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Utilizaçao de tecnicas fotometricas para estudo do branqueamento e da quantidade de algas simbiontes em colonias coralinas; Photometric techniques on coral bleaching and symbiotic algae amount study

Clauber Bonalume
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/12/2006 Português
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Corais marinhos do mundo inteiro estão ameaçados pelas alterações climáticas que vêm acontecendo nas duas últimas décadas. O aquecimento da superfície terrestre associado à intensificação do fenômeno El Niño têm causado prejuízos à saúde dos corais marinhos com intensidade, extensão e escala temporal sem precedentes. Quando expostos a situações de estresse ambiental, corais podem sofrer branqueamento, perdendo suas algas simbiontes, as zooxantelas, e morrer se não as recuperarem. Desta forma, métodos de avaliação da saúde dos corais tornam-se necessários. Dois métodos fotométricos foram desenvolvidos neste trabalho. No primeiro, utilizou-se a técnica de reflectância difusa para estudo do histórico de branqueamento de fatias de núcleos de esqueletos coralinos através da análise da cor do núcleo na direção do crescimento do coral. Esse método mostrou-se sensível à variação de cor ao longo da amostra e foi capaz de evidenciar o histórico conhecido de branqueamento de 2 entre 3 amostras analisadas. O método é promissor para o estudo de esqueletos, mas depende sensivelmente do tratamento prévio das amostras. No segundo, fotografaram-se amostras de Mussismilia híspida em seu ambiente natural na Laje de Santos. Foram colhidas amostras dos corais fotografados e foi determinada a densidade de zooxantelas em cada amostra. Utilizando o software MatLab e uma rotina específica de análise multivariada...

Effect of Temperature on Adhesion of Vibrio Strain AK-1 to Oculina patagonica and on Coral Bleaching

Toren, A.; Landau, L.; Kushmaro, A.; Loya, Y.; Rosenberg, E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1998 Português
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Laboratory aquarium experiments demonstrated that Vibrio strain AK-1 caused rapid and extensive bleaching of the coral Oculina patagonica at 29°C, slower and less-complete bleaching at 23°C, and no bleaching at 16°C. At 29°C, the application of approximately 100 Vibrio strain AK-1 cells directly onto the coral caused 50 and 83% bleaching after 10 and 20 days, respectively. At 16°C, there was no bleaching, even with an initial inoculum of 1.2 × 108 bacteria. To begin to understand the effect of seawater temperature on bleaching of O. patagonica by Vibrio strain AK-1, adhesion of the bacteria to the coral as a function of temperature was studied. Inoculation of 107 Vibrio strain AK-1 organisms into flasks containing 20 ml of seawater at 25°C and a fragment of O. patagonica resulted in net levels of bacterial adhesion to the coral of 45, 78, and 84% after 2, 6, and 8 h, respectively. The adhesion was inhibited 65% by 0.001% d-galactose and 94% by 0.001% methyl-β-d-galactopyranoside (β-M-Gal). After the incubation of Vibrio strain AK-1 with the coral for 6 h, 42% of the input bacteria were released from the coral with 0.01% β-M-Gal, compared to less than 0.2% when β-M-Gal was present during the adhesion step. Adhesion did not occur when Vibrio strain AK-1 was grown at 16°C...

Endolithic algae: an alternative source of photoassimilates during coral bleaching.

Fine, Maoz; Loya, Yossi
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/06/2002 Português
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Recent reports of worldwide coral bleaching events leading to devastating coral mortality have caused alarm among scientists and resource managers. Differential survival of coral species through bleaching events has been widely documented. We suggest that among the possible factors contributing to survival of coral species during such events are endolithic algae harboured in their skeleton, providing an alternative source of energy. We studied the dynamics of photosynthetic pigment concentrations and biomass of endoliths in the skeleton of the encrusting coral Oculina patagonica throughout a bleaching event. During repeated summer bleaching events these endolithic algae receive increased photosynthetically active radiation, increase markedly in biomass, and produce increasing amounts of photoassimilates, which are translocated to the coral. Chlorophyll concentrations and biomass of endoliths were 4.6 +/- 1.57 and 1570 +/- 427 microg cm(-2) respectively, in skeletons of relatively healthy colonies (0-40% bleaching) but up to 14.8 +/- 2.5 and 4036 +/- 764 microg cm(-2) endolith chlorophyll and biomass respectively, in skeletons of bleached colonies (greater than 40% bleaching). The translocation dynamics of (14)C-labelled photoassimilates from the endoliths to bleached coral tissue showed significantly higher 14C activity of the endoliths harboured within the skeletons of bleached corals than that of the endoliths in non-bleached corals. This alternative source of energy may be vital for the survivorship of O. patagonica...

