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O livro digital no mundo editorial e a evolução histórica do copyright e das estratégias de apropriação de lucro; The digital book in the publishing industry and the historic evolution of copyright and the resulting strategies for profit appropriation

Almeida, Lemilson José Cavalcanti de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/01/2012 Português
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Por que a indústria editorial está empreendendo a difusão do livro digital quando esse padrão tecnológico perturba o regime de proteção e enforcement do copyright? Se a duplicação da criação intelectual e sua transmissão simultânea por meio de um arquivo digital inviabiliza o aparato coercitivo que ampara o enforcement do copyright, emerge daí um paradoxo. Por que precisamos dessa proteção jurídica? A questão central desta dissertação busca responder como a alocação de recursos na indústria editorial revela as escolhas estratégicas específicas para apropriação de lucros. Este trabalho é conduzido como uma pesquisa exploratória multidisciplinar por meio dos referenciais da economia histórica, economia do conhecimento, economia neoinstitucional, sociologia econômica e estratégia. Após a introdução, o trabalho foi desenvolvido em cinco partes. Os quatro capítulos iniciais desenvolvem quatro ensaios teóricos correlacionados em que, por diferentes perspectivas, busca-se elucidar o efeito resultante (positivo ou negativo) da proteção da propriedade intelectual sobre bem-estar social e sobre os mecanismos contratuais e estratégias empregados pelos agentes econômicos em reação ao delineamento jurídico copyright. O último capítulo encerra o trabalho com três pesquisas empíricas. Com o intuito de capturar os efeitos de diferentes ambientes institucionais é feita uma análise institucional comparativa entre quatro países (Brasil...

BISA copyright review: Brazil

Martini, Paula
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This paper is part of the Brazilian branch of the BISA Copyright Review, a research project focused on the intersection of copyright and public interest in Brazil, India and South Africa, funded by the Ford Foundation. The Brazilian contribution is based on interviews with some of the key actors involved with the process of copyright reform initiated by the Brazilian Ministry of Culture in 2007, and provides a thorough picture of the Brazilian copyright policy scenario as of 2008.; Ford Foundation

Direito autoral e o livro eletrônico; Copyright and eletronic book

Rozados, Helen Beatriz Frota; Reis, Juliani Menezes dos
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Este artigo discorre sobre os novos desafios decorrentes do livro eletrônico no que tange ao direito autoral. Para tanto, utiliza-se de pesquisa bibliográfica para levantar e analisar as características do direito autoral e as propostas de mudanças na legislação brasileira,e descreve as novas formas de proteção desenvolvidas a fim de disponibilizar as obras ao público bem como proteger os direitos autorais. São abordados o Copyleft, Digital Right Management (DRM) e o Creative Commons dentre as novas formas de proteção. Conclui-se que o livro eletrônico tem propiciado uma gama de novas discussões no âmbito do mercado editorial e pelos legisladores, levando a uma necessária reflexão, mais intensa, que possa propiciar efetivas mudanças na legislação sobre direito autoral, mudanças estas que englobem um melhor controle do processo de acesso, uso e divulgação, seja para impedir ações ilegais, uso da informação sem a devida creditação, plágio e ou a proliferação de cópias não permitidas.; This article dwells on the new challenges resulting from electronic books in regard to copyright. We make use of bibliographic research to identify and analyze the copyright´s characteristics and the proposals for changes in Brazilian legislation. We also describe the new ways of protection developed in order to make works available to the public...

Library exceptions in the copyright laws of Ibero-American countries

Carlos Fernandez-Molina, Juan; Guimarães, José Augusto Chaves
Fonte: Sage Publications Ltd Publicador: Sage Publications Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 214-224
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The development of the digital setting has made it absolutely necessary to revise copyright legislation as a whole, including the exceptions that benefit libraries and similar institutions. Unfortunately, adaptation to the new technological reality is not taking place satisfactorily in most countries - the predominating trend is a refortification of copyright as opposed to user interests, and the maintenance of a certain pre-digital philosophy. In the case of Ibero-America the problem is twofold: aside from obsolescence or a lack of adaptation to the new technological setting, there are countries that have not yet included library-related exceptions in the national laws. Moreover, these happen to be developing countries, whose needs and interests do not coincide with those of the richer nations who paved the path to be followed by international treaties and copy- or copyright agreements. This study looks into the situation of exceptions to copyright to benefit libraries in the countries constituting Ibero-America, with a comparative analysis of the most significant characteristics of their national laws. It is concluded that it is crucial for these countries to take advantage of the options offered through the WIPO Copyright Treaty of 1996 and the results of the WIPO Development Agenda to update their legislation...

