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In vitro confocal micro-PIV measurements of blood flow in a square microchannel: the effect of the haematocrit on instantaneous velocity profiles

Lima, R.; Wada, Shigeo; Takeda, Motohiro; Tsubota, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Takami
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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A confocal microparticle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) system was used to obtain detailed information on the velocity profiles for the flow of pure water (PW) and in vitro blood (haematocrit up to 17%) in a 100-μm-square microchannel. All the measurements were made in the middle plane of the microchannel at a constant flow rate and low Reynolds number (Re=0.025). The averaged ensemble velocity profiles were found to be markedly parabolic for all the working fluids studied. When comparing the instantaneous velocity profiles of the three fluids, our results indicated that the profile shape depended on the haematocrit. Our confocal micro-PIV measurements demonstrate that the root mean square (RMS) values increase with the haematocrit implying that it is important to consider the information provided by the instantaneous velocity fields, even at low Re. The present study also examines the potential effect of the RBCs on the accuracy of the instantaneous velocity measurements.

Blood flow in a bifurcation and confluence microchannel : the effectof the cell-free layer in the velocity profiles

Pinho, Diana; Bento, David; Rodrigues, Raquel; Fernandes, Carla S.; Garcia, Valdemar; Lima, R.
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
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A few detailed studies have been performed in complex in vitro microvascular networks composed by bifurcations and confluences. The main purpose of the present work is to numerically simulate the flow of two distinct fluids through bifurcation and confluence geometries, i. e red blood cells (RBCs) suspended in Dextran40 with about 14% of heamatocrit and pure water. The simulations of pure water and RBCs flows were performed resorting to the commercial finite volume software package FLUENT. A well known hemodynamic phenomenon, known as Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect [1, 2], observed in both in vivo and in vitro studies, results in the formation of a marginal cell-free layer (CFL) at regions adjacent to the wall [3]. Recently, studies have shown that the formation of the CFL is affected by the geometry of the microchannel and for the case of the confluences a CFL tend to appear in the middle of the microchannel after the apex of the confluence [4, 5]. By using the CFL experimental data, the main objective of this work is to implement a CFL in the numerical simulations in order to obtain a better understanding of the effect of this layer on the velocity profiles.

Blood flow in a bifurcation and confluence microchannel : effect of the cell-free layer in velocity profiles

Pinho, Diana; Bento, David; Rodrigues, Raquel; Fernandes, Carla S.; Garcia, Valdemar; Lima, R.
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.17346%
A few detailed studies have been performed in complex in vitro microvascular networks composed by bifurcations and confluences. The main purpose of the present work is to numerically simulate the flow of two distinct fluids through bifurcation and confluence geometries, i. e red blood cells (RBCs)suspended in Dextran40 with about 14% of heamatocrit and pure water. The simulations of pure water and RBCs flows were performed resorting to the commercial finite volume software package FLUENT. A well known hemodynamic phenomenon, known as Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect, observed in both in vivo and in vitro studies, results in the formation of a marginal cell-free layer (CFL) at regions adjacent to the wall. Recently, studies have shown that the formation of the CFL is affected by the geometry of the microchannel and for the case of the confluences a CFL tend to appear in the middle of the microchannel after the apex of the confluence. By using the CFL experimental data, the main objective of this work is to implement a CFL in the numerical simulations in order to obtain a better understanding of the effect of this layer on the velocity profiles.

