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Professionalism, institutionalization and committee services in US. state legislatures

Edwards, Keith Malcolm
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 65 leaves
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This thesis examines the relationship between legislative professionalism and institutionalization in the committee systems of six U.S. states. I examine whether increased professionalization, as defined by increases in levels of member salary, legislative staffing, and time in session, causes legislatures to institutionalize in a manner similar to the U.S. Congress. Specifically, this thesis focuses on the use (or lack thereof) of seniority as an automatic procedure for the assignment to, and transfer between, committees. I find that while it appears that all state legislators value service on committees, legislative professionalization is not an adequate explanatory variable to describe the variation in the institutionalization of committee systems that we see across states in the United States. This finding is especially evident in the analysis of California, the most professionalized state legislature in the U.S.; by Keith Malcolm Edwards.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 2007.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 53-57).

A pox on perestroika, a hex on hegemony: toward a critical political science [January 2003]

Dryzek, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 69964 bytes; 355 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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While the Perestroika reform movement that began in 2000 has shaken US political science, the paucity of productive methodological argument means that the dispute becomes political rather than intellectual. The discipline, like James Bond’s vodka martini, has been shaken but not stirred. The movement may change the balance of power within the profession, but otherwise leave the practice of political science unchanged. This paper is intended to help move methodological debate, with “methodology” taken in its broad sense of reflection upon the conduct of inquiry (so it also covers epistemology). The existing – now faltering – hegemony (identified with rational choice theory and quantitative methods) may be indefensible, but Perestroika may portend only an empty pluralism in its place. I discuss a critical disciplinary pluralism as a way of making the best of existing political science practice – and redeeming Perestroika’s promise. Space limitations preclude full documentation of the impoverished state of the methodological debate, though a flavor can be gained by a look at a symposium of disciplinary stars organized to address the issues raised in the Perestroikan critique, published in the June 2002 issue of PS: Political Science and Politics under the title of “Shaking Things Up? Thoughts About the Future of Political Science.” One common theme that emerges from the symposium is the degree to which the contributors point to their own work as a model. Asked to reflect upon the shape of the discipline...

A pox on perestroika, a hex on hegemony: toward a critical political science [July 2002]

Dryzek, John
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 204504 bytes; 356 bytes; 356 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream
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Introduction: While the perestroika reform movement that began in 2000 has shaken US political science, the virtual absence of methodological argument on any side means that the dispute is mostly political rather than intellectual. The discipline has been shaken but not stirred. The movement may change the balance of power within the profession, but otherwise leave the practice of political science unchanged. This paper is intended to help move methodological debate, with “methodology” taken in its broad sense of reflection upon the conduct of inquiry (so it also covers epistemology). The existing – now faltering –hegemony (usually identified with rational choice theory and quantitative methods) may be indefensible, but perestroika proposes only an empty pluralism in its place. Perestroika’s heart may be in the right place, but its head needs to catch up. I discuss a critical disciplinary pluralism, not as an alternative program for the discipline, but as a way of making the best of existing political science practice.; no

The causes of religious wars : holy nations, sacred spaces, and religious revolutions

Gregg, Heather Selma, 1971-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 529 p.; 1182200 bytes; 1182627 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In the wake of September 11th, policy analysts, journalists, and academics have tried to make sense of the rise of militant Islam, particularly its role as a motivating and legitimating force for violence against the US. The unwritten assumption is that there is something about Islam that makes it bloodier and more violence-prone than other religions. This dissertation seeks to investigate this assertion by considering incidents of Islamically motivated terrorism, violence, and war, and comparing them to examples of Christian, Jewish, Buddhist and Hindu bellicosity. In doing so, it aims to evaluate if religious violence is primarily the product of beliefs, doctrine and scripture, or if religious violence is the result of other factors such as cultural, political, social and economic circumstances. This dissertation focuses on religious wars--wars, terrorism, and violent conflicts that have saliently religious goals, specifically battles to defend holy nations, sacred spaces and revolutions aimed at creating religious governments-and tests three variables for their ability to explain the conditions under which religious wars arise: threat perception, the intertwining of political and religious authority, and the amount of resources available to a given religious group.; (cont.) It argues that religious violence is the result of specific interpretations of a religion's beliefs and scriptures...

