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Cathepsin L-like genes of Trypanosoma vivax from Africa and South America - characterization, relationships and diagnostic implications

CORTEZ, Alane P.; RODRIGUES, Adriana C.; GARCIA, Herakles A.; NEVES, Luis; BATISTA, Jael S.; BENGALY, Zacharia; PAIVA, Fernando; TEIXEIRA, Marta M. G.
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS LTD ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS LTD ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We characterized sequences from genes encoding cathepsin L-like (CatL-like) cysteine proteases from African and South American isolates of Trypanosoma vivax and T. vivax-like organisms, and evaluated their suitability as genetic markers for population structure analysis and diagnosis. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences corresponding to CatL-like catalytic domains revealed substantial polymorphism, and clades of sequences (TviCatL1-9) were separated by large genetic distances. TviCatL1-4 sequences were from cattle isolates from West Africa (Nigeria and Burkina Faso) and South America (Brazil and Venezuela), which belonged to the same T. vivax genotype. T. vivax-like genotypes from East Africa showed divergent sequences, including TviCatL5-7 for isolates from Mozambique and TviCatL8-9 for an isolate from Kenya. Phylogenetic analysis of CatL-like gene data supported the relationships among trypanosome species reflected in the phylogenies based on the analysis of small subunit (SSU) of ribosomal RNA gene sequence data. The discovery of different CatL-like sequences for each genotype, defined previously by ribosomal DNA data, indicate that these sequences provide useful targets for epidemiological and population genetic studies. Regions in CatL-like sequences shared by all T. vivax genotypes but not by other trypanosomes allowed the establishment of a specific and sensitive diagnostic PCR for epidemiological studies in South America and Africa. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; Wellcome Trust; Wellcome Trust; CNPq; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); CDCH-UCV in Venezuela; CDCH-UCV in Venezuela

Phylogenetic analysis of Trypanosoma vivax supports the separation of South American/West African from East African isolates and a new T-vivax-like genotype infecting a nyala antelope from Mozambique

RODRIGUES, A. C.; NEVES, L.; GARCIA, H. A.; VIOLA, L. B.; MARCILI, A.; SILVA, F. Maia Da; SIGAUQUE, I.; BATISTA, J. S.; PAIVA, F.; TEIXEIRA, M. M. G.
Fonte: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS Publicador: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In this study, we addressed the phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships of Trypanosoma vivax and related trypanosomes nested in the subgenus Duttonella through combined morphological and phylogeographical analyses. We previously demonstrated that the clade T. vivax harbours a homogeneous clade comprising West African/South American isolates and the heterogeneous East African isolates. Herein we characterized a trypanosome isolated from a nyala antelope (Tragelaphus angasi) wild-caught in Mozambique (East Africa) and diagnosed as T. vivax-like based on biological, morphological and molecular data. Phylogenetic relationships, phylogeographical patterns and estimates of genetic divergence were based on SSU and ITS rDNA sequences of T. vivax from Brazil and Venezuela (South America), Nigeria (West Africa), and from T. vivax-like trypanosomes from Mozambique, Kenya and Tanzania (East Africa). Despite being well-supported within the T. vivax clade, the nyala trypanosome was highly divergent from all other T. vivax and T. vivax-like trypanosomes, even those from East Africa. Considering its host origin, morphological features, behaviour in experimentally infected goats, phylogenetic placement, and genetic divergence this isolate represents a new genotype of trypanosome closely phylogenetically related to T. vivax. This study corroborated the high complexity and the existence of distinct genotypes yet undescribed within the subgenus Duttonella.; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico); PROTAX-CNPq; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); PRODOC-CAPES; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)

A África presente no discurso de Richard Francis Burton: uma análise da construção de suas representações; África in the Richard Francis Burton´s discurs: an analysis of his representations constructions

Gebara, Alexsander Lemos de Almeida
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/08/2006 Português
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Esta tese procura analisar as representações de Richard Francis Burton na África Ocidental, durante sua permanência como cônsul inglês na Baía de Biafra entre os anos de 1861 e 1865. Para isto, procurou-se reconstituir o contexto histórico das relações inglesas com a região ao longo do século XIX, bem como a história das regiões descritas por Burton em seus textos. Além disto, também analizou-se os espaços de circulação dos textos de Burton na Inglaterra, e a relação do autor com a Royal Geographical Society e a Anthropological Society of London. O objetivo é recuperar parte da complexidade constitutiva de seus textos, valorizando a experiência pessoal do autor frente a resistência dos africanos à imposição de dinâmicas comerciais e econômicas inglesas. Para a consecução destes objetivos, foi realizada uma comparação entre os diversos registros escritos de Burton: documentos consulares no Foreign Office, artigos para revistas científicas e relatos de viagem; This thesis tries to analyze the representations of Richard Francis Burton in West Africa, during his consulship at the Fight of Biafra in the years between 1861-1865. To make it, we have reconstructed the historical context of the British relations with the region along the 19th century...

