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Institucionalismo econômico, modelos mentais e conformidade institucional; Institutional economics, mental models and institutional conformity

Edison Benedito da Silva Filho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/06/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.460693%
Este estudo consiste numa abordagem exploratória que visa descrever os processos pelos quais os modelos mentais são compartilhados em sociedade e exercem sua influência sobre a ação dos agentes econômicos, tomando como objeto de análise o fenômeno da conformidade institucional do comportamento humano. Para atingir este propósito, buscamos, em primeiro lugar, mapear e sistematizar a literatura do institucionalismo econômico com ênfase em suas principais vertentes contemporâneas, demonstrando haver um consenso quanto à relevância atribuída às instituições informais, notadamente na forma de modelos mentais socialmente compartilhados, para a explicação de diversos fenômenos econômicos até então pouco compreendidos ou mesmo negligenciados pela teoria neoclássica. A seguir, apresentamos uma síntese dos principais elementos de análise das modernas teorias da cognição, de modo a avançar na direção de uma compreensão mais aprofundada da dimensão cognitiva da influência institucional sobre a ação individual. Por fim, argumentamos que a forma como os modelos mentais são internalizados pelos agentes condiciona a conformidade de seu comportamento para com as instituições a que se vinculam, enquanto membros de um determinado grupo social. O trabalho é concluído enfatizando a relevância da dimensão cognitiva para a agenda de pesquisa econômica...

A Developmental Neuroscience of Borderline Pathology: Emotion Dysregulation and Social Baseline Theory

Hughes, Amy E.; Crowell, Sheila E.; Uyeji, Lauren; Coan, James A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.921323%
Theoretical and empirical research has linked poor emotion regulation abilities with dysfunctional frontolimbic circuitry. Consistent with this, research on borderline personality disorder (BPD) finds that frontolimbic dysfunction is a predominant neural substrate underlying the disorder. Emotion regulation is profoundly compromised in BPD. However, BPD is also associated with broad impairment across multiple domains, including impulse control, interpersonal relationships, and cognitive functioning. To date, BPD research has focused largely on single areas of dysfunction, failing to account for overlap at either the biological or behavioral levels of analysis. We examine the literature on frontolimbic dysfunction in BPD within the context of Coan’s social baseline theory. Social baseline theory proposes that healthy human functioning is dependent upon adequate social support and that, at baseline, biological systems are adapted to operate interdependently rather than independently. The social baseline perspective is particularly useful for understanding borderline personality development because the impulsive and emotionally dysregulated behaviors common among those with BPD occur almost invariably within an interpersonal context. We discuss clinical and research implications of this work.

A Feasibility and Efficacy Randomized Controlled Trial of an Online Preventative Program for Childhood Obesity: Protocol for the EMPOWER Intervention

Knowlden, Adam; Sharma, Manoj
Fonte: JMIR Publications Inc. Publicador: JMIR Publications Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/06/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.29927%
Background: The home and family environment is a highly influential psychosocial antecedent of pediatric obesity. Implementation of conventional family- and home-based childhood obesity interventions is challenging for parents, often requiring them to attend multiple educational sessions. Attrition rates for traditional interventions are frequently high due to competing demands for parents’ time. Under such constraints, an Internet-based intervention has the potential to modify determinants of childhood obesity while making judicious use of parents’ time. Theory-based interventions offer many advantages over atheoretical interventions, including reduced intervention dosage, increased likelihood of behavioral change, and efficient resource allocation. Social cognitive theory (SCT) is a robust theoretical framework for addressing childhood obesity. SCT is a behavior change model rooted in reciprocal determinism, a causal paradigm that states that human functioning is the product of a dynamic interplay of behavioral, personal, and environmental factors. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of the Enabling Mothers to Prevent Childhood Obesity Through Web-Based Education and Reciprocal Determinism (EMPOWER) program, an Internet-based...

Brief Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mental State Attribution and Empathizing

Tan, Lucy B. G.; Lo, Barbara C. Y.; Macrae, C. Neil
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/10/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.151475%
The ability to infer and understand the mental states of others (i.e., Theory of Mind) is a cornerstone of human interaction. While considerable efforts have focused on explicating when, why and for whom this fundamental psychological ability can go awry, considerably less is known about factors that may enhance theory of mind. Accordingly, the current study explored the possibility that mindfulness-based meditation may improve people’s mindreading skills. Following a 5-minute mindfulness induction, participants with no prior meditation experience completed tests that assessed mindreading and empathic understanding. The results revealed that brief mindfulness meditation enhanced both mental state attribution and empathic concern, compared to participants in the control group. These findings suggest that mindfulness may be a powerful technique for facilitating core aspects of social-cognitive functioning.

On the Function of Boredom

Bench, Shane W.; Lench, Heather C.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/08/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.993125%
Boredom is frequently considered inconsequential and has received relatively little research attention. We argue that boredom has important implications for human functioning, based on emotion theory and empirical evidence. Specifically, we argue that boredom motivates pursuit of new goals when the previous goal is no longer beneficial. Exploring alternate goals and experiences allows the attainment of goals that might be missed if people fail to reengage. Similar to other discrete emotions, we propose that boredom has specific and unique impacts on behavior, cognition, experience and physiology. Consistent with a broader argument that boredom encourages the behavioral pursuit of alternative goals, we argue that, while bored, attention to the current task is reduced, the experience of boredom is negative and aversive, and that boredom increases autonomic arousal to ready the pursuit of alternatives. By motivating desire for change from the current state, boredom increases opportunities to attain social, cognitive, emotional and experiential stimulation that could have been missed. We review the limited extant literature to support these claims, and call for more experimental boredom research.