Model-based assessment of the role of human-induced climate change in the 2005 Caribbean coral bleaching event

Donner, Simon D.; Knutson, Thomas R.; Oppenheimer, Michael
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Episodes of mass coral bleaching around the world in recent decades have been attributed to periods of anomalously warm ocean temperatures. In 2005, the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the tropical North Atlantic that may have contributed to the strong hurricane season caused widespread coral bleaching in the Eastern Caribbean. Here, we use two global climate models to evaluate the contribution of natural climate variability and anthropogenic forcing to the thermal stress that caused the 2005 coral bleaching event. Historical temperature data and simulations for the 1870–2000 period show that the observed warming in the region is unlikely to be due to unforced climate variability alone. Simulation of background climate variability suggests that anthropogenic warming may have increased the probability of occurrence of significant thermal stress events for corals in this region by an order of magnitude. Under scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions, mass coral bleaching in the Eastern Caribbean may become a biannual event in 20–30 years. However...

Seasonal Mesophotic Coral Bleaching of Stylophora pistillata in the Northern Red Sea

Nir, Orit; Gruber, David F.; Shemesh, Eli; Glasser, Eliezra; Tchernov, Dan
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/01/2014 Português
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Coral bleaching occurs when environmental stress induces breakdown of the coral-algae symbiosis and the host initiates algae expulsion. Two types of coral bleaching had been thoroughly discussed in the scientific literature; the first is primarily associated with mass coral bleaching events; the second is a seasonal loss of algae and/or pigments. Here, we describe a phenomenon that has been witnessed for repeated summers in the mesophotic zone (40–63 m) in the northern Red Sea: seasonal bleaching and recovery of several hermatypic coral species. In this study, we followed the recurring bleaching process of the common coral Stylophora pistillata. Bleaching occurred from April to September with a 66% decline in chlorophyll a concentration, while recovery began in October. Using aquarium and transplantation experiments, we explored environmental factors such as temperature, photon flux density and heterotrophic food availability. Our experiments and observations did not yield one single factor, alone, responsible for the seasonal bleaching. The dinoflagellate symbionts (of the genus Symbiodinium) in shallow (5 m) Stylophora pistillata were found to have a net photosynthetic rate of 56.98–92.19 µmol O2 cm−2 day−1. However, those from mesophotic depth (60 m) during months when they are not bleached are net consumers of oxygen having a net photosynthetic rate between −12.86 - (−10.24) µmol O2 cm−2 day−1. But during months when these mesophotic corals are partially-bleached...

Surviving Coral Bleaching Events: Porites Growth Anomalies on the Great Barrier Reef

Cantin, Neal E.; Lough, Janice M.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/02/2014 Português
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Mass coral bleaching affected large parts of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in 1998 and 2002. In this study, we assessed if signatures of these major thermal stress events were recorded in the growth characteristics of massive Porites colonies. In 2005 a suite of short (<50 cm) cores were collected from apparently healthy, surviving Porites colonies, from reefs in the central GBR (18–19°S) that have documented observations of widespread bleaching. Sites included inshore (Nelly Bay, Pandora Reef), annually affected by freshwater flood events, midshelf (Rib Reef), only occasionally affected by freshwater floods and offshore (Myrmidon Reef) locations primarily exposed to open ocean conditions. Annual growth characteristics (extension, density and calcification) were measured in 144 cores from 79 coral colonies and analysed over the common 24-year period, 1980–2003. Visual examination of the annual density bands revealed growth hiatuses associated with the bleaching years in the form of abrupt decreases in annual linear extension rates, high density stress bands and partial mortality. The 1998 mass-bleaching event reduced Porites calcification by 13 and 18% on the two inshore locations for 4 years, followed by recovery to baseline calcification rates in 2002. Evidence of partial mortality was apparent in 10% of the offshore colonies in 2002; however no significant effects of the bleaching events were evident in the calcification rates at the mid shelf and offshore sites. These results highlight the spatial variation of mass bleaching events and that all reef locations within the GBR were not equally stressed by the 1998 and 2002 mass bleaching events...

