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Crianças e adolescentes em risco para esquizofrenia e transtorno afetivo bipolar: um estudo comparativo; Children and adolescents at risk for schizophrenia and Bipolar affective disorder: a comparative study

Gutt, Elisa Kijner
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.56042%
Introdução: Atualmente, muito tem se estudado a respeito de a esquizofrenia e do transtorno afetivo-bipolar (TAB) pertencerem a um continuum de sinais e sintomas que caracterizam o espectro da psicose, com etiologias que se sobrepõem parcialmente. O estudo comparativo de crianças filhas de pacientes com esquizofrenia e com transtorno bipolar pode ajudar na compreensão do quanto à vulnerabilidade para o desenvolvimento dessas patologias se assemelha e em quais momentos se diferencia. Os objetivos deste estudo foram comparar crianças e adolescentes em risco para esquizofrenia, para transtorno bipolar e um grupo sem risco para estes transtornos em relação a: 1) presença de problemas de saúde mental, diagnóstico psiquiátrico, competência social, quociente intelectual (QI); 2) associação entre presença de diagnóstico ou sintomas psiquiátricos nas crianças e a presença de diagnóstico psiquiátrico materno (esquizofrenia ou transtorno bipolar do humor), gravidade do diagnóstico materno, complicações obstétricas, nível socioeconômico dos pais, escolaridade da mãe. Métodos: Foi realizado estudo transversal comparando filhos de mulheres com diagnóstico de esquizofrenia e transtorno afetivo bipolar, segundo critérios do DSM-IV...

Caracterização de crianças e adolescentes em risco para o desenvolvimento de transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo; Characterization of children and adolescents at risk for the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder

Neder, Priscila Chacon
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/05/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.60573%
Objetivos. Esta tese vai ao encontro da proposta da psiquiatria do desenvolvimento, investigando sintomas clínicos, fatores de risco e potenciais endofenótipos que possam colaborar com diagnósticos precoces e o desenvolvimento de estratégias de prevenção. Métodos. O primeiro estudo relata a investigação e caracterização de uma amostra de crianças e adolescentes em risco para o desenvolvimento do transtorno obsessivocompulsivo (TOC). Para este propósito, 66 crianças e adolescentes com um familiar de primeiro grau com diagnóstico de TOC tiveram seus dados analisados de acordo com a presença ou ausência de sintomas obsessivocompulsivos. O segundo estudo consistiu no desenvolvimento e testagem de um paradigma dot probe de viés atencional relacionado a sintomas do TOC e na sua investigação enquanto possível endofenótipo do transtorno. Para tanto, três grupos de crianças foram selecionados: crianças com diagnóstico de TOC, em alto risco para o desenvolvimento de TOC (com presença de sintomas obsessivo-compulsivos e história familiar de primeiro grau de TOC) e crianças controle. O paradigma incluiu pares de estímulos aversivos (ativos) e neutros das dimensões de sintomas de contaminação/limpeza e simetria apresentados em 500 ms e 1250 ms. Resultados. O primeiro estudo obteve três resultados importantes. Primeiro...

Problemas de internalização e externalização em crianças da comunidade em risco psicossocial e em acolhimento institucional; Internalization and externalization problems in children of the community in psychosocial risk and in institutional care

Costa, Elisa Lacerda Pires
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2014 Português
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57.502197%
Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Psicologia; Perante contextos adversos e os seus fatores de risco, tanto as crianças da comunidade como as crianças em acolhimento institucional, podem apresentar problemas psicológicos ou psiquiátricos ao longo do seu desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a diferença, entre as crianças da comunidade em risco psicossocial e as crianças em acolhimento institucional, ao nível dos problemas de internalização e externalização, assim como os preditores destas problemáticas. Os resultados revelam que as crianças em acolhimento institucional apresentam valores menores de problemas de internalização e externalização, comparando com as crianças da comunidade em risco psicossocial. O risco pré-natal nas crianças em acolhimento institucional é maior do que em crianças da comunidade. As cuidadoras institucionais apresentaram comportamentos mais sensíveis e cooperantes em interação com a criança do que as mães. No grupo da comunidade, maior afetividade negativa prediz mais problemas de internalização e de externalização. No grupo de crianças institucionalizadas, observou-se que maior afetividade negativa da criança prediz problemas de internalização. Ainda...