Adolescência e anticoncepção: iniciação sexual e uso de métodos anticoncepcionais em adolescentes da Ilha de Santiago, Cabo Verde - África Ocidental; Adolescence and Contraception: the onset of sexual life and use of contraceptive methods among adolescents of Santiago Island, Cape Verde - West Africa

Tavares, Carlos Mendes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/04/2009 Português
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Objetivo: Descrever a iniciação sexual e o uso de métodos anticoncepcionais e estimar fatores associados a estas condutas, em adolescentes de 13 a 17 anos de idade, de escolas da rede pública de ensino secundário da Ilha de Santiago, Cabo Verde. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado com amostra probabilística e representativa de 768 adolescentes com idade entre 13 e 17 anos, de escolas secundárias públicas da Ilha de Santiago em 2007. A associação foi testada pelo teste de proporção, qui-quadrado de Pearson ou Fisher e regressão logística. Para estimar os fatores associados ao uso de métodos anticoncepcionais e preservativo, foi analisada a sub-amostra de 368 adolescentes sexualmente ativos. O início da vida sexual, o uso de métodos anticoncepcionais e o uso de preservativo foram analisados como desfechos. Foram consideradas variáveis independentes: características sociodemográficas, afetivo-sexuais e comportamentais. Foi utilizada regressão logística para análise simultânea dos fatores, considerando-se nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Entre os adolescentes do sexo masculino, os fatores associados ao início da vida sexual foram: idade maior que 14 anos, ser católico e consumir bebidas alcoólicas. Entre as adolescentes do sexo feminino...

The taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Trypanosoma vivax from South America and Africa

Cortez, A. P.; Ventura, R. M.; Rodrigues, A. C.; Batista, J. S.; Paiva, F.; Añez, N.; Machado, R. Z.; Gibson, W. C.; Teixeira, M. M G
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 159-169
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The taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Trypanosoma vivax are controversial. It is generally suggested that South American, and East and West African isolates could be classified as subspecies or species allied to T. vivax. This is the first phylogenetic study to compare South American isolates (Brazil and Venezuela) with West/East African T. vivax isolates. Phylogeny using ribosomal sequences positioned all T. vivax isolates tightly together on the periphery of the clade containing all Salivarian trypanosomes. The same branching of isolates within T. vivax clade was observed in all inferred phylogenies using different data sets of sequences (SSU, SSU plus 5.8S or whole ITS rDNA). T. vivax from Brazil, Venezuela and West Africa (Nigeria) were closely related corroborating the West African origin of South American T. vivax, whereas a large genetic distance separated these isolates from the East African isolate (Kenya) analysed. Brazilian isolates from cattle asymptomatic or showing distinct pathology were highly homogeneous. This study did not disclose significant polymorphism to separate West African and South American isolates into different species/subspecies and indicate that the complexity of T. vivax in Africa and of the whole subgenus Trypanosoma (Duttonella) might be higher than previously believed. © 2006 Cambridge University Press.

Microsatellite analysis supports clonal propagation and reduced divergence of Trypanosoma vivax from asymptomatic to fatally infected livestock in South America compared to West Africa

Garcia, Herakles A.; Rodrigues, Adriana C.; Rodrigues, Carla M. F.; Bengaly, Zakaria; Minervino, Antonio H. H.; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Machado, Rosangela Z.; Paiva, Fernando; Batista, Jael S.; Neves, Luis; Hamilton, Patrick B.; Teixeira, Marta M. G.
Fonte: Biomed Central Ltd. Publicador: Biomed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 13
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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Background: Mechanical transmission of the major livestock pathogen Trypanosoma vivax by other biting flies than tsetse allows its spread from Africa to the New World. Genetic studies are restricted to a small number of isolates and based on molecular markers that evolve too slowly to resolve the relationships between American and West African populations and, thus, unable us to uncover the recent history of T. vivax in the New World.Methods: T. vivax genetic diversity, population structure and the source of outbreaks was investigated through the microsatellite multiloci (7 loci) genotype (MLGs) analysis in South America (47isolates from Brazil, Venezuela and French Guiana) and West Africa (12 isolates from The Gambia, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin and Nigeria). Relationships among MLGs were explored using phylogenetic, principal component and STRUCTURE analyses.Results: Although closely phylogenetically related, for the first time, genetic differences were detected between T. vivax isolates from South America (11 genotypes/47 isolates) and West Africa (12 genotypes/12 isolates) with no MLGs in common. Diversity was far greater across West Africa than in South America...