Short-Term Coral Bleaching Is Not Recorded by Skeletal Boron Isotopes

Schoepf, Verena; McCulloch, Malcolm T.; Warner, Mark E.; Levas, Stephen J.; Matsui, Yohei; Aschaffenburg, Matthew D.; Grottoli, Andréa G.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/11/2014 Português
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Coral skeletal boron isotopes have been established as a proxy for seawater pH, yet it remains unclear if and how this proxy is affected by seawater temperature. Specifically, it has never been directly tested whether coral bleaching caused by high water temperatures influences coral boron isotopes. Here we report the results from a controlled bleaching experiment conducted on the Caribbean corals Porites divaricata, Porites astreoides, and Orbicella faveolata. Stable boron (δ11B), carbon (δ13C), oxygen (δ18O) isotopes, Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, U/Ca, and Ba/Ca ratios, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and calcification rates were measured on coral skeletal material corresponding to the period during and immediately after the elevated temperature treatment and again after 6 weeks of recovery on the reef. We show that under these conditions, coral bleaching did not affect the boron isotopic signature in any coral species tested, despite significant changes in coral physiology. This contradicts published findings from coral cores, where significant decreases in boron isotopes were interpreted as corresponding to times of known mass bleaching events. In contrast, δ13C and δ18O exhibited major enrichment corresponding to decreases in calcification rates associated with bleaching. Sr/Ca of bleached corals did not consistently record the 1.2°C difference in seawater temperature during the bleaching treatment...

The 2014 coral bleaching and freshwater flood events in Kāneʻohe Bay, Hawaiʻi

Bahr, Keisha D.; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Kuʻulei S.
Fonte: PeerJ Inc. Publicador: PeerJ Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/08/2015 Português
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Until recently, subtropical Hawaiʻi escaped the major bleaching events that have devastated many tropical regions, but the continued increases in global long-term mean temperatures and the apparent ending of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) cool phase have increased the risk of bleaching events. Climate models and observations predict that bleaching in Hawaiʻi will occur with increasing frequency and increasing severity over future decades. A freshwater “kill” event occurred during July 2014 in the northern part of Kāneʻohe Bay that reduced coral cover by 22.5% in the area directly impacted by flooding. A subsequent major bleaching event during September 2014 caused extensive coral bleaching and mortality throughout the bay and further reduced coral cover in the freshwater kill area by 60.0%. The high temperature bleaching event only caused a 1.0% reduction in live coral throughout the portion of the bay not directly impacted by the freshwater event. Thus, the combined impact of the low salinity event and the thermal bleaching event appears to be more than simply additive. The temperature regime during the September 2014 bleaching event was analogous in duration and intensity to that of the large bleaching event that occurred previously during August 1996...

Avaliação da cobertura e monitoramento do branqueamento de corais nos; Evaluation of coverage and monitoring of coral bleaching in Maracajaú/RN reefs

Souza, Izabel Maria Matos de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia; Bioecologia Aquática Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia; Bioecologia Aquática
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Coral bleaching has been increasingly the focus of research around the world since the early 1980s, when it was verified to be increasing in frequency, intensity and amount of areas affected. The phenomenon has been recorded since 1993, associated with elevation of the sea surface temperature due to El Niños and water thermal anomalies, according to most reports around the world. On the coast of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, a mass coral bleaching event was recorded in the Environmental Protection Area of Coral Reefs (APARC) during March and April 2010, when the water temperature reached 34°C for several days. About 80% of the corals in Maracajaú reef-complex exhibited partial or total bleaching. The aims of this study were to verify representativeness of coral coverage and how the bleaching dynamic has developed among different species. Coral coverage was estimated according to Reef Check Brazil protocol associated with quadrant method, and bleaching was evaluated from biweekly visual surveys in 80 colonies of Favia gravida, Porites astreoides, Siderastrea stellata and Millepora alcicornis. At the same time temperature, pH, salinity and horizontal transparency, as well as mortality and disease occurrence were monitored. Analysis of variance and Multiple Regression from the perspective of time lag concept were used to evaluate the bleaching dynamics among species and the relationship between variation of means of bleaching and variations of abiotic parameters...