Implementing flexible response : the US, Germany, and NATO's conventional Forces

Baldauf, Joerg Franz
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (543 leaves); 44916326 bytes; 44916084 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Joerg Franz Baldauf.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1987.; Bibliography: leaves 523-543.

Working with what you've got : US strategy in Iraq; Working with what you've got : United States strategy in Iraq

Rumbaugh, R. Russell, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 75 leaves; 4816729 bytes; 4824509 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by R. Russell Rumbaugh.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references.

U.S. export controls on encryption technology; US export controls on encryption technology

Hung, Shirley Kon-Jean
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 118 p.; 7654301 bytes; 7639628 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) effort that eventually paid off in 1999. Interest group politics also factors into the actions of the national security establishment as they also lobby the Presidency and Congress to maintain restrictive encryption regulations. The study uses organizational culture to explain the motivations and some of the actions of the NSA, particularly with regard to its preference for secrecy, its placement of national security above other values, and its efforts to maintain control over all cryptology, whether government or civilian.; This thesis seeks to explain why the U.S. government export controls on encryption technologies instituted during the 1970s remained in place until 1999 even though the widespread availability of similar products internationally had rendered the regulations largely without national security benefit by the late 1980s and early 1990s. The second part of the thesis explores the processes and reasons behind the eventual liberalization of encryption policies in 1999. Underlying the study is a values tradeoff between national security, economic interests, and civil liberties for which the relative gains and losses to each value shift through the three decades of the study as a result of technological advances in commercial and civilian cryptography...

The weight of an assassin's mace : vulnerabilities in the US military's satellite communications and China's information warfare threat

Brooks, Benjamin M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 93 p.; 5505015 bytes; 5508850 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Believing that an information Revolution of Military Affairs has occurred, the US military is currently transforming to achieve dominance over the full spectrum of deployment scenarios with a lighter, more mobile, and more capable force. Establishing a far-reaching, robust, ubiquitous ISR and telecommunications network, and a network-centered fighting doctrine are keys to this endeavor. Of the many systems needed, satellite communications are especially significant because they are the prime method of transmitting high quantities of information to remote and mobile units. The People's Republic of China too has become aware of the information Revolution of Military Affairs, as well as the vulnerabilities associated with it. Though the People's Republic is still in the process of modernizing its society and military, the doctrines and advantages of Information Warfare have not been lost to it. It seeks to equip itself with the IT and skill sets that are becoming increasingly more available to asymmetrically affect the information usage of a technologically superior adversary. As it stands, the military's use of satellite communications is vulnerable.; (cont.) Though some satellite communications have inherent protective qualities, they are still susceptible to some variants of Electronic Attack and anti-satellite attack. Military-dedicated systems do not offer enough security...

National security panics : overestimating threats to national security

Cramer, Jane Kellett, 1964-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 427 p.
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Three times in this century the US public has panicked with fear because of exaggerations of external threats to the nation. These panics peaked in 1950,1960, and 1980. Why did the U.S. markedly exaggerate the Soviet threat at these times? These periods of widespread public fear were "defining moments" when the US created confrontational and militarized containment policies. These panics ratcheted up the arms race tremendously between the US and the Soviet Union, and arguably these panics led to unnecessary confrontations and crises. In this study I test leading explanations of these cases--eight hypotheses drawn from three different perspectives. The Rational Perspective argues insufficient information and uncertainty about present and future capabilities and intentions causes overestimations. The Psychological Perspective argues cognitive errors could cause these overestimations (attribution theory and schema theory/analogical reasoning, tested here). The Domestic Politics Perspective argues oversell, logrolling, electoral politics and/or militarism causes public overestimations. Domestic Politics best explains the national misperceptions examined. In each case, the sources of the specific misperceptions examined were clearly rooted in domestic politics (1950: oversell and militarism; 1960 and 1980: electoral politics and militarism.) Uncertainty about the threat was found to be a significant contributing factor in 1950 (but not the source/elites did not unintentionally overestimate when the misperceptions first formed).; (cont.) Uncertainty was found to be a significant "permissive condition" for the misperceptions of 1960-but uncertainty was highest just after Sputnik in 1957...

Good governance in crisis or a good crisis for governance?: a comparison of the EU and the US

Schelkle, Waltraud
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2010 Português
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The crisis since August 2007 provides an opportunity to observe the workings of good governance institutions under an extreme stress test and in radically different political settings. Institutions such as independent central banks, fiscal rules and regulatory oversight of public finances were meant to depoliticize macroeconomic stabilization. The comparison of responses to the crisis in the United States and in the European Union shows that good governance institutions are in crisis in the US while it has been a good crisis for governance so far in the EU. Levels of fiscal stimulus and monetary easing are surprisingly similar between the EU and the US, yet the ECB has maintained its independence and member states have been restrained from inserting protectionist elements in their stimulus measures. By contrast, the boundaries between economic stabilization and distributive politics have been wiped out in the US because neither the political forces in the states nor the economic forces in the financial sector erected many defences. In the EU, the boundaries as drawn are inimical to joint stabilization efforts but this is exactly why they are politically self-enforcing.

The US law permitting permanent expatriates to vote in federal elections needs to be placed on a sturdier constitutional footing

Kalt, Brian
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/08/2015 Português
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US Citizens have a right to vote in federal elections in their former states even if they have permanently left the country. Brian Kalt argues that this right, and the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act from which it flows, has constitutional problems given that those who have left are no longer ‘people of the state’. He writes that Congress cannot simply rewrite states’ voter-eligibility requirements as it pleases. He suggests that to address the problem, Congress could establish territory-style representation in the form of non-voting House delegates or piggyback reforms on to the proposed National Popular Vote Interstate Compact.

Book review: America’s blind spot: Chávez, oil and US security

Boscan, Luis
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/05/2013 Português
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Latin America holds some of the world’s biggest oil reserves, but unstable political events in the region are hindering its potential, especially in Venezuela. Global U.S. security would benefit from a revamping of outdated policies towards Latin America, argue Andrés Cala and Michael Economides. This is a blind spot in American politics, one that threatens U.S. geopolitical and economic interests. In this book, the authors aim to offer a thorough analysis of key geopolitical and economic threats to the U.S., highlighting the need for a new Latin American policy doctrine based on military and strategic priorities. Reviewed by Luis Boscán. America’s Blind Spot: Chávez, Oil and US Security. Andrés Cala and Michael Economides. Continuum Books. 2012

Professional campaigners are socially removed from low-income communities and taught to ignore them at election time, perpetuating political inequalities

Laurison, Daniel
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/04/2014 Português
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Voter turnout has fallen as income inequality has risen, in the US and other advanced democracies. Daniel Laurison considers this phenomenon an effect of how political campaigns are organised, and how campaign staff are recruited. Based on evidence from elections in the US, he explains why campaigns are reluctant to focus efforts on voters from disadvantaged communities.

Political lies need to be fact checked in a way that bridges different political truths, not silences them

Dovi, Suzanne
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/07/2014 Português
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In June, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the pro-life Susan B. Anthony List organization which had challenged the legality of an Ohio law that banned candidates from lying during political campaigns. Given the prevalence of lies in politics, does the practice need to be protected by law? Suzanne Dovi writes that given how effective lies can be, Americans may be tempted to turn to government to make their politicians more honest. She argues that this temptation should be resisted, as lies can be necessary, such as in matters of state security. Banning political lying, she says, would also prevent us from doing more to bridge the seemingly irreconcilable differences between those of different political opinions who often have deep disagreements over what is true.

Strategic update: Japan and the US pivot to the Asia pacific

Dian, Matteo
Fonte: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: LSE IDEAS, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2013 Português
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This paper analyses the consequences of the US pivot to Asia on the US-Japan alliance and on Japanese foreign and security policies. On the one hand, the US pivot is reassuring for Tokyo, since it seeks to ‘rebalance’ Chinese military ascendency and to strengthen extended deterrence in the region. On the other hand, it contributes to the acceleration of the ‘normalisation’ of Japanese security policies, speeding the process of overcoming the institutional self-binding prescriptions that underpinned Japan’s post-war pacifism. America's increasing strategic focus on the Asia-Pacific has been one of the distinctive features of the foreign and security policy of the Obama administration. This renewed attention has been determined by both the global power shift towards Asia, caused by the rapid economic development of Asian countries, and by the new challenges the region poses to American primacy and the present international order.

Cuomo underperforms in New York primary, Idaho and Indiana fight for same sex marriage bans, and Missouri’s new abortion restrictions: US state blog round up for 6 – 12 September

Gilson, Christopher
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/09/2014 Português
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USApp Managing Editor, Chris Gilson, looks at the week in U.S. state blogging. Click http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/usappblog/2014/09/12/americas-anxious-electorate-budget-bill-delays-and-obama-speaks-on-isil-us-national-blog-round-up-for-6-12-september/ for our weekly roundup of national blogs.

Pennsylvania’s debt downgrade, child poverty in North Carolina, and Rand Paul underwhelms in California: US state blog round up for 20 – 26 September

Gilson, Christopher
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/09/2014 Português
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USApp Managing Editor, Chris Gilson, looks at the week in U.S. state blogging. Click http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/usappblog/2014/09/26/obamas-latte-salute-the-fickle-senate-and-eric-holders-contested-legacy-us-national-blog-round-up-for-20-26-september/ for our weekly roundup of national blogs.

Book review: young people and politics: political engagement in the Anglo-American democracies

Briggs, Jacqueline
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/11/2012 Português
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This book provides a comprehensive account of young people’s political engagement in the US, Britain, Canada and Australia, challenging conventional wisdom on a number of fronts by showing young people’s political engagement to be much more complicated than many of the stereotypes suggest. Jacqueline Briggs thinks the book will spur further research into the area of youth political participation, quite rightly labelling young voters as ‘volatile’ rather than ‘non-voters’.

The end of the shutdown, Booker wins in New Jersey, and do Americans want a third party? – US blog round up for 12 – 18 October

Gilson, Christopher
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/10/2013 Português
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Chris Gilson looks at the best in political blogging from the Beltway and across the States. Government shutdown and the debt ceiling This week, the U.S. government shutdown continued along with the continuing threat that the country might reach, and exceed, its debt limit on the 17th. On Saturday, The Hill’s Congress blog says that the shutdown has opened up a larger debate about the role and size of the government, and may have provided a ‘roadmap’ for identifying taxpayer funded programs and services that Washington could potentially live without. On the other side of the debate, Crooks & Liars has five charts that show why the US does not have a debt crisis. Meanwhile, Doug Ross has five reasons why the GOP will win the shutdown. On Sunday, Outside the Beltway reports that negotiations in the Senate to open the government and raise the debt ceiling had stalled because of the Democrats’ new focus on the 2011 sequestration cuts.

Realism and liberalism in the political thought of Bernard Williams

Hall, Edward
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2013 Português
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This thesis offers the first systematic critical examination of the political thought of Bernard Williams; explains the relation between his political realism and his critical assessment of much modern moral philosophy, and discusses how his work illuminates the debates about the nature and purpose of political theory. I defend Williams’s fundamental claim that the central questions of political morality arise within politics and argue accordingly that political theory should not, contrary to the position implicit in much contemporary political theory, in the first instance be seen as an exercise in applying a set of external moral principles to politics. I argue that although Williams’s critique of contemporary political theory is mistaken in its claim that contemporary political theorists conventionally endorse a monolithic form of moralism, he convincingly shows that political theory should begin with an understanding of the distinctive character of politics, as this enables us to understand the goods that are internal to it. In this regard, Williams’s realism is best read as an attempt to make ethical sense of politics, and as an attempt to explain how we can continue to affirm a kind of liberalism, without recourse to the moralised presuppositions that he insists we must jettison. I go on to argue that by developing the insights of Williams’s late work we can articulate a defence of liberalism that has marked advantages over the ‘high liberalism’ that most contemporary liberal theorists defend. This latter argument illustrates the distinctiveness of Williams’s contribution to contemporary debates about realism in political theory as most of the realist thinkers with whom he is grouped endorse a form of realism in order to impugn liberalism.