Controlling invasive pneumococcal disease: is vaccination of at-risk groups sufficient?

Fletcher, MA; Laufer, DS; McIntosh, EDG; Cimino, C; Malinoski, FJ
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.45429%
Risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) include young and old age, comorbidities (such as splenic dysfunction, immunodeficiencies, chronic renal disease, chronic heart or lung disease or cerebral spinal fluid leak), crowded environments or poor socioeconomic conditions. Universal use of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate (7vPncCRM) vaccine for infants and young children has led to significant decreases in IPD in the vaccinated population (direct protection), and there has also been a decrease in the incidence of IPD among the nonvaccinated population (indirect immunity; herd protection). While 7vPncCRM vaccine is administered universally to children in USA, many countries of the European Union have chosen to target children with comorbidities. This review aims to highlight individual risk factors for IPD, describe studies that evaluated pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in at-risk groups and estimate the proportion of at-risk children who may have been vaccinated in the European Union since the 7vPncCRM vaccine was introduced, using UK as an example. Although immunisation targeting only children with comorbidities may achieve satisfactory results for a few, many otherwise healthy children at risk simply because of their age will be neglected...

Child Effortful Control, Teacher-student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.31685%
The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be academically at-risk at entry to first grade. Analyses accounted for clustering effects, covariates, baselines of effortful control measures, and prior levels of achievement. Even with such conservative statistical controls, interactive effects were found for task accuracy and positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement. Results suggest that task accuracy served as a protective factor so that children with high task accuracy performed well academically despite not having positive teacher-student relationships. Further, positive teacher-student relationships served as a compensatory factor so that children with low task accuracy performed just as well as those with high task accuracy if they were paired with a positive and supportive teacher. Importantly, results indicate that the influence of positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement was most pronounced for students with low effortful control on tasks that require fine motor skills...

Quality Disparities in Child Care for At-Risk Children: Comparing Head Start and Non-Head Start Settings

Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steven A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.366855%
The study objectives are to describe child care type and quality experienced by developmentally at-risk children, examine quality differences between Head Start and non-Head Start settings, and identify factors associated with receiving higher-quality child care. Data are analyzed from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, Birth Cohort, a prospective study of a nationally representative sample of US children born in 2001. The sample consisted of 7,500 children who were assessed at 48 months of age. The outcome of interest is child care quality, measured by the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale (center care) and the Family Day Care Rating Scale (family day care). Results of descriptive and multivariate regression analyses are presented. Less than one-third of poor children were in Head Start. Child care quality was higher in Head Start centers than other centers, particularly among poor children (4.75 vs. 4.28, p < 0.001), Hispanics (4.90 vs. 4.45, p < 0.001), and whites (4.89 vs. 4.51, p < 0.001). African Americans experienced the lowest quality care in both Head Start and non-Head Start centers. Quality disadvantage was associated with Head Start family care settings, especially for low birthweight children (2.04 in Head Start vs. 3.58 in non-Head Start...

Quantitative Deficits of Preschool Children at Risk for Mathematical Learning Disability

Chu, Felicia W.; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/05/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.452266%
The study tested the hypothesis that acuity of the potentially inherent approximate number system (ANS) contributes to risk of mathematical learning disability (MLD). Sixty-eight (35 boys) preschoolers at risk for school failure were assessed on a battery of quantitative tasks, and on intelligence, executive control, preliteracy skills, and parental education. Mathematics achievement scores at the end of 1 year of preschool indicated that 34 of these children were at high risk for MLD. Relative to the 34 typically achieving children, the at risk children were less accurate on the ANS task, and a one standard deviation deficit on this task resulted in a 2.4-fold increase in the odds of MLD status. The at risk children also had a poor understanding of ordinal relations, and had slower learning of Arabic numerals, number words, and their cardinal values. Poor performance on these tasks resulted in 3.6- to 4.5-fold increases in the odds of MLD status. The results provide some support for the ANS hypothesis but also suggest these deficits are not the primary source of poor mathematics learning.

Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children

Kraus, Nina; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine C.; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L.; Nicol, Trent; White-Schwoch, Travis
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/11/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.206694%
The young nervous system is primed for sensory learning, facilitating the acquisition of language and communication skills. Social and linguistic impoverishment can limit these learning opportunities, eventually leading to language-related challenges such as poor reading. Music training offers a promising auditory learning strategy by directing attention to meaningful acoustic elements of the soundscape. In light of evidence that music training improves auditory skills and their neural substrates, there are increasing efforts to enact community-based programs to provide music instruction to at-risk children. Harmony Project is a community foundation that has provided free music instruction to over 1000 children from Los Angeles gang-reduction zones over the past decade. We conducted an independent evaluation of biological effects of participating in Harmony Project by following a cohort of children for 1 year. Here we focus on a comparison between students who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training vs. students who took music appreciation classes. All children began with an introductory music appreciation class, but midway through the year half of the children transitioned to the instrumental training. After the year of training...

Functional and structural brain correlates of risk for major depression in children with familial depression

Chai, Xiaoqian J.; Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina; Biederman, Joseph; Uchida, Mai; Doehrmann, Oliver; Leonard, Julia A.; Salvatore, John; Kenworthy, Tara; Brown, Ariel; Kagan, Elana; de los Angeles, Carlo; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D.E.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.55646%
Despite growing evidence for atypical amygdala function and structure in major depression, it remains uncertain as to whether these brain differences reflect the clinical state of depression or neurobiological traits that predispose individuals to major depression. We examined function and structure of the amygdala and associated areas in a group of unaffected children of depressed parents (at-risk group) and a group of children of parents without a history of major depression (control group). Compared to the control group, the at-risk group showed increased activation to fearful relative to neutral facial expressions in the amygdala and multiple cortical regions, and decreased activation to happy relative to neutral facial expressions in the anterior cingulate cortex and supramarginal gyrus. At-risk children also exhibited reduced amygdala volume. The extensive hyperactivation to negative facial expressions and hypoactivation to positive facial expressions in at-risk children are consistent with behavioral evidence that risk for major depression involves a bias to attend to negative information. These functional and structural brain differences between at-risk children and controls suggest that there are trait neurobiological underpinnings of risk for major depression.

Parent Prediction of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Infants At Risk: A Follow-up Study

Wang, Chloe Qian
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.38304%
Later-born siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are considered at biological risk for ASD and the broader autism phenotype. Early screening may detect early signs of ASD and facilitate intervention as soon as possible. This follow-up study revisits and re-examines a second-degree autism screener for children at biological risk of autism, the Parent Observation Early Markers Scale (POEMS, Feldman et al., 2012). Using available follow-up information, 110 children (the original 108 infants plus 2 infants recruited after the completion of the original study) were divided into three groups: diagnosed group (n = 13), lost diagnosis group (n = 5), and undiagnosed group (n = 92). The POEMS continued to show acceptable predictive validity. The POEMS total scores and mean number of elevated items were significantly higher in the diagnosed group than the undiagnosed group. The lost diagnosis group did not differ from the undiagnosed group on POEMS total scores and elevated items at any age, but the lost diagnosis group had significantly lower total scores and number of elevated items than the diagnosed group starting at 18 months. Both ASD core and subsidiary behaviours differentiated the diagnosed and undiagnosed groups from 9−36 months of age. Using 70 as a cut-off score...

Youth at Risk, Social Exclusion, and Intergenerational Poverty Dynamics: A New Survey Instrument with Application to Brazil

Verner, Dorte; Alda, Erik
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.41202%
This paper addresses the underlying causes of problems and risks faced by poor and excluded youth of 10-24 years of age. The authors develop a survey instrument that addresses poverty in a broad sense, including hunger, early pregnancy and fatherhood, violence, crime, drug use, low levels of social capital, and low educational attainment. The authors also shed light on intergenerational transfer of risks that are considered to induce poverty. They document findings based on the survey data gathered in three poor urban neighborhoods in Fortaleza in Northeast Brazil. Their main findings show that: (i) Poor youth are at considerable risk of growing up without their father. Only 7 percent grow up with their father present in the household. (ii) The intergenerational transmission of low education attainment is at play, but it is diminishing. (iii) The risk of early pregnancy and fatherhood is large among poor and excluded youth-31 percent of the youth had their first child before age 16, triple that of the adult population. (iv) The risk of sexual abuse and violence within the household exists-6 percent of the youth answered that they had their first sexual relationship with a family member...