A Theoretical Exploration of the Adaptive Bleaching Hypothesis in Corals

Delorme, Michael
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 211968 bytes; application/msword
Português
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This study examines the evolution of adaptive coral bleaching, an emergent property of the symbiotic relationship between zooxanthellae algae and coral tissue. Coral bleaching is the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae algae from coral tissue, often as a result of periods of thermal stress. Unless bleached corals are repopulated by zooxanthellae they will often die. The adaptive bleaching hypothesis suggests that bleaching may be an adaptive mechanism whereby the coral has an opportunity to be recolonized by a more heat tolerant type of zooxanthellae. Since bleached corals often die, the fact that bleaching may be adaptive poses an interesting evolutionary problem. Analysis of an existing population genetic model predicts that the strength of epistatic selection between a zooxanthellae ‘heat tolerant’ allele and a ‘bleach’ coral allele will determine if adaptive bleaching can evolve. These findings point to key, and previously unrecognized, assumptions that underlie the validity of the adaptive bleaching hypothesis. This work therefore points to important areas for future empirical investigation that are required before the significance of this hypothesis can be determined for coral conservation.; This is a BIOL537 Undergraduate Thesis supervised by Dr. Troy Day.; NSERC

Development of Gene Expression Markers of Acute Heat-Light Stress in Reef-Building Corals of the Genus Porites

Kenkel, Carly D.; Aglyamova, Galina; Alamaru, Ada; Bhagooli, Ranjeet; Capper, Roxana; Cunning, Ross; deVillers, Amanda; Haslun, Joshua A.; Hédouin, Laetitia; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Kuehl, Kristin; Mahmoud, Huda; McGinty, Elizabeth S.; Montoya-Maya, Phan
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Coral reefs are declining worldwide due to increased incidence of climate-induced coral bleaching, which will have widespread biodiversity and economic impacts. A simple method to measure the sub-bleaching level of heat-light stress experienced by corals would greatly inform reef management practices by making it possible to assess the distribution of bleaching risks among individual reef sites. Gene expression analysis based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used as a diagnostic tool to determine coral condition in situ. We evaluated the expression of 13 candidate genes during heat-light stress in a common Caribbean coral Porites astreoides, and observed strong and consistent changes in gene expression in two independent experiments. Furthermore, we found that the apparent return to baseline expression levels during a recovery phase was rapid, despite visible signs of colony bleaching. We show that the response to acute heat-light stress in P. astreoides can be monitored by measuring the difference in expression of only two genes: Hsp16 and actin. We demonstrate that this assay discriminates between corals sampled from two field sites experiencing different temperatures. We also show that the assay is applicable to an Indo-Pacific congener...

Acclimatization of the Tropical Reef Coral Acropora millepora to Hyperthermal Stress

Bellantuono, Anthony John
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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The demise of reef-building corals potentially lies on the horizon, given ongoing climate change amid other anthropogenic environmental stressors. If corals cannot acclimatize or adapt to changing conditions, dramatic declines in the extent and health of the living reefs are expected within the next half century. The primary and proximal global threat to corals is climate change. Reef-building corals are dependent upon a nutritional symbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates belonging to the group Symbiodinium. The symbiosis between the cnidarian host and algal partner is a stress-sensitive relationship; temperatures just 1°C above normal thermal maxima can result in the breakdown of the symbiosis, resulting in coral bleaching (the loss of Symbiodinium and/or associated photopigments) and ultimately, colony death. As ocean temperatures continue to rise, corals will either acclimatize or adapt to changing conditions, or will perish. By experimentally preconditioning the coral Acropora millepora via sublethal heat treatment, the coral acquired thermal tolerance, resisting bleaching during subsequent hyperthermal stress. The complex nature of the coral holobiont translates to multiple possible explanations for acclimatization: acquired thermal tolerance could potentially originate from the host itself...

Mass Coral Bleaching in 2010 in the Southern Caribbean

Alemu I, Jahson Berhane; Clement, Ysharda
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/01/2014 Português
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Ocean temperatures are increasing globally and the Caribbean is no exception. An extreme ocean warming event in 2010 placed Tobago's coral reefs under severe stress resulting in widespread coral bleaching and threatening the livelihoods that rely on them. The bleaching response of four reef building taxa was monitored over a six month period across three major reefs systems in Tobago. By identifying taxa resilient to bleaching we propose to assist local coral reef managers in the decision making process to cope with mass bleaching events. The bleaching signal (length of exposure to high ocean temperatures) varied widely between the Atlantic and Caribbean reefs, but regardless of this variation most taxa bleached. Colpophyllia natans, Montastraea faveolata and Siderastrea siderea were considered the most bleaching vulnerable taxa. Interestingly, reefs with the highest coral cover showed the greatest decline reef building taxa, and conversely, reefs with the lowest coral cover showed the most bleaching but lowest change in coral cover with little algal overgrowth post-bleaching.