Financial Development and Inclusive Growth : Attaining Shared and Sustainable Prosperity in Egypt

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.585078%
Better functioning financial systems foster economic growth, poverty alleviation; moreover, a more equitable distribution of economic opportunities enhances overall economic development. It is critical that financial development leads to inclusive growth. This brings us to certain key questions: Who benefits from a better financial system? Does financial development induce an increase in per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) only because the very rich are getting even richer? Does finance expand economic opportunities for the bulk of society? Economic theory suggests that finance shapes the distribution of economic opportunities. The financial system affects the degree to which a person s economic opportunities are defined. It influences who can launch a new business venture and who cannot, who can acquire education and who cannot, who can live in a neighborhood that fosters the cognitive and non-cognitive development of their children and who cannot, who can pursue one s economic dreams and who cannot. A more competitive...

A Q Factor Analysis of College Undergraduate Students' Study Behaviors

Yang, Yang
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.99984%
The purpose of this study was to better understand the study behaviors and habits of university undergraduate students. It was designed to determine whether undergraduate students could be grouped based on their self-reported study behaviors and if any grouping system could be determined, whether group membership was related to students’ academic achievement. A total of 152 undergraduate students voluntarily participated in the current study by completing the Study Behavior Inventory instrument. All participants were enrolled in fall semester of 2010 at Florida International University. The Q factor analysis technique using principal components extraction and a varimax rotation was used in order to examine the participants in relation to each other and to detect a pattern of intercorrelations among participants based on their self-reported study behaviors. The Q factor analysis yielded a two factor structure representing two distinct student types among participants regarding their study behaviors. The first student type (i.e., Factor 1) describes proactive learners who organize both their study materials and study time well. Type 1 students are labeled “Proactive Learners with Well-Organized Study Behaviors”. The second type (i.e....

Linguagem e desenho infantil : aspectos do desenvolvimento simbolico da criança surda e implicações terapeuticas; Language and children's drawing : aspects of deaf children symbolic development and its therapeutic implications

Claudia Campos Machado Araujo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/02/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.388042%
O interesse pelo desenho infantil data dos fins do século XIX, e tem sido objeto de estudo de vários especialistas, pelo fato da representação pictográfica ser considerada um meio para o acompanhamento e compreensão do desenvolvimento da criança. O caminho a ser percorrido neste trabalho, pretende abordar o desenho, como uma das formas de representar, nomear e significar a realidade, visando ao desenvolvimento de linguagem da criança surda, como também a produção de novos conhecimentos e conseqüente atuação no cotidiano do trabalho fonoaudiológico. Para tanto, serão destacados conceitos da teoria Histórico-Cultural que abordam o funcionamento psíquico humano e sua constituição social, bem como o papel central da história e da cultura no desenvolvimento das funções psicológicas superiores, por meio da linguagem e da inserção da criança no circuito do simbólico. Com base no referencial de análise qualitativa, foram utilizados os construtos teóricos e metodológicos da perspectiva Histórico-Cultural e de sua articulação com a análise microgenética. Os sujeitos da pesquisa foram duas crianças surdas bilíngües, em fase de aquisição tanto da língua de sinais, quanto da escrita da língua portuguesa...

Reflexões sobre a história de vida e o processo terapêutico fonoaudiológico de adolescentes autistas; Reflections on the life history and speech and language therapeutic process of autistic adolescents

Maria Fernanda Bagarollo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/02/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.75812%
Todas as famílias, quando aguardam o nascimento de um bebê, se preparam para cuidar de uma criança com desenvolvimento normal. Nos casos de crianças autistas o imaginário e o funcionamento familiar ficam abalados, podendo modificar assim a maneira de interagir, de demandar e de sonhar com a criança, reduzindo a oferta social e a intensidade das relações intersubjetivas dos pais com o filho autista. Todas essas dificuldades sociais vivenciadas pelos sujeitos autistas podem acentuar os prejuízos em seu desenvolvimento e formação enquanto ser humano, uma vez que, estudos pautados na abordagem histórico-cultural mostram que o meio social é determinante para o desenvolvimento humano transformando o ser biológico em ser cultural. Os acontecimentos e o modo como a família interage e media as relações do sujeito com o mundo vão construindo um "tecido narrativo da vida", permeado por significações, desejos, sentimentos, lembranças e constituindo gradativamente o bebê, a criança e posteriormente o adolescente enquanto ser humano com funcionamento lingüístico-cognitivo próprios da espécie e da cultura em que vive. No caso dos adolescentes autistas a história de vida pode estar impregnada de significações e fazeres sociais próprios da patologia...

What imitation tells us about social cognition: a rapprochement between developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience.

Meltzoff, Andrew N; Decety, Jean
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/03/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.993125%
Both developmental and neurophysiological research suggest a common coding between perceived and generated actions. This shared representational network is innately wired in humans. We review psychological evidence concerning the imitative behaviour of newborn human infants. We suggest that the mechanisms involved in infant imitation provide the foundation for understanding that others are 'like me' and underlie the development of theory of mind and empathy for others. We also analyse functional neuroimaging studies that explore the neurophysiological substrate of imitation in adults. We marshal evidence that imitation recruits not only shared neural representations between the self and the other but also cortical regions in the parietal cortex that are crucial for distinguishing between the perspective of self and other. Imitation is doubly revealing: it is used by infants to learn about adults, and by scientists to understand the organization and functioning of the brain.