An Examination of the Effects of a Summer Book-Reading Program on the Language and Early Literacy Outcomes of Toddlers from High Risk Environments

Ullery, Mary Anne
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.381377%
The current study examined the impact of an early summer literacy program and the mediating effects of the home literacy environment on the language and literacy outcomes of a group of children at-risk for long-term developmental and academic delays. Participating children (n=54) were exposed to an intensive book-reading intervention each summer (June through mid August) over a 3-year period. The current study implemented an ex post facto, quasi-experimental design. This nonequivalent group design involved a pretest and posttest over three time points for a non-randomized treatment group and a matched non-treatment comparison group. Results indicated that literacy scores did improve for the children over the 3-year period; however, language scores did not experience the same rate of change over time. Receptive language was significantly impacted by attendance, and race/ethnicity. Expressive language was impacted significantly by gestational age and attendance. Results also indicated that language outcomes for young children who are exposed to a literacy program were higher than those who did not participate; however, only receptive language yielded significance at the p This study concluded that at-risk young children do benefit from center-based literacy intervention. This literacy experience...

Vascular endothelial and smooth muscle function in children at risk of cardiovascular disease and the effect of folic acid supplementation.

Pena Vargas, Alexia Sophie
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.44514%
Cardiovascular disease secondary to atherosclerosis is the most common cause of human morbidity and mortality. An early and fundamental event in the development of atherosclerosis is abnormal vascular endothelial and smooth muscle function. This can be measured by flow mediated dilatation and glyceryl trinitrate mediated dilatation in children at risk of atherosclerosis. Folic acid improves endothelial function (flow mediated dilatation) in adults with coronary artery disease. No studies have previously investigated the effects of folic acid on vascular function in at risk children with diabetes or obesity. In a cross sectional study an evaluation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle function and their determinants was performed in 159 children with type 1 diabetes, 58 children with obesity, and 53 healthy children. Children with type 1 diabetes and children with mild to moderate obesity had comparable and severe vascular dysfunction but different determinants. Vascular function in healthy and obese children related to both body mass index and weight (adjusted for age and sex), and blood glucose. Children with obesity had lower folate levels and higher homocysteine levels than children with type 1 diabetes, an abnormal lipid profile and raised inflammatory markers. A randomised double blind placebo controlled cross over trial of 8 weeks of folic acid supplementation was performed in 38 children with type 1 diabetes. In these children...

Monitoring of vascular health in children at risk for atherosclerosis.

Harrington, Jennifer Jean
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.582583%
Adult cardiovascular disease has its origins in childhood, and adolescence is a critical period in determining lifetime risk. Early changes in arterial structure and function measured non-invasively have prognostic significance. Assessment of vascular structure and function provide an opportunity to test intervention strategies at an age when vascular damage is potentially reversible. Understanding the relative sensitivity of these markers of vascular damage is essential in identifying children at risk and enabling evaluation of clinical and public health interventions. In a cross-sectional study, aortic and carotid intima media thickness were assessed in 66 children with type 1 diabetes and 32 healthy children. Aortic intima media thickness (aIMT) was significantly greater in the children with type 1 diabetes and related to age, glycosolated haemoglobin and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. In contrast, there was no significant difference in carotid intima media thickness between groups, suggesting that aIMT is an earlier marker of subclinical atherosclerosis in children with type 1 diabetes. An interventional trial of 22 children with type 1 diabetes was performed to evaluate whether reduction in glucose variability with initiation of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy would improve vascular function. At 3 weeks post commencement of CSII...