Do patrimonialismo à repersonalização do direito autoral : harmonização dos direitos fundamentais à informação, cultura e educação e o uso alternativo de obras protegidas; From patrimonialism to the repersonalization of copyright : harmonization of basic rights to information, culture and educationand use alternative of protected works.

Rêgo, Sidney da Silva
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Ciência Jurídica; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito; UFAL Publicador: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Ciência Jurídica; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito; UFAL
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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Exacerbation of heritage features throughout the history of copyright brought serious consequences for their development. The copyright laws of historical progress in the scenarios with international and national economic traits notably eventually provide man, creator of intellectual work, a secondary role. Its activity has always been important, but there was a predominance of the equity, having. With the bourgeois revolutions of the eighteenth century began a process of modification of certain ideals, policies for inclusion in the letters of the states of certain fundamental rights. The coexistence of two systems of copyrights in the world ended up further back from the moral prerogatives of the authors. Yet the international legal texts now recognize them, although they are not fully respected. At a later stage there is a change of direction in the understanding of legal systems, is now setting up the foundation for the interpretation of copyright, to emphasize a repersonalization of its institutes. Our purpose in this study is to question whether it is possible to reconsider the legal institutions copyright, even with the new information society, and if possible, today, to meet the social expectations for the achievement of fundamental rights to information...

Building Universal Digital Libraries: An Agenda for Copyright Reform

Travis, Hannibal B
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This article proposes a series of copyright reforms to pave the way for digital library projects like Project Gutenberg, the Internet Archive, and Google Print, which promise to make much of the world’s knowledge easily searchable and accessible from anywhere. Existing law frustrates digital library growth and development by granting overlapping, overbroad, and near-perpetual copyrights in books, art, audiovisual works, and digital content. Digital libraries would benefit from an expanded public domain, revitalized fair use doctrine and originality requirement, rationalized systems for copyright registration and transfer, and a new framework for compensating copyright owners for online infringement without imposing derivative copyright liability on technologists. This article’s case for reform begins with rolling back the copyright term extensions of recent years, which were upheld by the Supreme Court in Eldred v. Reno. Indefinitely renewable copyrights threaten to marginalize Internet publishing and online libraries by entangling them in endless disputes regarding the rights to decades- or centuries-old works. Similarly, digital library projects are becoming unnecessarily complicated and expensive to undertake due to the assertion by library and copyright holding companies of exclusive rights over unoriginal reproductions of public domain works...

Crystal Palaces: Copyright Law And Public Architecture

Rimmer, Matthew
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 81131 bytes; application/pdf
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This paper investigates copyright law and public architecture in the context of cultural institutions of Australia. Part 1 examines the case of the Sydney Opera House to illustrate the past position of architects in respect of copyright law. It goes onto consider the framework laid down by the Copyright Amendment (Moral Rights) Act 2000 (Cth) to resolve copyright disputes over moral rights and architecture. Part 2 considers the argument over the proposed renovations to the National Gallery of Australia between Dr Brian Kennedy and the original architect Colin Madigan. Part 3 finally deals with the allegations that Ashton Raggatt McDougall, the architects of the National Museum of Australia, plagiarised the designs of Daniel Libeskind for the Jewish Berlin Museum.; yes

Ownership and copyright of scholarly works

Kingsley, Danny
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Conference item
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This talk will look at the latest attempts in the US to contain copyright online with the introduction and retraction of the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and Protect IP Act (PIPA) bills, and discuss what the implications are for Australia. The most recent effort to bring Australian copyright laws in line with technology was the 2000 Digital Rights Addendum to the Copyright Act, but within libraries the stated goals to ‘provide access to copyright material for the general community’ have been less successful than hoped. However, over the same period the open access movement has burgeoned and now addresses many of the issues of legally providing access to online scholarly information. The need for an open access movement has evolved from the exponential increase in subscription costs to research publications. This profiteering has been possible because of the unique nature of the scholarly publishing market – where the libraries act as an intermediary between the publisher and the academic, creating a ‘market failure’. Scholarly publications differ from almost all other types of publishing. While moral rights to an academic work are always held by the author, the academic ‘gift principle’ means copyright ownership – and any subsequent profit – is usually signed away to the publisher. The success of the open access movement has made the scholarly publication landscape highly volatile recently. In Australia the NHMRC has just introduced an open access mandate for results from their funding. The new year proposal for the US Research Works Act - which would make it illegal to have open access a condition of federal research funding - was met with a storm of online protest. The academic boycott of Elsevier in protest of their financial support of the bill has led to its retraction. This is an area to watch.

