, in encouraging economic development, and business practices, through training, and collaborative efforts. The note specifically reviews the support provided by the International Monetary Fund, which includes capacity building towards enhancing economic expertise, through technical assistance...

Uganda’s Integrated Information Management System : A New Approach in Statistical Capacity-Building

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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Uganda is embarking on a major program to upgrade its statistical systems. As with many African countries, the quality of national statistics and the timeliness with which they are produced have been issues of considerable concern for a number of years. It has suffered from problems common to many national statistical offices, including: high staff turnover, inadequate funding, lack of timeliness in delivering outputs, unevenness in quality of data produced and inability to respond quickly to new data needs. The starting point for reform has been to persuade government and donors to commit more resources to essential statistical activities. This led to the establishment in 1999 of a new semi-autonomous Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS) and to the development of a draft UBOS Corporate Action Plan. The World Bank will be channeling its support through the Second Economic and Financial Management Project (EFMPII). The main goal of the program is to support the building of national capacity to collect, process, store and disseminate statistical information for the purpose of monitoring and evaluating outcomes and outputs of development policies and programs at both national and district levels.

Ethiopia : Second Urban Local Government Development Program as a Program-for-Results Operation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The second Urban Local Government Development Program (ULGDP II) will enhance the institutional performance of participating ULGs in developing and sustaining urban infrastructure and services, through provision of three interlinked and mutually strengthening tools: (i) Performance-based investment grants, (ii) objective and neutral annual performance assessments, linked to the size of allocations and (iii) comprehensive capacity building support to the cities and to the regions to enhance their capacity in supporting ULGs as well as support to the implementing agency. The Ministry of Urban Development, Housing and Construction (MUDHCo, the Ministry) will be the agency in charge of the Program, as under ULGDP. The Ministry will be supported in areas of capacity building framework for regions, monitoring, reporting and project management and the Program also encompass capacity building to the Ministry to perform its core role related with the Program objectives.

Diversity and Knowledge in the Age of Nation-Building: Space and Time in the Thought of Yanagita Kunio

Kojima, Takehiko
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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The study examines the thought of Yanagita Kunio (1875-1962), an influential Japanese nationalist thinker best known as a founder of the discipline of Japanese folklore (minzokugaku). The purpose of the study is to bring into light an unredeemed potential of his intellectual and political project as a critique of the way in which modern politics and knowledge systematically suppresses global diversity. The study reads his texts against the backdrop of the modern understanding of space and time and its political and moral implications and traces the historical evolution of his thought that culminates in the establishment of minzokugaku. My reading of Yanagita’s texts draws on three interpretive hypotheses. First, his thought can be interpreted as a critical engagement with John Stuart Mill’s philosophy of history, as he turns Mill’s defense of diversity against Mill’s justification of enlightened despotism in non-Western societies. Second, to counter Mill’s individualistic notion of progressive agency, he turns to a Marxian notion of anthropological space, in which a laboring class makes history by continuously transforming nature, and rehabilitates the common people (jōmin) as progressive agents. Third, in addition to the common people...

An Exergy Based Engineering and Economic Analysis of Sustainable Building

Feng, Ming
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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To achieve the goal of sustainable development, the building energy system was evaluated from both the first and second law of thermodynamics point of view. The relationship between exergy destruction and sustainable development were discussed at first, followed by the description of the resource abundance model, the life cycle analysis model and the economic investment effectiveness model. By combining the forgoing models, a new sustainable index was proposed. Several green building case studies in U.S. and China were presented. The influences of building function, geographic location, climate pattern, the regional energy structure, and the technology improvement potential of renewable energy in the future were discussed. The building’s envelope, HVAC system, on-site renewable energy system life cycle analysis from energy, exergy, environmental and economic perspective were compared. It was found that climate pattern had a dramatic influence on the life cycle investment effectiveness of the building envelope. The building HVAC system energy performance was much better than its exergy performance. To further increase the exergy efficiency, renewable energy rather than fossil fuel should be used as the primary energy. A building life cycle cost and exergy consumption regression model was set up. The optimal building insulation level could be affected by either cost minimization or exergy consumption minimization approach. The exergy approach would cause better insulation than cost approach. The influence of energy price on the system selection strategy was discussed. Two photovoltaics (PV) systems – stand alone and grid tied system were compared by the life cycle assessment method. The superiority of the latter one was quite obvious. The analysis also showed that during its life span PV technology was less attractive economically because the electricity price in U.S. and China did not fully reflect the environmental burden associated with it. However if future energy price surges and PV system cost reductions were considered...