A invenção dos iorubás na África Ocidental : reflexões e apontamentos acerca do papel da história e da tradição oral na construção da identidade étnica; The invention of the Iorubás in the West Africa : reflections and notes about the role of both history and the oral tradition in the construction of the ethnical identity; L’invention des yorubas em Afrique Occidentale : réflexions et notes au sujet du rôle de l’histoire et de la tradition orale dans la construction de l’identité ethnique

Oliva, Anderson Ribeiro
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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De acordo com os especialistas na história da África Ocidental, seria na passagem do século XVIII para o XIX que apareceriam os primeiros indícios da construção de uma identidade em comum entre os iorubás. É evidente que muitas características das populações da área florestal do Golfo da Guiné eram compartilhadas há muito tempo. Porém, o ato de se reconhecer e ser reconhecido como iorubá só pode ser encontrado no final dos setecentos. A partir da revisão da ampla literatura existente sobre o tema, o presente artigo se propõe a discutir os seguintes pontos desse processo de invenção identitária: acreditamos que para além dos eventos dos séculos XVIII e XIX, outros espaços temporais e físicos participaram da formação dos iorubás na África Ocidental; a tradição oral dos diversos grupos e reinos da região nos permite, a partir da articulação com as pesquisas arqueológicas, lingüísticas e históricas, reconstruir parte dessa trajetória; que é possível, para o caso em análise, fazer uso dos debates e critérios teóricos de definição de identidade étnica comuns às Ciências Sociais para o entendimento da invenção da identidade iorubá; e, por fim, identificar as influências históricas dos eventos que marcaram a área durante os séculos XVIII e XIX na invenção dessa identidade. _________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT; According to experts in West Africa history...

B and Delta hepatitis virus infection in a population of West Africa

Zanchetta,N.; Vigano,P.; Ferrario,M.P.; Priuli,G.B.; Djigbenoude,O.; Nardi,G.P.
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/1990 Português
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Among the 424 serum samples examined, the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection turned out to be 89.6%, with 15.6% of HBsAg positivity. Some of the samples belonged to an afferent population and some other to workers of a West Africa rural hospital (Pop. Rep. of Benin). 27.3% of the positive subjects presented active replication of the virus, shown by the presence of HBeAg. Among the HBcAb positive subjects the anti-delta antibodies showed a positivity frequency of 19.7%. HBsAg presence in 15% of pregnant women suggested the importance of HBV mother-foetal transmission in the district. The examined results can be compared with those obtained in other African areas, with similar socio-economic conditions.

Cervical human papillomavirus infection and squamous intraepithelial lesions in rural Gambia, West Africa: viral sequence analysis and epidemiology

Wall, S R; Scherf, C F; Morison, L; Hart, K W; West, B; Ekpo, G; Fiander, A N; Man, S; Gelder, C M; Walraven, G; Borysiewicz, L K
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The development of effective strategies against cervical cancer in Africa requires accurate type specific data on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence, including determination of DNA sequences in order to maximise local vaccine efficacy. We have investigated cervical HPV infection and squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) in an unselected cohort of 1061 women in a rural Gambian community. Squamous intraepithelial lesions was diagnosed using cytology and histology, HPV was typed by PCR-ELISA of DNA extracts, which were also DNA sequenced. The prevalence of cervical HPV infection was 13% and SIL were observed in 7% of subjects. Human papillomavirus-16 was most prevalent and most strongly associated with SIL. Also common were HPV-18, -33, -58 and, notably, -35. Human papillomavirus DNA sequencing revealed HPV-16 samples to be exclusively African type 1 (Af1). Subjects of the Wolof ethnic group had a lower prevalence of HPV infection while subjects aged 25–44 years had a higher prevalence of cervical precancer than older or younger subjects. This first report of HPV prevalence in an unselected, unscreened rural population confirms high rates of SIL and HPV infection in West Africa. This study has implications for the vaccination of Gambian and other African populations in the prevention of cervical cancer.