Caribbean Corals in Crisis: Record Thermal Stress, Bleaching, and Mortality in 2005

Eakin, C. Mark; Morgan, Jessica A.; Heron, Scott F.; Smith, Tyler B.; Liu, Gang; Alvarez-Filip, Lorenzo; Baca, Bart; Bartels, Erich; Bastidas, Carolina; Bouchon, Claude; Brandt, Marilyn; Bruckner, Andrew W.; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Cameron, Andrew; Causey
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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BACKGROUND The rising temperature of the world's oceans has become a major threat to coral reefs globally as the severity and frequency of mass coral bleaching and mortality events increase. In 2005, high ocean temperatures in the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean resulted in the most severe bleaching event ever recorded in the basin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Satellite-based tools provided warnings for coral reef managers and scientists, guiding both the timing and location of researchers' field observations as anomalously warm conditions developed and spread across the greater Caribbean region from June to October 2005. Field surveys of bleaching and mortality exceeded prior efforts in detail and extent, and provided a new standard for documenting the effects of bleaching and for testing nowcast and forecast products. Collaborators from 22 countries undertook the most comprehensive documentation of basin-scale bleaching to date and found that over 80% of corals bleached and over 40% died at many sites. The most severe bleaching coincided with waters nearest a western Atlantic warm pool that was centered off the northern end of the Lesser Antilles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE Thermal stress during the 2005 event exceeded any observed from the Caribbean in the prior 20 years...

Skeletal isotope microprofiles of growth perturbations in Porites corals during the 1997-1998 mass bleaching event

Suzuki, Atsushi; Gagan, Michael; Fabricius, Katharina; Isdale, Peter; Yukino, I; Kawahata, K
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Severe coral bleaching occurred throughout the tropics in 1997/98. We report high-resolution skeletal oxygen isotope (δ18O) and carbon isotope (δ13C) microprofiles for bleached corals from Pandora Reef, Great Barrier Reef, and Ishigaki Island, Japan, in

Is coral bleaching due to the instability of the zooxanthellae dark reactions

Leggat, W; Whitney, Spencer; Yellowlees, David
Fonte: Balaban Publishers Publicador: Balaban Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Coral reefs are dominated by symbioses between marine invertebrates (e.g. corals, clams, sea anemones, sponges) and the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium. Increases in seawater temperature linked to global warming have lead to the phenomenon known as "bleaching", involving the disassociation of these symbioses and mass mortalities of the invertebrate host. Mass bleaching events have been linked to a thermal lesion in the photosynthesis of Symbiodinium, either at photosystem II or in the dark reactions of photosynthesis. Examination of two of the proposed lesion points, the carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) and form II Rubisco, indicate that, over the temperature range examined, the CCM is not disrupted in Symbiodinium isolated from giant clams, however it was not possible to determine if Rubisco is the point of thermal lesion resulting in bleaching. Maximum photosynthetic rates were measured between 28 and 31°C and declined as temperature was increased. Despite a low correlation between Rubisco activity, oxygen evolution and temperature, Rubisco activity declined with increasing temperature.

Massive hard coral loss after a severe bleaching event in 2010 at Los Roques, Venezuela