Parameterization of the logarithmic layer of double-averaged streamwise velocity profiles in gravel-bed river flows

Franca, Mário J.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.; Lemmin, Ulrich
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: aplication/PDF
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The logarithmic layer of double-averaged (in time and space) streamwise velocity profiles obtained from field measurements made in the Swiss rivers, Venoge and Chamberonne is parameterized and discussed. Velocity measurements were made using a 3D Acoustic Doppler Velocity Profiler. Both riverbeds are hydraulically rough, composed of coarse gravel, with relative submergences (h/D50) of 5.25 and 5.96, respectively. From the observations, the flow may be divided into three different layers: a roughness layer near the bed, an equivalent logarithmic layer and a surface or outer layer. It was found that a logarithmic law can describe the double-averaged profiles in the layer 0.30 < z/h < 0.75. The parameterization of the logarithmic law is discussed. Special emphasis is given to the geometric parameters roughness and zero-displacement heights and to the equivalent von Karman constant.; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCF-4S33NBV-1/1/bbf4c14ea5ed4a1062a36f1c5b373f12

Fluid dynamics of air in a packed bed: velocity profiles and the continuum model assumption

NEGRINI, A. L.; FUELBER, A.; FREIRE, J. T.; THOMÉO, J. C.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 421-432
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Air flow through packed beds was analyzed experimentally under conditions ranging from those that reinforce the effect of the wall on the void fraction to those that minimize it. The packing was spherical particles, with a tube-to-particle diameter ratio (D/dp) between 3 and 60. Air flow rates were maintained between 1.3 and 4.44 m3/min, and gas velocity was measured with a Pitot tube positioned above the bed exit. Measurements were made at various radial and angular coordinate values, allowing the distribution of air flow across the bed to be described in detail. Comparison of the experimentally observed radial profiles with those derived from published equations revealed that at high D/dp ratios the measured and calculated velocity profiles behaved similarly. At low ratios, oscillations in the velocity profiles agreed with those in the voidage profiles, signifying that treating the porous medium as a continuum medium is questionable in these cases.

Fluid dynamics of air in a packed bed: velocity profiles and the continuum model assumption

NEGRINI,A. L.; FUELBER,A.; FREIRE,J. T.; THOMÉO,J. C.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/1999 Português
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Air flow through packed beds was analyzed experimentally under conditions ranging from those that reinforce the effect of the wall on the void fraction to those that minimize it. The packing was spherical particles, with a tube-to-particle diameter ratio (D/dp) between 3 and 60. Air flow rates were maintained between 1.3 and 4.44 m3/min, and gas velocity was measured with a Pitot tube positioned above the bed exit. Measurements were made at various radial and angular coordinate values, allowing the distribution of air flow across the bed to be described in detail. Comparison of the experimentally observed radial profiles with those derived from published equations revealed that at high D/dp ratios the measured and calculated velocity profiles behaved similarly. At low ratios, oscillations in the velocity profiles agreed with those in the voidage profiles, signifying that treating the porous medium as a continuum medium is questionable in these cases.

Determining the viscous behavior of non-Newtonian fluids in a flume using a laminar sheet flow model and Ultrasonic Velocity Profiling (UVP) system

Haldenwang,Rainer; Kotzé,Reinhardt; Chhabra,Raj
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas - ABCM Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas - ABCM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2012 Português
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The flow of non-Newtonian fluids in rectangular open channels has received renewed interest over the past number of years especially as large flumes are being used to transport tailings in countries like Chile. The effect of yield stress on the flow behavior is complex and not yet fully understood. The Ultrasonic Velocity Profiling (UVP) technique has been used to construct velocity profiles of non-Newtonian fluids flowing in a 10 m by 300 mm wide tilting flume. The contour maps were integrated to show that the velocity profiles were indeed correct. The thin film flow models available in the literature have been tested in terms of flow depth and Reynolds number. The measured profiles also show the influence of the side walls on the general flow features as the distance from the centre increases. The results reported herein span the laminar, transition and turbulent flow regions. As far as can be ascertained, it is the first time that this technique has been used to measure velocity profiles in opaque non-Newtonian fluids for open channel flow. It is shown here that, under appropriate conditions, the velocity profile and flow depth can be used to obtain the viscous properties of the fluids tested. Excellent correspondence between the rheological parameters inferred from the velocity profile measurements and that from the tube viscometry was obtained.

Multiple different laminar velocity profiles in separate veins in the microvascular network of brain cortex in rats

Mutalifu, Yalikun; Holm, Lovisa; Ince, Can; Theodorsson, Elvar; Sjöberg, Folke
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The orthogonal polarisation spectral (OPS) imaging technique is a method that enables intravital microscopy of the tissue microvasculature particularly including the erythrocytes and leucocytes. As a new finding we here report multi flow, i.e, several different laminar velocity profiles in each and separate veins (diameters < 200 μm) of the microcirculation of the rat brain cortex. The phenomenon was present in all 20 preparations studied and these different laminar velocity profiles were regularly maintained in length beyond 20 times the diameter of parent vessel. In single veins up to 9 different laminar velocity profiles were discernible, each with a different red blood cell velocity. These multi flow profiles may theoretically be anticipated based on what is known in rheological physiology as the Fahreus - Lindqvist effect. It may also be predicted in tissues that have both high and heterogeneous blood flows in conjunction with large local variations in metabolic activity as are present in the cortex of the brain. The new information is that the extent and magnitude of this multi laminar flow phenomenon especially in the venular network of the brain exceeds what has previously been known. The physiological importance of these finding warrants further studies.

An Excel (TM)-VBA programme for the analysis of current velocity profiles

Brodalka, M.; Le Roux, J. P.
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artículo de revista
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VPA is an Excel spreadsheet to facilitate the analysis of current velocity profiles and its application to sediment transport studies in steady, uniform, open-channel flows. The program requires input values such as the water temperature (from which the density and dynamic viscosity are calculated), the channel depth and slope, current velocities as measured at different heights above the bed, bedform length and height, as well as the sediment density and median size. The latter can be provided as sieve diameters, fall diameters or as phi values. The velocity profiles are plotted on two graphs, one being a traditional plot of velocity versus height or distance from the bed and the other comparing the observed profile with theoretical profiles for smooth, transitional and rough boundary conditions. VBA macros are provided to clear the spreadsheet before new profiles are analysed, update the formulas, straighten out the velocity profiles, calculate the shear velocity, and save the data on a separate sheet for further analysis. The programme is applied to a new and more accurate method to determine the shear velocity, which can be used to predict the bedload discharge over plane beds and is also incorporated into a dimensionally correct suspended load transport equation combining the parameters most important in sediment transport. A dimensionally correct bedload discharge equation based upon the mean excess flow velocity is also proposed for plane beds...

Velocity Profiles in Repulsive Athermal Systems under Shear

Xu, Ning; O'Hern, Corey S.; Kondic, Lou
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We conduct molecular dynamics simulations of athermal systems undergoing boundary-driven planar shear flow in two and three spatial dimensions. We find that these systems possess nonlinear mean velocity profiles when the velocity $u$ of the shearing wall exceeds a critical value $u_c$. Above $u_c$, we also show that the packing fraction and mean-square velocity profiles become spatially-dependent with dilation and enhanced velocity fluctuations near the moving boundary. In systems with overdamped dynamics, $u_c$ is only weakly dependent on packing fraction $\phi$. However, in systems with underdamped dynamics, $u_c$ is set by the speed of shear waves in the material and tends to zero as $\phi$ approaches $\phi_c$. In the small damping limit, $\phi_c$ approaches values for random close-packing obtained in systems at zero temperature. For underdamped systems with $\phi<\phi_c$, $u_c$ is zero and thus they possess nonlinear velocity profiles at any nonzero boundary velocity.; Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures

Collision-free motion planning for fiber positioner robots: discretization of velocity profiles