Early detection and intervention for infants at risk of autism spectrum disorders

Regehr, Kaleigh.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.52996%
Autism is a developmental disorder that is characterized by abnonnal social interactions and communications as well as repetitive and restricted activities and interests. There is evidence of a genetic component, as 5% of younger siblings are diagnosed if their older sibling has been diagnosed. Autism is generally not diagnosed until age 3 at the earliest, yet it has been shown that early intervention for children with autism can greatly increase their functioning. Because of this, it is important that symptoms of autism are identified as early as possible so that diagnosis can occur as soon as possible to allow these children the earliest intervention. This thesis was divided into two parts. The first looked at the psychometrics of two proposed measures, the Parent Observation Checklist (POC), administered monthly, and the Infant Behavior Summary Evaluation (mSE), administered bimonthly, to see if they can be used with the infant population to identify autistic symptoms in infants who are at high risk for autism or related problems because they have an older sibling with autism. Study 1 reported acceptable psychometric properties of both the POC and IBSE in terms of test-retest reliability, internal consistency, construct validity and predictive validity. These results provide preliminary evidence that parent report measures can help to detect early symptoms of ASD in infants. The POC was shown to differentiate infants who were diagnosed from a matched group that was not diagnosed by 3 years of age. The second part of this thesis involved a telephone interview of parents who reported developmental and/or behavior problems in their high-risk infants that may be early signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). During the interview...

Community Programs For At-Risk Children and Youth in the KFL&A Health Region: A Scoping Review

White, CYNTHIA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 874581 bytes; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
87.24322%
A scoping review was used to identify community-based out-of-school programs which employed occupation as a means of intervention to support positive youth development for at-risk children and youth. The purpose of the review was to explore how programs, via their structure and philosophy, may facilitate well-being and positive youth development. Organizations that ran programs which were accessible to children and youth in the boundaries of KFL&A Public Health Unit were located through internet search, word of mouth, and printed resources in the community. Nine programs (Boys and Girls Club, Big Brothers Big Sisters, Camp Outlook, Outward Bound, Tim Horton’s Children’s Foundation Camp, Children’s Aid Society, Youth Diversion, Girls Inc, and Katarokwi Native Friendship Centre) were identified and the associated documents were analyzed. A search of scholarly journals was completed to locate peer-reviewed publications which evaluated the above programs. Six publications were located which evaluated the effectiveness of the Boys and Girls Club (n=3) and Big Brothers Big Sisters (n=3). These evaluations indicated that the programs produce positive effects for youth behaviours and reduce negative attitudes and risk behaviours. Four common goals were identified through the analysis of the program documents: developing confidence/worth...

“I JUST CONNECT WITH THE HORSES”: EQUINE ASSISTED LEARNING AS A TOOL FOR DEVELOPING SOCIAL SKILLS AND RESILIENCY IN AT-RISK YOUTH

Bouchard, Mary V.
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.850845%
This study describes the experiences reported by at-risk youth in a four-day, equine assisted learning (EAL) program and evaluates the impact of the program on the youths’ social skills and resiliency. A multi-strategy single group pre-test/post-test design was implemented at an EAL facility in Ontario. Two self-report instruments, the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS) and the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA), were completed on two occasions: baseline and immediately following participation in EAL. Multiple paired-samples t-tests were computed to determine if there were any changes over time. Two participants were selected for exit interviews on the last day of the program. The results of this work indicated that participation in EAL may positively influence social skills and resiliency development. The self-report scales achieved statistically significant improvement (p < .05) in perceived levels of: empathy, self-control, mastery, optimism, self-efficacy, support, sense of relatedness, social skills, and internalizing symptoms. Additionally, interviews with two participants in the EAL program revealed that participants enjoyed working with the horses, experienced increased self-awareness and self-confidence...

Use of occlusal sealant in a community program and caries incidence in high- and low-risk children