Establishment of a General Medicine Residency Training Program in Rural West Africa

Drislane, Frank W.; Akpalu, Albert; Wegdam, Harry H.J.
Fonte: YJBM Publicador: YJBM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Ghana, a developing country in West Africa, has major medical burdens in taking care of a large population with limited resources. Its three medical schools produce more than 200 graduates per year, but most emigrate to developed lands after training. Ghana is working to educate and retain locally trained physicians, but it is difficult to get them to work in rural settings where the need is greatest. This article details the establishment of a General Medicine residency at a 150-bed hospital in rural Ghana. Early training comprises 6 months each in Medicine, Surgery, OB/GYN, and Pediatrics; the hospital in Techiman also has a Surgery residency. House officers choose the program for more hands-on experience than they can get in larger centers. They perform many tasks, including surgery, sooner and more independently than do residents in developed countries. The training program includes a morning report, clinical teaching rounds, and rotations on in-patient wards and in the Emergency Department and clinics. Teaching focuses on history, physical examination, good communication, and proper follow-up, with rigorous training in the OR and some clinical research projects pertinent to Ghana. Trainees work hard and learn from one another...

The Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP)

Boatin, B.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa (OCP) started operations in 1975. Its main objectives were to eliminate human onchocerciasis, as a disease of public-health importance and an obstacle to socio-economic development, from the Programme area. By the end of 2002, the OCP covered 11 West African countries, and had introduced large-scale Mectizan (ivermectin) distribution to about 10 million people, through the communitydirected treatment approach, with treatment coverages ranging from 51%-81%. Research on large-scale Mectizan use illustrated the importance of evidence-based results, the power of multicountry studies, the need for social science in community-driven endeavours and operations research, and the value of empowering communities as allies in disease control. The generous donation of Mectizan by Merck & Co., Inc., has increased general interest in health-related public-private partnerships and generated the momentum for other donations to tackle other diseases. The vector control on which the OCP was initially based successfully interrupted the transmission of the parasite causing human onchocerciasis, Onchocerca volvulus, in many areas. The introduction of Mectizan led to the decline in anterior-segment lesions in the eye and the arrest of posterior-segment lesions. The drug continues to be highly effective in morbidity control...

Growth and Poverty Reduction : Case Studies from West Africa

Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
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The objective of this volume is to assess the relationships between growth and poverty reduction on the basis of a number of case studies, all but one of which are based on recent household survey data. The first part of the volume presents data on Ghana and Senegal, two countries that have benefited from high levels of growth over the last dozen years. The analysis suggests that growth led to substantial reductions in the share of the population in poverty. Yet growth could not be said to be "pro-poor" because the gains in consumption for better off households were proportionately larger than the gains for poorer households. In the second part of the volume, case studies for Burkina Faso and Cape Verde are presented to solve the paradox of high growth without poverty reduction. It was initially believed in both countries that there had been no poverty reduction despite high growth during the 1990s. Yet a closer examination of the data suggests that this paradox was actually due to measurement errors: more careful work confirmed that poverty reduction was substantial. The third and last part of the volume presents case studies for Guinea-Bissau and Nigeria on the impediments to growth...

Domestic slavery in West Africa with particular reference to the Sierra Leone protectorate, 1896-1927

Grace, John
Fonte: Muller; Muller Publicador: Muller; Muller
Tipo: mixed material
Publicado em //1975 Português
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(Issuing Body) H.D. Carberry Collection of Caribbean Studies (University of Illinois at Chicago); Domestic slavery in West Africa ...; Includes index.; (Bibliography) Bibliography: p. 263-275.; (Internal Comments) Selected images from this book have been digitized as part of the University of Illinois Chicago’s Carberry Collection of Caribbean Studies, with the images and annotated notes on the editions serving as a resource for those studying bibliographic history and Caribbean Literature. In most cases, these works are restricted by copyright and so the full volumes are not digitized. Carberry Collection of Caribbean Literature (University of Illinois at Chicago)

Mapping the risk of anaemia in preschool-age children: the contribution of malnutrition, malaria, and helminth infections in West Africa

Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J.; Clements, Archie C. A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 16 pages
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BACKGROUND Childhood anaemia is considered a severe public health problem in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the geographical distribution of prevalence of anaemia and mean haemoglobin concentration (Hb) in children aged 1-4 y (preschool children) in West Africa. The aim was to estimate the geographical risk profile of anaemia accounting for malnutrition, malaria, and helminth infections, the risk of anaemia attributable to these factors, and the number of anaemia cases in preschool children for 2011. METHODS AND FINDINGS National cross-sectional household-based demographic health surveys were conducted in 7,147 children aged 1-4 y in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Mali in 2003-2006. Bayesian geostatistical models were developed to predict the geographical distribution of mean Hb and anaemia risk, adjusting for the nutritional status of preschool children, the location of their residence, predicted Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate in the 2- to 10-y age group (Pf PR(2-10)), and predicted prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and hookworm infections. In the four countries, prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe anaemia was 21%, 66%, and 13% in Burkina Faso; 28%, 65%, and 7% in Ghana, and 26%, 62%, and 12% in Mali. The mean Hb was lowest in Burkina Faso (89 g/l)...

The Politics of Monetary Sector Cooperation among the Economic Community of West African States Members

Uche, Chibuike U.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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The author tries to explain why monetary cooperation and integration have been difficulty to achieve among member states of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). He shows how different interest groups--both members and nonmembers--have over time influenced policies and positions on various ECOWAS member states. Unfortunately, most negotiations for cooperation among ECOWAS member states have a much better monetary cooperation and integration program, mainly because of France's active support and participation in negotiations, mediation, and consensus building. Unfortunately, Nigeria-which has been the main force behind bilingual regional integration in West Africa--has a different agenda from France. Its promotion of a bilingual economic grouping in West Africa was in part an attempt to reduce France's influence in West Africa, so France is unlikely to allow economic and monetary cooperation and integration along Nigerian lines. The fact that Nigeria is still a weak state does not help. The choice for francophone West African countries is therefore between closer ties with France--which has provided development aid...

Networks of Knowledge: Ethnology and Civilization in French North and West Africa, 1844-1961

Leonard, Douglas
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2012 Português
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The second French colonial empire (1830-1962) challenged soldiers, scholars, and administrators to understand societies radically different from their own so as to govern them better. Overlooking the contributions of many of these colonial officials, most historians have located the genesis of the French social theory used to understand these differences in the hallowed halls of Parisian universities and research institutes. This dissertation instead argues that colonial experience and study drove metropolitan theory. Through a contextualized examination of the published and unpublished writings and correspondence of key thinkers who bridged the notional metropolitan-colonial divide, this dissertation reveals intellectual networks that produced knowledge of societies in North and West Africa and contemplated the nature of colonial rule. From General Louis Faidherbe in the 1840s to politician Jacques Soustelle and sociologist Pierre Bourdieu in the 1950s, a succession of soldiers and administrators engaged in dialogue with their symbiotic colonial sources to translate indigenous ideas for a metropolitan audience and humanize French rule in Africa. Developing ideas in part from a reading of native African written and oral sources...

Infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B e Delta em população da África Ocidental; B and Delta hepatitis virus infection in a population of West Africa

Zanchetta, N.; Vigano, P.; Ferrario, M.P.; Priuli, G.B.; Djigbenoude, O.; Nardi, G.P.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/1990 Português
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Em 424 amostras de soros examinadas, a prevalência da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B foi de 89,6% com 15,6% de posilividade para o HBsAg. Algumas das amostras pertenciam a uma população aferente e outras a pessoas trabalhando em hospital rural situado na África Ocidental (República Popular de Benin). 27,3% dos indivíduos soro-positivos evidenciaram replicação do vírus como demonstrado pela presença do HBeAg. Nos indivíduos HBcAb positivos, os anticorpos anti-delta foram positivos em uma frequência de 19,7%. A presença de HBsAg em 15% das mulheres gestantes eleva a importância da transmissão de HBV, da mãe para o filho, nesta região. Os resultados apresentados podem ser comparados com aqueles obtidos em outras áreas da África, com condições sócio-econômicas semelhantes.; Among the 424 serum samples examined, the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection turned out to be 89.6%, with 15.6% of HBsAg positivity. Some of the samples belonged to an afferent population and some other to workers of a West Africa rural hospital (Pop. Rep. of Benin). 27.3% of the positive subjects presented active replication of the virus, shown by the presence of HBeAg. Among the HBcAb positive subjects the anti-delta antibodies showed a positivity frequency of 19.7%. HBsAg presence in 15% of pregnant women suggested the importance of HBV mother-foetal transmission in the district. The examined results can be compared with those obtained in other African areas...

