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Influência do processo de obtenção, das condições de armazenamento e das propriedades físico-químicas sobre a estabilidade de extratos secos padronizados de plantas medicinais; Influence of the production process, storage conditions and physical and chemical properties on the stability of standardized dried extracts of medicinal plants

Bott, Rubiana Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/04/2008 Português
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O interesse mundial por produtos derivados de plantas medicinais cresceu vertiginosamente nos últimos anos. Produtos derivados de plantas medicinais são misturas multicomponentes e sua eficácia pode estar associada a mais de um composto tornando o seu controle da qualidade tarefa árdua. Apesar de grandes investimentos em pesquisa terem sido feitos para a comprovação da eficácia e segurança dos medicamentos derivados de plantas medicinais, poucos são os trabalhos científicos que dizem respeito à manutenção da qualidade desses produtos. Extratos secos de plantas medicinais possuem efeito farmacológico devido à presença de substâncias ativas que estão sujeitas a reações de degradação. A velocidade dessas reações pode ser prevista através do estudo de estabilidade que envolve o armazenamento dos extratos em diversas condições (diferentes temperatura e umidade relativa do ar). Por esse motivo, o objetivo dessa tese foi o estudo da influência do processo de obtenção, das condições de armazenamento e das propriedades físico-químicas sobre a estabilidade de extratos secos padronizados de plantas medicinais. Visando o entendimento dos fatores que afetam a estabilidade de produtos naturais, os extratos foram caracterizados em relação à composição (presença de açúcares redutores...

A simple method for testing cointegration subject to regime

Gabriel, Vasco J.; Sola, Martin; Psaradakis, Zacharias
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em /06/2001 Português
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In this paper, we propose a simple method for testing cointegration in models that allow for multiple shifts in the long run relationship. The procedure consists of computing conventional residual-based tests with standardized residuals from Markov switching estimation. No new critical values are needed. An empirical application to the present value model of stock prices is presented, complemented by a small Monte Carlo experiment.

A simple method of testing for cointegration subject to multiple regime changes

Gabriel, Vasco J.; Sola, Martin; Psaradakis, Zacharias
Fonte: Elsevier Science Publicador: Elsevier Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2002 Português
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In this paper we propose a simple method of testing for cointegration in models that allow for multiple shifts in the long-run relationship. The procedure consists of carrying out conventional residual-based tests with standardized residuals from an appropriate Markov switching model. Our Monte Carlo results show that standard tests work well, even though their asymptotic validity can be questioned because they are not based on least-squares residuals. An empirical application to the present-value model of stock prices is also discussed.

Standardized susceptibility testing of fluconazole: an international collaborative study.

Pfaller, M A; Dupont, B; Kobayashi, G S; Müller, J; Rinaldi, M G; Espinel-Ingroff, A; Shadomy, S; Troke, P F; Walsh, T J; Warnock, D W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1992 Português
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An international collaborative study of broth dilution (MIC) and disk diffusion susceptibility testing of fluconazole was conducted by using a chemically defined medium (High-Resolution Antifungal Assay Medium; Oxoid Ltd., Basingstoke, United Kingdom) and standard test methods performed in eight reference laboratories. Ten yeast isolates were tested by each test method in duplicate on each of 3 separate days. The intralaboratory reproducibility of the MIC test was excellent; 95.7% of the replicate tests (n = 220) were within 2 doubling dilutions of the other values in the set for the eight laboratories. The intralaboratory reproducibility of the disk test was also good, with 91% of the replicate tests (n = 234) agreeing with each other within an arbitrarily chosen value of 4 mm. Interlaboratory agreement of MIC test results was acceptable, with 84% of the MICs agreeing within 2 doubling dilutions. In contrast, the interlaboratory agreement of the disk test was not good, with only 59% of test results agreeing within 4 mm. Comparison of the rank order of MICs obtained in each laboratory with the reference rank order gave an agreement of 70 to 80% (median, 80%) with the MIC test and 70 to 90% (median, 80%) with the disk test. These preliminary results are encouraging for the development of standardized testing methods for testing fluconazole.

Comparison of direct and standardized testing of infected urine for antimicrobial susceptibilities by disk diffusion.

Oakes, A R; Badger, R; Grove, D I
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1994 Português
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A total of 14,272 urine specimens were examined over one year to determine the validity of direct antimicrobial agent susceptibility testing against ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, and trimethoprim. A comparison between direct and standardized disk diffusion tests was made for a total of 1,106 urine specimens containing > or = 10(5) organisms per ml in pure culture. There were 5,821 individual organism-antimicrobial agent challenges compared for the two testing methods, and there was complete agreement of susceptibility category in 5,492 comparisons (94.3%). Initially, discordant results were reduced from 5.7 to 2.1% when the intermediate category was considered susceptible. Intralaboratory variation was assessed by testing another 453 organisms by the standard National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method on two consecutive days; there was complete agreement in 96.1% of comparisons. When results of direct and standardized testing were simply classified as susceptible or resistant, there was 1.1% discordance. When simple same-day tests were used together with predictable patterns of susceptibility and resistance, 536 (48.5%) of 1,106 isolates could be identified satisfactorily to the genus or species level. For laboratory reporting purposes...

Comparison of Direct and Standardized Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Positive Blood Cultures

Johnson, James E.; Washington, John A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1976 Português
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In an effort to determine the feasibility and accuracy of performing direct susceptibility tests from positive blood cultures, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), determined by the agar dilution method, of direct and standardized tests with seven antibiotics were compared. Results were analyzed as to the number of very major (change in MIC from susceptible in preliminary direct testing to resistant in final standardized testing), major (change in MIC from resistant to susceptible), and minor (change in MIC without change in interpretation) discrepancies. The results for gram-positive cocci and for gram-negative bacilli were 5, 6, and 82 of 162 strains tested and 3, 12, and 79 of 90 strains tested, respectively. Of the total number of susceptibility tests compared, major and very major discrepancies occurred in only 1 and 2.4% of instances with gram-positive and -negative isolates, respectively. The majority of discrepancies were noted with Staphylococcus epidermidis (four very major, five major), Klebsiella (two very major, four major), and Alcaligenes (five major). The antibiotics most often exhibiting discrepancies were penicillin, ampicillin, and cephalothin. The results indicate that preliminary susceptibility testing directly from positive blood culture bottles is generally both feasible and accurate.

Updated recommendations from the Canadian National Consensus Meeting on HER2/neu testing in breast cancer

Hanna, W.; O’Malley, F.P.; Barnes, P.; Berendt, R.; Gaboury, L.; Magliocco, A.; Pettigrew, N.; Robertson, S.; Sengupta, S.; Têtu, B.; Thomson, T.
Fonte: Multimed Inc. Publicador: Multimed Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2007 Português
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Testing for her2/neu in breast cancer at the time of primary diagnosis is now the standard of care. Accurate and standardized testing methods are of prime importance to ensure the proper classification of the patient’s her2/neu status. A meeting of pathologists from across Canada was convened to update the Canadian her2/neu testing guidelines. This National her2/neu Testing Committee reviewed the recently published American Society of Clinical Oncology/ College of American Pathologists (asco/cap) guidelines for her2/neu testing in breast cancer. The updated Canadian her2/neu testing guidelines are based primarily on the asco/cap guidelines, with some modifications. It is anticipated that widespread adoption of these guidelines will further improve the accuracy of her2/neu testing in Canada.

What No Child Left Behind Leaves Behind: The Roles of IQ and Self-Control in Predicting Standardized Achievement Test Scores and Report Card Grades

Duckworth, Angela L.; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tsukayama, Eli
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The increasing prominence of standardized testing to assess student learning motivated the current investigation. We propose that standardized achievement test scores assess competencies determined more by intelligence than by self-control, whereas report card grades assess competencies determined more by self-control than by intelligence. In particular, we suggest that intelligence helps students learn and solve problems independent of formal instruction, whereas self-control helps students study, complete homework, and behave positively in the classroom. Two longitudinal, prospective studies of middle school students support predictions from this model. In both samples, IQ predicted changes in standardized achievement test scores over time better than did self-control, whereas self-control predicted changes in report card grades over time better than did IQ. As expected, the effect of self-control on changes in report card grades was mediated in Study 2 by teacher ratings of homework completion and classroom conduct. In a third study, ratings of middle school teachers about the content and purpose of standardized achievement tests and report card grades were consistent with the proposed model. Implications for pedagogy and public policy are discussed.

Globalization and Its Impact on Assessment: Moving Toward a New Story

Rigas, Bob
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Português
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Globalization has resulted in large-scale international and local assessments closely tied to notions of accountability and competitiveness in a globalized economy. Although policy makers seek to ensure citizens meet the demands of a global knowledge-based economy, such assessments may also impede the development of requisite 21st century skills. While standardization currently is viewed as the most effective measurement of student achievement, several Canadian and international jurisdictions are moving toward assessment for learning (AfL). This conceptual study sought to identify whether AfL or standardized assessment most effectively meets 21st century learning goals in the wake of rapid global change. It applies a Story Model theoretical framework to understand the current, the new emerging, and the future ideal story of education from a personal, cultural, and global lens. The study examines the main critiques and/or challenges of standardized testing, the benefits of AfL for student learning, and new teaching and assessment approaches to the development of 21st century learning goals. The study applies the Story Model’s inside-outside/past-future approach to determine the future direction of assessment. Results show that the new story of assessment will most likely entail a model that integrates both standardized testing and in-class assessments in the form of AfL and PBL.

Stereotype threat and the standardized testing experiences of African American children at an urban elementary school

Wasserberg, Martin J
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Stereotype threat (Steele & Aronson, 1995) refers to the risk of confirming a negative stereotype about one’s group in a particular performance domain. The theory assumes that performance in the stereotyped domain is most negatively affected when individuals are more highly identified with the domain in question. As federal law has increased the importance of standardized testing at the elementary level, it can be reasonably hypothesized that the standardized test performance of African American children will be depressed when they are aware of negative societal stereotypes about the academic competence of African Americans.^ This sequential mixed-methods study investigated whether the standardized testing experiences of African American children in an urban elementary school are related to their level of stereotype awareness. The quantitative phase utilized data from 198 African American children at an urban elementary school. Both ex-post facto and experimental designs were employed. Experimental conditions were diagnostic and non-diagnostic testing experiences. The qualitative phase utilized data from a series of six focus group interviews conducted with a purposefully selected group of 4 African American children. The interview data were supplemented with data from 30 hours of classroom observations. ^ Quantitative findings indicated that the stereotype threat condition evoked by diagnostic testing depresses the reading test performance of stereotype-aware African American children (F[1...

Stereotype Threat and the Standardized Testing Experiences of African American Children at an Urban Elementary School

Wasserberg, Martin J
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.78266%
Stereotype threat (Steele & Aronson, 1995) refers to the risk of confirming a negative stereotype about one’s group in a particular performance domain. The theory assumes that performance in the stereotyped domain is most negatively affected when individuals are more highly identified with the domain in question. As federal law has increased the importance of standardized testing at the elementary level, it can be reasonably hypothesized that the standardized test performance of African American children will be depressed when they are aware of negative societal stereotypes about the academic competence of African Americans. This sequential mixed-methods study investigated whether the standardized testing experiences of African American children in an urban elementary school are related to their level of stereotype awareness. The quantitative phase utilized data from 198 African American children at an urban elementary school. Both ex-post facto and experimental designs were employed. Experimental conditions were diagnostic and non-diagnostic testing experiences. The qualitative phase utilized data from a series of six focus group interviews conducted with a purposefully selected group of 4 African American children. The interview data were supplemented with data from 30 hours of classroom observations. Quantitative findings indicated that the stereotype threat condition evoked by diagnostic testing depresses the reading test performance of stereotype-aware African American children (F[1...

The Relationship between Selected Standardized Test Scores and Performance in Advanced Placement Math and Science Exams: Analyzing the Differential Effectiveness of Scores for Course Identification and Placement

Urbina, Josue N
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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There is a national need to increase the STEM-related workforce. Among factors leading towards STEM careers include the number of advanced high school mathematics and science courses students complete. Florida’s enrollment patterns in STEM-related Advanced Placement (AP) courses, however, reveal that only a small percentage of students enroll into these classes. Therefore, screening tools are needed to find more students for these courses, who are academically ready, yet have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which scores from a national standardized test, Preliminary Scholastic Assessment Test/ National Merit Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT), in conjunction with and compared to a state-mandated standardized test, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), are related to selected AP exam performance in Seminole County Public Schools. An ex post facto correlational study was conducted using 6,189 student records from the 2010 - 2012 academic years. Multiple regression analyses using simultaneous Full Model testing showed differential moderate to strong relationships between scores in eight of the nine AP courses (i.e., Biology, Environmental Science, Chemistry, Physics B, Physics C Electrical...

Legal, informational, and testing restrictions in employment: A study of antidiscrimination policy

Sadka-Negrin, Joyce Carol
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Português
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This dissertation addresses the problem of informational and legal restrictions on employment screening processes such as educational requirements and standardized testing. For the past two decades, the legal system in the U.S. has struggled with this issue and has labeled certain information or tests as discriminatory because they have adverse impact on minority groups. In the first chapter, we consider the major legal cases in this area and discuss the rationale for these major decisions in light of the evidence on testing and information from the fields of psychometrics and economics. We find that the legal system must take into account the productive inefficiencies that can be caused by informational restrictions, as well as the effects on incentives of firms and workers involved in these legal limitations. In chapter 2, we develop an extension of the language model of discrimination, adding differences in worker ability and the use of language knowledge as a signal of ability. We show that legal restrictions unambiguously lower output. They also result in lower wages for low ability minority workers, without increasing the wage for high ability minorities. Thus informational restrictions have an adverse and regressive effect on the minority income distribution. In chapter 3...

Hypothesis Testing and Statistical Power of a Test

Park, Hun Myoung
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Português
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How powerful is my study (test)? How many observations do I need to have for what I want to get from the study? You may want to know statistical power of a test to detect a meaningful effect, given sample size, test size (significance level), and standardized effect size. You may also want to determine the minimum sample size required to get a significant result, given statistical power, test size, and standardized effect size. These analyses examine the sensitivity of statistical power and sample size to other components, enabling researchers to efficiently use research resources. This document summarizes basics of hypothesis testing and statistic power analysis, and then illustrates how to do using SAS 9, Stata 10, G*Power 3.

Effects on No Child Left Behind Act of Special Education Regarding Standardized Testing

Gensler, Rebecca
Fonte: Theresa A. Ochoa, School of Education, Indiana University Publicador: Theresa A. Ochoa, School of Education, Indiana University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 306704 bytes; application/pdf
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Thank you to Jeanne Sept, Dean of Faculties,and Dean Geraldo Gonzalez and Sarah Baumgart at the School of Education, Indiana University.; The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) has been the cause of much controversy sinct its enactment by President bush in 2001. NCLB requires schools to be held accountable for all their students to meet the state standards for their grade level. The controversy over NCLB lies in the fact that all students, regardless of their race, ethnicity, socio-economic background, native language, or disabilities are assessed on whether or not they have learned the state standards through one standardized test. In this article, the author will discuss how NCLB has affected special education positively by offically raising expectations fot all students and negatively by providing little flexibility for alternate assessment, often resulting in inaccurate measures of special educatin students' progress. The author will then present a solution to the single-test strategy that would include providing alternate exams and alternative forms of assessment based on the individual student's needs as reported in the student's IEP.; Dean of Faculites and School of Education, Indiana University

Teacher testing and implications for physical education

O'Sullivan, Mary; Tannehill, Deborah
Fonte: Human Kinetics Publicador: Human Kinetics
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
Português
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peer-reviewed; There has been a dramatic increase in teacher testing in the last decade. State and national attention to this issue is evidenced by the amount of literature devoted to assessment in general and teacher testing in particular. An invitational conference was held last fall by the Educational Testing Service (ETS) to provide a forum for clarifying issues regarding uses of standardized tests in American education in general and teacher testing in particular. Flippo (1986) outlined how all but six states in the nation are presently involved in planning, designing, or implementing some form of teacher testing. Darling-Hammond (1986) predicts that almost all states will have teacher testing by the early 1990s. Haney and Madaus (1989) reported that the volume of standardized testing of teachers and students increased 10 to 20% in the last 40 years. Organizations supporting some type of teacher testing include the National Education Association, the American Federation of Teachers, the Holmes Group, the Carnegie Foundation, and the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education. The major purposes of this article are to outline the history of teacher testing in this county, describe current trends and alternatives to traditional forms of teacher assessment...