EU Digital Copyright Law and the End-User

MAZZIOTTI, Giuseppe
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 4827103 bytes; application/pdf; digital
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The aim of this dissertation is to analyse whether and how EU harmonisation of national copyright law in the digital environment accommodates copyright exceptions by permitting end-users to engage in both transformative and non-transformative use of copyrighted content. The dissertation uses an open notion of “end-user”. Due to the new expressive opportunities and enhanced usage expectations created by the digital environment, the single user is alternatively viewed as a potential consumer of copyrighted digital works, as a user of these works on the Internet, and as a possible follow-on creator, who wishes to build upon pre-existing materials in order to make new copyrightable creations. The thesis argues that the interface resulting from EU digital copyright law, electronic licences and technological protection, as currently envisaged by Directive 2001/29, leads to an implicit transfer - from public to private hands - of copyright regulation as formerly provided by statutory law. The encouragement of this kind of private legislation may considerably diminish the freedom of end-users to interact with copyrighted work released in digital formats, despite the enhanced possibilities that these formats present for creative expression. The dissertation is divided in four parts. Part One explains how the increasing implementation of digital right management (DRM) technologies...

Copyright and Educational Uses: The unbearable case of Italian law from a European and comparative perspective

MAZZIOTTI, Giuseppe
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
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This study focuses on the legal treatment of educational uses of copyrighted works under Italian law. Considering the very narrow room for free, unauthorized educational uses under Article 70 of the Italian Copyright Act, one would expect a large recourse to rights clearance mechanisms ensuring a wide and legitimate use of copyrighted works for educational purposes (especially when such works are communicated through digital networks and are used on e-learning platforms). Unfortunately, this is not the case in Italy, where neither stakeholders nor competent authorities have taken steps to create an effective system of licences for educational uses. A comparative analysis of exceptions and licensing mechanisms for educational uses in a few countries of continental Europe, northern Europe and of the United States reveals solutions and contractual patterns that show possible solutions for Italy to escape from the present stalemate. In nearly all jurisdictions considered in the study, collective bargaining and collective management constitute an essential element of the regulation of educational uses of copyrighted works and set up mechanisms and levels of economic compensation for authors, publishers and other categories of right-holders. In conclusion...

News aggregators and copyright - from litigation to agreement? : an example of Google News

CZELADZKA, Marta Joanna
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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At the moment, no copyright statute refers to news aggregation. It is not surprising then that news aggregators present a challenge for any court having to deal with any aspect of their activity. Indeed, with any particular form of aggregation there are a number of competing interests at play: the copyright holder, the aggregator, the reader and the public at large. So far, there were only two suits against Google Inc. based on copyright infringement concerns from Google News, one in the US and one in Europe, but they revealed a lot of problems that existing copyright law may have with news aggregators. The first claim (brought in 2005 in the United States) where the claimant Agence France Press claimed that Google Inc. was reproducing and publicly displaying AFP’s photographs, headlines, and story leads on Google’s news aggregation website without AFP’s permission, resulted in a settlement (after 2 years in court). But the case brought against Google in Europe in 2006 by Copiepresse (the collective management organization for Belgian newspaper publishers in French and German languages) found that Google had infringed copyright law. Interestingly, after the court door was broken down, a new practice regarding Google News appeared: in Germany...

Architecture in the Marketplace of Ideas: Copyright and its "Chilling" Effects

Tankard, Jessica
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: articles
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This paper won the 2009 Friends of Fondren Library Research Award for graduate research.; This paper questions the applicability of current legal standards of copyright to architectural works. Copyright law, as currently written, does not address the unique needs and design practices common to the field of architecture. For example, in architecture, the appropriation of existing design strategies in new built works is common, and should not be seen as a copyright infringement. Secondly, architectural works integrate aesthetics and utility in ways that are often difficult to separate, therein complicating the legal distinction between patents (intended for utilitarian objects) and copyrights (intended for artistic productions). Furthermore, architectural works are not usually meant to be mass-produced and are difficult to copy, thus bringing into question the need to regulate their reproduction. The desire to create connections with the surrounding context of a built work is a fourth argument against the copyrighting of architectural works. This paper problematizes architecture’s position as a copyright protected field, synthesizing information from intellectual property law, cultural theory, economics, and architecture...

