Podemos perceber muitos avanços e progressos na sistemática de gestão e controle de sistemas produtivos. Estes avanços têm sido reportados tanto por especialistas acadêmicos quanto por gestores e formadores de opinião. Técnicas inovadoras de administração e gestão em diversas áreas e processos de negócio (tais como desenvolvimento de produtos, logística integrada e cadeias de suprimentos, gestão da qualidade, estratégias de vendas diferenciadas, etc.) têm impulsionado melhores resultados de forma cada vez mais dinâmica. Fazem parte deste contexto, em especial, os conceitos da Produção Enxuta, que não se limitam aos aspectos técnicos e podem permear os diversos níveis e áreas de uma organização. No entanto, podem ser relatados diversos problemas (e, portanto, oportunidades) relacionados à falta de um tratamento sistêmico para lidar com a variação (ou desnivelamento) na utilização da capacidade produtiva, dentre os quais podemos destacar: vendas desbalanceadas em relação à capacidade do sistema produtivo (em termos de volume e/ou variedade), desnivelamento de vendas ao longo de determinados períodos (ao longo do mês, por exemplo), sistemas de premiação e desempenho que desencorajam a adoção de comportamentos nivelados...
We describe sources and methods for state legislative research and provide access to the State Legislative Search Guide tool. State legislation creates and regulates chronic disease prevention interventions both directly through programs targeted to reduce the chronic disease burden and legislation affecting environments such as parks and trails that support health behaviors. Researching state legislation helps advocates, policy makers, researchers, and practitioners make informed recommendations to improve chronic disease prevention policies. Several online sources exist for state legislative information, including subscription databases that cover all 50 US states, single-state subscription databases, and public domain state legislative databases administered by each state. The State Legislative Search Guide, in full-length and condensed versions, uses free public domain databases to facilitate comparison of state legislation for all US states. Links to both versions are provided in the article. Legislative research tips on creating search phrases, searching bill content, bill tracking, and selecting databases and also a table of major subscription databases are provided.
The laboratory component of a microbiology course consists of exercises which mandate a level of proficiency and manual dexterity equal to and often beyond that recognized among other biology courses. Bacterial growth, maintenance, identification (e.g., Gram stain, biochemical tests, genomics), as well as the continuous need to maintain laboratory safety and sterile technique, are only a few skills/responsibilities critical to the discipline of microbiology. Performance of the Gram stain remains one of the most basic and pivotal skills that must be mastered in the microbiology laboratory. However, a number of students continually have difficulty executing the Gram stain and preparative procedures associated with the test. In order to address this issue, we incorporated real-time digital recording as a supplemental teaching aid in the microbiology laboratory. Our use of the digital movie camera in the teaching setting served to enhance interest, motivate students, and in general, improve student performance.
A YouTube channel has been created to watch commented video fragments from famous movies or TV series that can be used to teach microbiology. Although microbes are usually depicted in terms of their roles in causing infectious disease, numerous movies reflect other scientific aspects, such as biotechnological applications or bioethical issues.
The development of new approaches to teaching of large lecture courses is needed. Today’s classroom has a wide range of students including high-achieving motivated learners, students struggling to understand basic concepts, and learning-challenged students. Many of these students can be lost in large classes under the shadow of the high-achieving extroverted students who dominate classroom question-and-answer sessions. Measuring a student’s understanding and achievement of content standards becomes difficult until an assessment has been done. To close this gap, an audience response system was introduced in an introductory Principles of Microbiology course. This technology specifically addressed the goal of individualizing instruction to the needs of the students. The evaluation of this project indicated an overall positive impact on student learning.
This report has been created to provide
practical tools, tips, and methodologies for project leaders
to integrate hygiene components into their projects. It
builds on available evidence about the contribution of
behavioral change programs to the reduction of diseases, in
particular hand-washing with soap initiatives, which can
benefit health, environment, water, sanitation, and
education projects. Project leaders should view hygiene
promotion as a behavioral change process rather than a
unidirectional media or education campaign. The knowledge
generated from the research, enabling environment
assessments, and other tools can be utilized in the early
stages of project design and throughout the project cycle.
It is crucial to understand the local environment to ensure
that behavior change is sustainable once the project cycle
is complete. Awareness of the importance of hygiene will
vary in each region; therefore, every project must start
with different assumptions. Water and Sanitation Program
(WSP) and other partners continue to generate positive
examples and lessons learned and transfer knowledge. For
One way the International Finance
Corporation (IFC) strengthens the overall business
environment is by making excellent training programs
available to small and medium businesses. Business Edge is a
perfect example. Local partner firms use these interactive
learning solutions to train and mentor small business owners
and their staff, resulting in more efficient businesses,
higher employment, and stronger local economies. This
SmartLesson shows the process methodology, including tips on
how IFC implemented Business Edge in Burkina Faso, offering
key lessons learned in the process.
Carbon nanotubes, a recently discovered form of carbon fiber with structural perfection similar to that of a fullerene molecule, have interesting electronic, chemical and mechanical properties due to their size and structure. Nanotubes have great potential as a bulk material for strong, lightweight composite materials, and as individual nano-scale tools or devices. Initial work on applications with individual multiwalled nanotubes as field emission sources and scanning force microscopy tips is described. The nanotubes display intriguing field emission behavior interpreted as the nanotube unraveling under the influence of the electric field. The unraveling process is believed to result in facile field emission from linear atomic carbon chains at the end of the nanotube. Such atomic wires represent an excellent field emitter. The work on multiwalled nanotube SFM tips was equally encouraging. The high aspect ratio of the nanotube allows it to image deep trenches inaccessible to commercially available Si pyramidal tips, and it reduces the interaction with the ambient water layer on the sample which perturbs image quality. The most remarkable advantage of nanotube SFM tips is a result of their mechanical properties. It was found that the nanotubes will remain rigid during normal imaging...
Thesis Writing Document; Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Writing in a second language is not an easy task, especially when an academic audience will evaluate the product (paper). A good paper does not happen the first time anyone sits down to compose. The paper only becomes a valuable product after the writer plans, organizes, drafts, revises and edits it. Therefore, the process of writing truly demands time, practice, and tools. Tools that guide or instruct the writer in expressing his or her ideas overcome some of the hurdles in writing. One such tool is a writing reference or, better yet, tips on how to “put it all together” creating a fine-tuned product (paper).
BitTorrent is the most successful peer-to-peer application. In the last years the research community has studied the BitTorrent ecosystem by collecting data from real BitTorrent swarms using different measurement techniques. In this article we present the first survey of these techniques that constitutes a first step in the design of future measurement techniques and tools for analyzing large-scale systems. The techniques are classified into macroscopic, microscopic, and complementary. Macroscopic techniques allow us to collect aggregated information of torrents and present very high scalability, able to monitor up to hundreds of thousands of torrents in short periods of time. Microscopic techniques operate at the peer level and focus on understanding performance aspects such as the peers¿ download rates. They offer higher granularity but do not scale as well as macroscopic techniques. Finally, complementary techniques utilize recent extensions to the BitTorrent protocol in order to obtain both aggregated and peer-level information. The article also summarizes the main challenges faced by the research community to accurately measure the BitTorrent ecosystem such as accurately identifying peers and estimating peers' upload rates. Furthermore...