The development of exilic poetry in Anglophone West Africa

Oripeloye,Henri
Fonte: Tydskrif vir Letterkunde Publicador: Tydskrif vir Letterkunde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 Português
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The nineteenth century was a period of migration that was perpetuated by the socio-political and economic instability in the continent; this caused the decline in the quality of life which had forced many people to go on exile. This study provides insights into the development of exilic poetry in Anglophone West Africa to show that exilic literature is not an accidental product; it grows out of the sordid social, political and economic realities in the sub-region. The contemporary development in exilic literary discourse in Anglophone West Africa indicates a radical shift in vision which is informed by the need to use this literature as a writing-back strategy. We have also discovered in this study that exilic literature in Anglophone West Africa has grown from the simple narration of personal feelings to become a radical ideology for re-ordering of human relations. Moreover, this study shows that there is a wide range of forms emerging from exilic literary experience in Anglophone West Africa in the explication of personal feelings, nostalgia, alienation, political and socio-cultural disruptions.

Comparing available rainfall gridded datasets for West Africa and the impact on rainfall-runoff modelling results, the case of Burkina-Faso

Mahe,Gil; Girard,Sabine; New,Mark; Paturel,Jean-Emmanuel; Cres,Agnes; Dezetter,Alain; Dieulin,Claudine; Boyer,Jean-François; Rouche,Nathalie; Servat,Eric
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2008 Português
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Monthly rainfall data in Burkina-Faso, West Africa, over a period of 77 years are extracted from three different gridded data sets, available either on the web: CRU (Climatic Research Unit, Norwich, UK), SIEREM (HydroSciences Montpellier, France), or from the National Meteorological Center of Burkina-Faso. With a view to modelling the runoff-rainfall relationship at the monthly time step, these data are used at the 0.5°*0.5° scale. Despite mean, minimum, standard deviation and inter-annual variability being very similar for the period 1922 to 1998, the three gridded data sets used show an important spatial variability of values with time, and some differences are observed which lead to significantly different runoff-rainfall simulations. Comparison of the rainfall grids has shown that differences between the precipitation grids are more pronounced during years when the rainfall is lower; this also applies to areas where the rainfall is lower. The three different rainfall grids produce differences in mean rainfall of 4 to 11%, depending on the grids that are compared. While these results are obviously specific to the station networks and interpolation method used, they provide an indication of the differences that can arise. It is recommended that as many stations as possible are used to better assess areal rainfall. These biases have a strong influence on the results of the runoff-rainfall modelling (using the GR2M conceptual model): the Nash criteria show differences of about 20% and calculated flow of 30% to 40%. This study illustrates the levels of uncertainty when using available rainfall gridded data sets...

Etiology of urethral discharge in West Africa: the role of Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis

Pépin,Jacques; Sobéla,François; Deslandes,Sylvie; Alary,Michel; Wegner,Karsten; Khonde,Nzambi; Kintin,Frédéric; Kamuragiye,Aloys; Sylla,Mohammed; Zerbo,Petit-Jean; Baganizi,Énias; Koné,Alassane; Kane,Fadel; Mâsse,Benoit; Viens,Pierre; Frost,Eric
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2001 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To determine the etiological role of pathogens other than Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in urethral discharge in West African men. METHODS: Urethral swabs were obtained from 659 male patients presenting with urethral discharge in 72 primary health care facilities in seven West African countries, and in 339 controls presenting for complaints unrelated to the genitourinary tract. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to detect the presence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum. FINDINGS: N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis, and M. genitalium - but not U. urealyticum - were found more frequently in men with urethral discharge than in asymptomatic controls, being present in 61.9%, 13.8%, 13.4% and 10.0%, respectively, of cases of urethral discharge. Multiple infections were common. Among patients with gonococcal infection, T. vaginalis was as frequent a coinfection as C. trachomatis. M. genitalium, T. vaginalis, and C. trachomatis caused a similar clinical syndrome to that associated with gonococcal infection, but with a less severe urethral discharge. CONCLUSION: M. genitalium and T. vaginalis are important etiological agents of urethral discharge in West Africa. The frequent occurrence of multiple infections with any combination of four pathogens strongly supports the syndromic approach. The optimal use of metronidazole in flowcharts for the syndromic management of urethral discharge needs to be explored in therapeutic trials.