A tutela penal dos direitos autorais; Criminal protection of copyright

Nascimento, Elisa Gattás Fernandes do
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/03/2015 Português
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O presente estudo tem como objeto a norma contida no artigo 184 do Código Penal, consistente no crime de violar direitos de autor e os que lhe são conexos. A ideia central da pesquisa é perceber as raízes e a finalidade da criminalização das condutas violadoras que, em certa extensão, revelam a eventual dignidade do bem jurídico penal e, aliada à eventual necessidade, fundamenta a manutenção do dispositivo no ordenamento jurídico. Nesse contexto, a preliminar delimitação do bem jurídico penalmente protegido se mostra indispensável para a compreensão da matéria proibida, bem como para o processo de interpretação casuístico. Contudo, o tema é controverso, haja vista que a criminalização das infrações aos direitos intelectuais de forma geral não é consenso entre os penalistas ao redor do mundo, assim como a efetiva aplicação das respectivas penalidades pelos magistrados brasileiros. Isso porque equivocadamente se entende que os direitos de autor seriam, em analogia aos demais direitos intelectuais, uma espécie de direito de propriedade, e a incriminação das condutas infratoras teria por finalidade única a tutela do direito exclusivo de exploração econômica de sua criação ou invento. Da referida análise concluiu-se que...

Copyright challenges facing the website design industry: a survey with creative directors in Hong Kong

Cheung, M.
Fonte: Bloomsbury Publishing Publicador: Bloomsbury Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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A website is considered to be the centrepiece of a company's information gateway on the one hand, but is also an object particularly vulnerable to copyright infringement on the internet on the other. This paper addresses the copyright challenges encountered by the website design industry in Hong Kong and explores whether the existing copyright law and policy are adequately equipped to deal with those challenges. A questionnaire survey was administered to 203 creative directors in Hong Kong to get an understanding of the status of copyright infringement and copyright awareness, as well as the sufficiency of the self-protection and legal protection measures available to the industry. The survey results discussed here have far-reaching implications for copyright protection in the digital environment.; Ming Cheung

Shakespeare's Fortune: how copyright has failed authors and why it matters

Court, David Compton
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
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A key policy rationale for the system of copyright is to give authors an incentive to create new works. But what if actual financial returns to authors were very poor — so poor that no rational agent could be expected to respond to the incentive? In this thesis I present data from a large sample of Australian films showing that returns are consistently poor even for ‘hit’ films. Data from other countries confirms the finding and there is evidence that returns from other forms of copyright asset such as literary works are also poor. The thesis explores how this situation can have persisted for so longwithout the system breaking down or eliciting strong protests from authors. Drawing on a survey of Australian film producers, I confirm anecdotal evidence that authors are driven by non-financial considerations as well as financial incentives. The Hollywood studios have evolved sophisticated business practices that take advantage of these non-financial motivations. In this they are following the example of London’s booksellers of the early 18th century. Does it matter that authors earn low returns from their copyright assets? Iidentify two classes of author for whom poor returns present a real obstacle to authoring — authors whose work requires independence (such as dissidents) and authors who do not have access to patronage or other forms of subsidy to offset the poor returns from copyright (such as authors from the ‘third world’). Finally...

Copyright and open access in a fast changing landscape

Broad, Ellen
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Formato: Audio & slides; Audio & slides for iPod; Audio only
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This talk will look at recent issues relating to copyright both overseas and in Australia. Copyright determines what we can and cannot share and recent attempts in the US to enforce copyright online saw an online protest by Wikipedia turning 'off' for 24 hours. In January a proposal for the US Research Works Act - which would make it illegal to have open access a condition of federal research funding - was met with a storm of online protest. Not only was the bill retracted but it spawned an academic boycott of Elsevier in protest of their financial support of the bill. The Australian Law Reform Commission is currently conducting an inquiry into Copyright and the Digital Economy. This is an area to watch.