Makarem, Laleh; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Gillet, Denis; Bleuler, Hannes; Bouri, Mohamed; Hörler, Philipp; Jenni, Laurent; Prada, Francisco; Sanchez, Justo
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/10/2014 Português
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The next generation of large-scale spectroscopic survey experiments such as DESI, will use thousands of fiber positioner robots packed on a focal plate. In order to maximize the observing time with this robotic system we need to move in parallel the fiber-ends of all positioners from the previous to the next target coordinates. Direct trajectories are not feasible due to collision risks that could undeniably damage the robots and impact the survey operation and performance. We have previously developed a motion planning method based on a novel decentralized navigation function for collision-free coordination of fiber positioners. The navigation function takes into account the configuration of positioners as well as their envelope constraints. The motion planning scheme has linear complexity and short motion duration (~2.5 seconds with the maximum speed of 30 rpm for the positioner), which is independent of the number of positioners. These two key advantages of the decentralization designate the method as a promising solution for the collision-free motion-planning problem in the next-generation of fiber-fed spectrographs. In a framework where a centralized computer communicates with the positioner robots, communication overhead can be reduced significantly by using velocity profiles consisting of a few bits only. We present here the discretization of velocity profiles to ensure the feasibility of a real-time coordination for a large number of positioners. The modified motion planning method that generates piecewise linearized position profiles guarantees collision-free trajectories for all the robots. The velocity profiles fit few bits at the expense of higher computational costs.; Comment: SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation 2014 in Montr\'eal...

Azimuthal velocity profiles in Rayleigh-stable Taylor-Couette flow and implied axial angular momentum transport

Nordsiek, Freja; Huisman, Sander G.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Lathrop, Daniel P.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We present azimuthal velocity profiles measured in a Taylor-Couette apparatus, which has been used as a model of stellar and planetary accretion disks. The apparatus has a cylinder radius ratio of $\eta = 0.716$, an aspect-ratio of $\Gamma = 11.74$, and the plates closing the cylinders in the axial direction are attached to the outer cylinder. We investigate angular momentum transport and Ekman pumping in the Rayleigh-stable regime. The regime is linearly stable and is characterized by radially increasing specific angular momentum. We present several Rayleigh-stable profiles for shear Reynolds numbers $Re_S \sim O(10^5) \,$, both for $\Omega_i > \Omega_o > 0$ (quasi-Keplerian regime) and $\Omega_o > \Omega_i > 0$ (sub-rotating regime) where $\Omega_{i,o}$ is the inner/outer cylinder rotation rate. None of the velocity profiles matches the non-vortical laminar Taylor-Couette profile. The deviation from that profile increased as solid-body rotation is approached at fixed $Re_S$. Flow super-rotation, an angular velocity greater than that of both cylinders, is observed in the sub-rotating regime. The velocity profiles give lower bounds for the torques required to rotate the inner cylinder that were larger than the torques for the case of laminar Taylor-Couette flow. The quasi-Keplerian profiles are composed of a well mixed inner region...

The Shapes of the HI Velocity Profiles of the THINGS Galaxies

Ianjamasimanana, R.; de Blok, W. J. G.; Walter, Fabian; Heald, George H.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/07/2012 Português
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We analyze the shapes of the HI velocity profiles of The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) to study the phase structure of the neutral interstellar medium (ISM) and its relation to global galaxy properties. We use a method analogous to the stacking method sometimes used in high redshift HI observations to construct high signal-to-noise (S/N) profiles. We call these high S/N profiles super profiles. We analyze and discuss possible systematics that may change the observed shapes of the super profiles. After quantifying these effects and selecting a sub-sample of unaffected galaxies, we find that the super profiles are best described by a narrow and a broad Gaussian component, which are evidence of the presence of the Cold Neutral Medium (CNM) and the Warm Neutral Medium (WNM). The velocity dispersion of the narrow component range from ~3.4 to ~8.6 km/s with an average of 6.5+/-1.5 km/s, whereas that of the broad component range from ~10.1 to ~24.3 km/s with an average of 16.8+/-4.3 km/s. We find that the super profile parameters correlate with star formation indicators such as metallicity, FUV-NUV colors and H_alpha luminosities. The flux ratio between the narrow and broad components tends to be highest for high metallicity, high star formation rate (SFR) galaxies. We show that the narrow component identified in the super profiles is associated with the presence of star formation...

Dynamical Modeling of Velocity Profiles: The Dark Halo Around the Elliptical Galaxy NGC2434

Rix, Hans-Walter; de Zeeuw, Tim; Carollo, Marcella; Cretton, Nicolas; van der Marel, Roeland
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/02/1997 Português
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We describe a powerful technique to model and interpret the stellar line-of-sight velocity profiles of galaxies. Following Schwarzschild's modeling approach, a representative library of orbits is calculated in a given potential; then the non-negative superposition of these orbits is determined to fit best a given set of observational constraints. Our implementation incorporates several new features: (i) we calculate velocity profiles and represent them by a Gauss-Hermite series. This allows us to constrain the orbital anisotropy in the fit. (ii) we take into account the error on each observational constraint to obtain an objective chi2 measure for the quality-of-fit. Only projected, observable quantities are included in the fit, and aperture binning and seeing convolution of the data are properly taken into account. This scheme is valid for any geometry, but here we focus on spherical geometry and the issue of dark halos around elliptical galaxies. We model radially extended velocity profiles of the E0 galaxy NGC 2434, and find that constant M/L models are clearly ruled out, regardless of the orbital anisotropy. To study how much dark matter is needed, we considered a sequence of cosmologically motivated `star+halo' potentials, which are specified by the stellar mass-to-light ratio Gamma and the characteristic halo velocity...

Non-monotonic Keplerian velocity profiles around near-extreme braneworld Kerr black holes

Stuchlik, Zdenek; Blaschke, Martin; Slany, Petr
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/07/2011 Português
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We study the non-monotonic Keplerian velocity profiles related to locally non-rotating frames (LNRF) in the field of near-extreme braneworld Kerr black holes and naked singularities in which the non-local gravitational effects of the bulk are represented by a braneworld tidal charge $b$ and the 4D geometry of the spacetime structure is governed by the Kerr-Newman geometry. We show that positive tidal charge has a tendency to restrict the values of the black hole dimensionless spin $a$ admitting existence of the non-monotonic Keplerian LNRF-velocity profiles; the non-monotonic profiles exist in the black hole spacetimes with tidal charge smaller than $b=0.41005$ (and spin larger than $a=0.76808$). With decreasing value of the tidal charge (which need not be only positive), both the region of spin allowing the non-monotonicity in the LNRF-velocity profile around braneworld Kerr black hole and the velocity difference in the minimum-maximum parts of the velocity profile increase implying growing astrophysical relevance of this phenomenon.

An optical fiber based interferometer to measure velocity profiles in sheared complex fluids

Salmon, Jean-Baptiste; Manneville, Sebastien; Colin, Annie; Pouligny, Bernard
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/11/2002 Português
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We describe an optical fiber based interferometer to measure velocity profiles in sheared complex fluids using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). After a review of the theoretical problem of DLS under shear, a detailed description of the setup is given. We outline the various experimental difficulties induced by refraction when using a Couette cell. We also show that homodyne DLS is not well suited to measure quantitative velocity profiles in narrow-gap Couette geometries. On the other hand, the heterodyne technique allows us to determine the velocity field inside the gap of a Couette cell. All the technical features of the setup, namely its spatial resolution ($\approx 50$--$100 \mu$m) and its temporal resolution ($\approx 1$ s per point, $\approx 1$ min per profile) are discussed, as well as the calibration procedure with a Newtonian fluid. As briefly shown on oil-in-water emulsions, such a setup permits one to record both velocity profiles and rheological data simultaneously; Comment: 13 pages, 16 figures, Submitted to Eur. Phys. J. AP

Velocity profiles in strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow

Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/10/2013 Português
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We derive the velocity profiles in strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow for the general case of independently rotating cylinders. The theory is based on the Navier-Stokes equations in the appropriate (cylinder) geometry. In particular, we derive the axial and the angular velocity profiles as functions of distance from the cylinder walls and find that both follow a logarithmic profile, with downwards-bending curvature corrections, which are more pronounced for the angular velocity profile as compared to the axial velocity profile, and which strongly increase with decreasing ratio $\eta$ between inner and outer cylinder radius. In contrast, the azimuthal velocity does not follow a log-law. We then compare the angular and azimuthal velocity profiles with the recently measured profiles in the ultimate state of (very) large Taylor numbers. Though the {\em qualitative} trends are the same -- down-bending for large wall distances and (properly shifted and non-dimensionalized) angular velocity profile $\omega^+(r)$ being closer to a log-law than (properly shifted and non-dimensionalized) azimuthal velocity profile $u^+_{\varphi}(r)$ -- {\em quantitative} deviations are found for large wall distances. We attribute these differences to the Taylor rolls and the height dependence of the profiles...

Stabilization of nonlinear velocity profiles in athermal systems undergoing planar shear flow

Xu, Ning; O'Hern, Corey S.; Kondic, Lou
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/06/2005 Português
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We perform molecular dynamics simulations of model granular systems undergoing boundary-driven planar shear flow in two spatial dimensions with the goal of developing a more complete understanding of how dense particulate systems respond to applied shear. In particular, we are interested in determining when these systems will possess linear velocity profiles and when they will develop highly localized velocity profiles in response to shear. In previous work on similar systems we showed that nonlinear velocity profiles form when the speed of the shearing boundary exceeds the speed of shear waves in the material. However, we find that nonlinear velocity profiles in these systems are unstable at very long times. The degree of nonlinearity slowly decreases in time; the velocity profiles become linear when the granular temperature and density profiles are uniform across the system at long times. We measure the time $t_l$ required for the velocity profiles to become linear and find that $t_l$ increases as a power-law with the speed of the shearing boundary and increases rapidly as the packing fraction approaches random close packing. We also performed simulations in which differences in the granular temperature across the system were maintained by vertically vibrating one of the boundaries during shear flow. We find that nonlinear velocity profiles form and are stable at long times if the difference in the granular temperature across the system exceeds a threshold value that is comparable to the glass transition temperature in an equilibrium system at the same average density. Finally...

AIR VELOCITY PROFILES IN AIR BLAST FREEZERS FILLED WITH BOXES OF FRUIT PULP MODELS

Resende, J.V.; Silveira Jr., V.
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Peer-reviewed Article Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/03/2005 Português
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The changes in the air velocities caused by the resistance for the air flow due to fruit pulp model packaged (100 grams) and conditioned in multi layers boxes during freezing process were evaluated and air flow rate were estimated using a method of treatment of the experimental data. The air velocities were measured before the air pass through the pillage of multi layer boxes in the air stream. For the measurements processing was used a non linear regression routine. Air flow rate measured by the present method resulted of the numerical integration of air velocities adjusted profile. Results presented a relative difference 10 % higher than the standard average procedure, which consists in averaging the air velocity measurements performed at each point of the section. In the same fan operation conditions, the results shown for the 7 layers arrays of product in the boxes which the air velocity was 62% lower than the 3 layers arrays and 50.9 % lower than the 5 layers arrays of product. These results were proportional to the bulk area for the air flow.

A new method to determine the yield stress of a fluid from velocity profiles in a capillary

López-Durán,J.J.; Pérez-González,J.; Marín-Santibáñez,B.M.; Rodríguez-González,F.
Fonte: UAM, Unidad Iztapalapa, División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería Publicador: UAM, Unidad Iztapalapa, División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 Português
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A new method to determine the yield stress of a fluid from velocity profiles in capillary flow is presented in this work. The method is based on the calculation of the first derivative of the velocity profiles. For this, the velocity profiles of a model yield stress fluid, 0.2 wt.% Carbopol gel, in a capillary were obtained by using a two dimensional particle image velocimetry system. It is shown that the yield stress value may be reliably determined by using only the velocity profiles and the measured wall shear stresses. This fact is corroborated by independent measurements of the yield stress with a stress controlled vane rheometer. On the other hand, the main details of the flow kinematics of yield-stress fluids were also registered and described in this work. Finally, it was found that the gel slips at: the wall with a slip velocity that increases in a power-law way with the shear stress.