Deuxieme Maison

Florida International University; Margolin, Jerry
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: image/jpg
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The second building was completed on January 15th, 1973 at FIU's Modesto Maidique Campus (MMC), formerly known as University Park Campus. The building architects were Grove, Haack & Associates of Fort Lauderdale.; http://digitalcommons.fiu.edu/fiu_images/1268/thumbnail.jpg

Niger : Second Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Review, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
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The second public expenditure management and financial accountability review (PEMFAR II) report provides analysis of the fiscal space outlook, a review of public expenditure management, including of the public investment management system, and assessments of the public financial management and public procurement systems. The review covers the period since the 2004 PEMFAR until 2009 and the detailed analysis of public expenditures focuses on three key sectors (education, health and rural development) which represented about 52 percent of the voted budget in 2007 and 2008 and are the pillars of Niger's second poverty reduction strategy paper (PRSP II). The PEMFAR II a comprehensive short and medium term (2010-2012) reform agenda which will assist the Government to prepare and adopt an action plan to improve the effectiveness of public resources management in Niger. This report constitutes the main report (volume one) of the PEMFAR II. Volume two of the PEMFAR II provides the detailed report of the evaluation of the public procurement system. The summary...

Ethiopia Public Sector Reform Approach : Building the Developmental State - A Review and Assessment of the Ethiopian Approach to Public Sector Reform

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
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The objective of this report is to review and recommend improvements to Ethiopia's approach to public sector reform in order to advise the Government and executive institutions on the future of its public sector reform. The report also serves as a think piece for the World Bank, other partners, and policy makers. The report provides important basic information about the features of Ethiopia's public sector reform approach and reviews what worked well and what did not. It draws lessons from other countries' experience to help develop ideas and instruments of future public sector reforms in Ethiopia. Ethiopia's system of decentralization process has been credible in devolving power, improving governance and service delivery well as narrowing the per capital differences among Regional Governments and districts. The second phase of decentralization was 'big bang' and brought some gaps on addressing administrative and fiscal decentralization issues associated with: a) detailed clarity of expenditure and revenue assignments...

Element analysis of the green building process

Zigenfus, Richard
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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This thesis studied the definition of a green building and the elements associated with the construction of single family home versus an office building. There are many rating systems available across the Country both private and public. The most well known is the LEED rating system developed by the United States Green Building Council. LEED has several rating programs now available. The eight elements of LEED for Homes are used as the basis of the research to create commonality throughout the documentation. Thirty single-family homes and office projects were examined and detailed in order to determine the aspects within each of the eight elements that define the project based on the definition of green. The elements include innovation and design, location and linkages, sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, material and resources, indoor environmental quality and awareness and education. The more significant focus in the construction projects examined is on water use and energy. This is not a surprising outcome considering the cost and availability of energy and water supplies. Perhaps there are two significant main points that the research has provided, first the education of the general public about sustainability and its impact on a global scale. The second point from the research is the need for a holistic approach to building a green structure. A holistic approach includes the design...

An International Comparison of the Economics of Building Integrated PV in different Resource, Pricing and Policy Environments: The Cases of the U.S., Japan and South Korea

Byrne, John; Agbemabiese, Lawrence; Boo, Kyung-Jin; Wang, Young-Doo; Alleng, Gerard
Fonte: Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Publicador: Center for Energy and Environmental Policy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 46098 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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In recent years, the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy (CEEP), working with affiliated academic and research institutions in the U.S. and East Asia, has investigated the technical and economic feasibility of using dispatchable photovoltaic (DPV) systems in distributed peak-shaving (PS) applications. In each case, modest amounts of battery storage are used in conjunction with a PV array to achieve firm peak shaving for commercial building operators. Recent investigations have added emergency power as a second function of DPV-PS systems installed on commercial buildings. This paper reports on CEEP’s latest studies carried out in the US, Japan and South Korea which offer a cross-national review of the performance of dual-function DPV systems designed to serve peak shaving and emergency power needs of the commercial buildings sector. The market assessment results for each country are derived from PV Planner, a spreadsheet analytical tool developed at CEEP to run simulations of building integrated PV applications under different resource, pricing and policy environments. The analyses in all three countries rely on electricity load data from actual buildings, resource data for specific national locations...

Automatic extraction of building roof contours by laser scanning data and markov random field; EXTRAÇÃO AUTOMÁTICA DE CONTORNOS DE TELHADOS USANDO DADOS DE VARREDURA A LASER E CAMPOS RANDÔMICOS DE MARKOV

Galvanin, Edinéia Aparecida dos Santos; Dal Poz, Aluir Porfírio; Souza, Aparecida Doniseti Pires de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Paraná-UFPR Publicador: Universidade Federal do Paraná-UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/07/2008 Português
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This paper proposes a methodology for automatic extraction of building roofcontours from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), which is generated through theregularization of an available laser point cloud. The methodology is based on twosteps. First, in order to detect high objects (buildings, trees etc.), the DEM issegmented through a recursive splitting technique and a Bayesian mergingtechnique. The recursive splitting technique uses the quadtree structure forsubdividing the DEM into homogeneous regions. In order to minimize thefragmentation, which is commonly observed in the results of the recursive splittingsegmentation, a region merging technique based on the Bayesian framework isapplied to the previously segmented data. The high object polygons are extracted byusing vectorization and polygonization techniques. Second, the building roofcontours are identified among all high objects extracted previously. Taking intoaccount some roof properties and some feature measurements (e. g., area,rectangularity, and angles between principal axes of the roofs), an energy functionwas developed based on the Markov Random Field (MRF) model. The solution ofthis function is a polygon set corresponding to building roof contours and is foundby using a minimization technique...