'Bridging the Tasman for trade and commerce' harmonisation of legal systems relating to trade and commerce in Australia and New Zealand - competition, copyright and consumer protection legislation

Tyagi, Mitali
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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The 'growth and complexity of business transactions' between Australia and New Zealand (NZ) compels reduction of impediments to trans-Tasman trade. This is the impetus for harmonisation of legal systems relating to trade and commerce across the Tasman. Competition, copyright and consumer protection legal regimes play a large role in trade and commerce and thus behove attention to their harmonisation. COMPETITION LAW: In addressing trans-Tasman inconsistencies in competition law, two issues emerge: institutional coordination and discrepancies regarding exclusionary provisions. institutional coordination can be analysed through a two-stage approach, where stage one envisages bodies working towards a common set of guidelines and sharing information gathering resources and, stage two, where the two bodies have joint adjudication and enforcement procedures. Competition regulators and the governments in Australia and New Zealand have received stage one favourably. There are already programs in place for information sharing and staff exchange. Stage two, however, poses problems since it requires integration,to an extent, of he two countries' judicial and enforcement systems. This is an unlikely outcome in the near future due to the political and social importance of competition law and policy in Australia. legislation with respect to exclusionary provisions has been identified as inconsistent cross the Tasman. Exclusionary provisions...

Explaining Copyright: The Normative Implications of its Sociotechnical Construction

Nicholson, Scott
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 232336 bytes; application/pdf
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The construction of copyright law can be causally explained by two possible types of explanation: dialectical explanations and material explanations. I argue that an adequate causal description of the copyright discourses of Western legal systems must incorporate a material explanation in order to account for many of the general and particular characteristics of the evolution of copyright. As a vast variety of contingent and interactive social and technical conditions have caused the evolution of copyright, we should expect a plausible material explanation to be multifaceted and multi-layered. However, in addition to providing a causal sociohistorical description, a good legal explanation should also seek to include a normative account detailing the moral grounds of the law, or lack thereof. Dialectical explanations can be teleological: they can presuppose that the law is directed towards a perfect legal state and that it is essentially guided by a set of moral ideals. Material explanations, on the other hand, are essentially non-normative and do not explicitly address moral questions. But this does not entail the elimination of moral considerations from material explanations. As I aim to show, we should not address the moral and sociohistorical elements of copyright legal discourses independently because they are causally connected: moral justifications have been rhetorically used by social actors to influence lawmaking processes...

Youth, Creativity, and Copyright in the Digital Age

Barnes, Rosalie Fay; Simun, Miriam; Gasser, Urs; Palfrey, John
Fonte: MIT Press Publicador: MIT Press
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New digital networked technologies enable users to participate in the consumption, distribution, and creation of content in ways that are revolutionary for both culture and industry. As a result, "Digital Natives"—young people growing up in the digital world with access to the technologies and the skills to use them in sophisticated ways—are now confronting copyright law on a regular basis. This article presents qualitative research conducted with students age 12-22 that explores youth understanding, attitudes, and discourse on the topic of digital creativity and copyright law. Our findings suggest that young people operate in the digital realm overwhelmingly ignorant of the rights, and to a lesser degree the restrictions, established in copyright law. They often engage in unlawful behavior, such as illegal peer-to-peer music downloading, yet they nevertheless demonstrate an interest in the rights and livelihoods of creators. Building upon our findings of the disconnect between technical, legal, and social norms as pertaining to copyright law, we present the initial stages of the development of an educational intervention that posits students as creators: the Creative Rights copyright curriculum. Educating youth about copyright law is important for empowering young people as actors in society...

Demystifying the role of copyright as a tool for economic development in Africa: Tackling the harsh effects of the transferability principle in copyright law

Baloyi,JJ
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 Português
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In the English common law tradition copyright is seen as being in the nature of a property right and thus alienable and transmissible from one person to the other. In contrast, the droit d'auteur system of Continental Europe sees copyright as being an author's right, which attaches to the personality of the author. However, even in this system a distinction can be made between the monist system (as applies in Germany), which treats both moral rights and economic rights as being inseparable and thus equally inalienable, and the dualist system applicable in France, which distinguishes between moral and economic rights, with the former considered inalienable, while the latter is freely alienable. In this way French law embodies the transferability principle in respect of economic rights, in the same way as the Anglo-American system does. Many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have inherited copyright laws from their erstwhile colonial masters (whether England or France), resulting in the laws of these countries also embodying the transferability principle. It is argued, however, that the transferability principle has had the inadvertent effect of stifling copyright-based entrepreneurship, and thus economic development in these countries. Because of the conditions of impoverishment prevailing in these countries...