The impact of the Canadian Standardized Test of Fitness and of health counselling on health attitudes and behaviour

Monks, Carrie.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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The purpose of this research study was to determine whether or not the use of a single day of Personal Wellness Evaluations would be meaningful enough to change the attitudes of participants toward adopting a healthier lifestyle, or if it was necessary to include regular planned health counselling alon-g with the Personal Wellness Evaluations in order to'observe changes in beliefs, attitudes and behaviours toward active living and the adoption of a healthier lifestyle. Attitudes and behaviours toward physical fitness and healthy lifestyle choices were assessed through a questionnaire composed of the following instruments: Fishbein and Ajzen Attitude and Behaviour Questionnaire, Leisure Behaviour Questionnaire, Ten Centimeter Bipolar Health Continuum, Neugarten Life Satisfaction Assessment, Job Description Index, Selected questions from the Ontario Health Survey, and the Symptom Reporting Questionnaire. Physical fitness evaluation consisted of the Canadian Standardized Test of Fitness, measures of blood pressure, and total cholesterol. The participants were divided into three groups: Group 1- CSTF & health counselling, Group 2- CSTF only, and Group 3- a control group. All three groups received the questionnaire both at the beginning and at the end of the study. Group 1 and Group 2 also participated in fitness testing at these same times...

Bone density testing in clinical practice

Lewiecki,E. Michael; Borges,João Lindolfo C.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2006 Português
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The diagnosis of osteoporosis and monitoring of treatment is a challenge for physicians due to the large number of available tests and complexities of interpretation. Bone mineral density (BMD) testing is a non-invasive measurement to assess skeletal health. The "gold-standard" technology for diagnosis and monitoring is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the spine, hip, or forearm. Fracture risk can be predicted using DXA and other technologies at many skeletal sites. Despite guidelines for selecting patients for BMD testing and identifying those most likely to benefit from treatment, many patients are not being tested or receiving therapy. Even patients with very high risk of fracture, such as those on long-term glucocorticoid therapy or with prevalent fragility fractures, are often not managed appropriately. The optimal testing strategy varies according to local availability and affordability of BMD testing. The role of BMD testing to monitor therapy is still being defined, and interpretation of serial studies requires special attention to instrument calibration, acquisition technique, analysis, and precision assessment. BMD is usually reported as a T-score, the standard deviation variance of the patient's BMD compared to a normal young-adult reference population. BMD in postmenopausal women is classified as normal...

An analysis of standardized testing and deafness

Sala, Jess La
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Masters Project Formato: 11957986 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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This study examined the relationship of deaf students' performance on standardized entrance exams and their academic successes at both the National Technical Institute for the Deaf and at Rochester Institute of Technology. For the purpose of this study, academic success was defined as completion of degree program. The results showed that higher reading levels at entry to college were associated with successful degree completion at the AAS and BS degree levels and students who graduated with these degrees had significantly higher reading levels compared to students who did not complete a degree. Eighty four percent of the students with a 12thgrade reading range earned a BS or a BFA degree. Seventy percent of the students who scored a 10thor 11th grade reading range earned a BS or a BFA degree. Forty-two percent of the students with a 7.5 grade reading range or below earned a BS or a BFA degree.

Standardized testing is eroding the foundation of parental support and engagement essential to student success

Rhodes, Jesse H.
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/04/2015 Português
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In the past decade, federal and state education initiatives such as the Common Core and No Child Left Behind have been put into place with the aim of improving students’ academic performance. In new research, Jesse H. Rhodes examines the impact of the standardized testing that comes along with these reforms. He finds that these tests erode parents’ confidence in government and reduces their involvement in their children’s schools. He argues that by taking parents’ influence away, standardized testing reforms have alienated them from their children’s schools – and from government in general – thus discouraging them from engaging in education.