Baldini,Vânia; Tagliaferro,Elaine Pereira da Silva; Ambrosano,Gláucia Maria Bovi; Meneghim,Marcelo de Castro; Pereira,Antonio Carlos
Fonte: Faculdade De Odontologia De Bauru - USP Publicador: Faculdade De Odontologia De Bauru - USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.44367%
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of sealant placement under the guidelines of the Oral Health Promotion Program for Children and Adolescents (Portugal), and to test the influence of clinical and socioeconomic variables on the DMFT increment in 277 children, born in 1997. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A dental hygienist performed the initial examinations and sealant placement (Helioseal, Vivadent) on the permanent first molars in 2005. These activities were registered in dental records that were assessed in 2007. Children were classified according to caries risk at baseline [high (HR: DMFT+dmft>0); low (LR: DMFT+dmft=0) risk] and sealant placement as follows: HR-S and LR-S Groups (with sealant placement); HR-NS and LR-NS Groups (without sealant placement). A calibrated dentist performed the final examination in 2007 at school, based on the World Health Organization recommendations. The variables collected were: dental caries, visible dental plaque, malocclusions, and socioeconomic level (questionnaire sent to children's parents). For univariate (Chi-square or Fisher tests) and multivariate (Multiple logistic regression) analyses the DMFT increment >0 was selected as dependent variable. RESULTS: Approximately 17.0% of the children showed DMFT increment>0 (mean=0.25). High-risk children presented a significant increase in the number of decayed and/or filled teeth. These children had 7.94 more chance of developing caries. Children who did not receive sealant were 1.8 more prone to have DMFT increment >0. CONCLUSION: It appears that sealant placement was effective in preventing dental caries development. Moreover...

Use of occlusal sealant in a community program and caries incidence in high- and low-risk children

Baldini, Vânia; Tagliaferro, Elaine Pereira da Silva; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.44367%
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of sealant placement under the guidelines of the Oral Health Promotion Program for Children and Adolescents (Portugal), and to test the influence of clinical and socioeconomic variables on the DMFT increment in 277 children, born in 1997. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A dental hygienist performed the initial examinations and sealant placement (Helioseal, Vivadent) on the permanent first molars in 2005. These activities were registered in dental records that were assessed in 2007. Children were classified according to caries risk at baseline [high (HR: DMFT+dmft>;0); low (LR: DMFT+dmft=0) risk] and sealant placement as follows: HR-S and LR-S Groups (with sealant placement); HR-NS and LR-NS Groups (without sealant placement). A calibrated dentist performed the final examination in 2007 at school, based on the World Health Organization recommendations. The variables collected were: dental caries, visible dental plaque, malocclusions, and socioeconomic level (questionnaire sent to children's parents). For univariate (Chi-square or Fisher tests) and multivariate (Multiple logistic regression) analyses the DMFT increment >;0 was selected as dependent variable. RESULTS: Approximately 17.0% of the children showed DMFT increment>;0 (mean=0.25). High-risk children presented a significant increase in the number of decayed and/or filled teeth. These children had 7.94 more chance of developing caries. Children who did not receive sealant were 1.8 more prone to have DMFT increment >;0. CONCLUSION: It appears that sealant placement was effective in preventing dental caries development. Moreover...

Immunogenicity and tolerability of inactivated flu vaccine In high risk and healthy children

Avila Aguero,Maria Luisa; Soriano-Fallas,Alejandra; Umaña-Sauma,María De Los Angeles; Ulloa-Gutiérrez,Rolando; Arnoux,Sabine
Fonte: Medicina (Buenos Aires) Publicador: Medicina (Buenos Aires)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.557183%
We conducted this open study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the inactivated influenza vaccine, Imovax Gripe® in 154 children between 6 and 36 months of age at high risk of influenza- related complications, and in a reference group of 64 healthy children. The study was conducted over two flu seasons, in which the vaccine contained the same A strains but different B strains. The results for the A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 strains from the two flu seasons were pooled, but those for the B strains were not. Anti-hemagglutinin (HA) antibody titers were determined before, and one month after each vaccination, and safety was evaluated based on diary card reporting any adverse event observed, either included or not in the list of "solicited events". Within each group of vaccines, the seroconversion rates, seroprotection rates, and ratio of post- to prevaccination geometric mean titers (GMTR) for the A/H3N2 and the A/H1N1 strains fulfilled all requirements of the criteria of the European Union Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP). The immune responses in high-risk and in healthy children were similar, and consistent with those observed in previous studies conducted in healthy children. The vaccine was equally well tolerated by all study groups. Reactogenicity was low and similar in both high-risk and healthy children. Overall from 9.5% to 15.4% of at-risk children and 12% of healthy children reported a solicited local reaction; 23.0 to 28.8% of high-risk and 25.3% of healthy children reported a solicited systemic reaction. The study results provide support for vaccination of children at high-risk of influenza related complications.