Bastidas,Carolina; Bone,David; Croquer,Aldo; Debrot,Denise; Garcia,Elia; Humanes,Adriana; Ramos,Ruth; Rodríguez,Sebastian
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2012 Português
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Thermal anomalies have become more severe, frequent and well-documented across the Caribbean for the past 30 years. This increase in temperature has caused coral bleaching resulting in reef decline. At Los Roques National Park, Venezuela, temperature has been monitored at four reef sites. In mid-September 2010, seawater temperature reached 30.85°C at 5 m depth in Los Roques, an archipelago only slightly affected by previous bleaching events. For example, bleaching in Los Roques in 2005 was mild compared to the rest of the Caribbean and to the results in this study. In 2010, seawater temperatures remained above 29.0°C from mid-August until the first week of November, resulting in +16 Degree Heating Weeks by that time. Our annual survey of four reef sites indicated that 72% of 563 scleractinian colonies were partial or totally bleached (white) or pale (discolored) in October 2010. In February 2011, there were still 46% of coral colonies affected; but most of them were pale and only 2% were bleached. By February, coral cover had declined 4 to 30% per transect, with a mean of 14.3%. Thus, mean coral cover dropped significantly from 45 to 31% cover (a 34% reduction). In addition to bleaching, corals showed a high prevalence (up to 16%) of black band disease in October 2010 and of white plague (11%) in February 2011. As a consequence...

Massive bleaching of coral reefs induced by the 2010 ENSO, Puerto Cabello, Venezuela

Mónaco,Carlos del; Haiek,Gerard; Narciso,Samuel; Galindo,Miguel
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 Português
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El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has generated global coral massive bleaching. The aim of this work was to evaluate the massive bleaching of coral reefs in Puerto Cabello, Venezuela derived from ENSO 2010. We evaluated the bleaching of reefs at five localities both at three and five meter depth. The coral cover and densities of colonies were estimated. We recorded living coral cover, number and diameter of bleached and nonbleached colonies of each coral species. The colonies were classified according to the proportion of bleached area. Satellite images (Modis Scar) were analyzed for chlorophyll-a concentration and temperature in August, September, October and November from 2008-2010. Precipitation, wind speed and air temperature information was evaluated in meteorological data for 2009 and 2010. A total of 58.3% of colonies, belonging to 11 hexacoral species, were affected and the greatest responses were observed in Colpophyllia natans, Montastraea annularis and Montastraea faveolata. The most affected localities were closer to the mainland and had a bleached proportion up to 62.73±36.55%, with the highest proportion of affected colonies, whereas the farthest locality showed 20.25±14.00% bleached and the smallest proportion. The salinity in situ varied between 30 and 33ppm and high levels of turbidity were observed. According to the satellite images...

Fragmentation of the gastrodermis and detachment of zooxanthellae in symbiotic cnidarians: a role for hydrogen peroxide and Ca2+ in coral bleaching and algal density control

Sandeman,I. M
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2006 Português
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Coral bleaching involves the detachment of zooxanthellae and the simultaneous fragmentation of the gastrodermis. Results obtained with a cell permeant fluorescent probe for calcium ions (Ca2+) indicates that "thermal" bleaching is the result of a temperature related breakdown of the Ca2+ exclusion system. "Solar" bleaching, which takes place at lower temperatures and is driven by light, is the result of a build-up of photo-synthetically produced hydrogen peroxide in the tissues. Gastrodermal tissue with its symbionts, scraped from between septa of corals, was observed under controlled conditions of high light and temperature. Pieces of gastrodermis round off, zooxanthellae move to the surface, protrude from the surface and after a delay, detach, surrounded by a thin layer of host cytoplasm, inclusions and plasma membrane. The higher the temperature and light level the shorter the delay and higher the rate of algal detachment. Fragmentation by the ballooning-out and detachment of small spheres of cytoplasm (bleb formation) takes place simultaneously. This is likely to be due to oxidation, by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), of -SH groups on the cytoskeleton and its attachment to the plasma membrane. Ground, polished and stained thin acrylic resin sections reveal similar processes taking place in artificially bleached corals. Isolated zooxanthellae and whole corals are shown to release H2O2 in the light. This process of algal detachment and fragmentation that takes place at normal sea temperatures may underlie the mechanism limiting algal populations in the gastrodermis and may be localized to areas with a concentration of algae near the membrane. At above-normal temperatures under the synergistic effect of light and temperature...

Coral diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean coral reefs

Navas-Camacho,Raúl; Gil-Agudelo,Diego Luis; Rodríguez-Ramírez,Alberto; Reyes-Nivia,María Catalina; Garzón-Ferreira,Jaime
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2010 Português
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Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC) has monitored the occurrence of coral bleaching and diseases in some Colombian coral reefs (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá). The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10x2m) with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters) are performed at all reef sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2), and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2). Of the seven reported coral diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD), and White Plague Disease (WPD) were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian corals were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of coral diseases on the main reef builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching...