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Redução de sulfato em biorreator operado em batelada e batelada alimentada seqüenciais contendo biomassa granulada com agitação mecânica e Draft-Tube; Sulfate reduction in bioreactor in sequencing batch and fed-batch containing granulated biomass with mechanical stirring and draft-tube

Mockaitis, Gustavo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/03/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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O presente projeto avaliou um reator anaeróbio operado em batelada e batelada alimentada seqüenciais (ASBR), em ciclos de 8 horas, utilizando biomassa granulada e agitação mecânica em um draft-tube, alimentado com água residuária sintética (500 mgDQO/L), contendo sulfato em diferentes relações DQO/['SO IND.4' POT.2-']. Em todos os ensaios o reator apresentou uma operação estável, produzindo alcalinidade e com concentração de ácidos voláteis totais em níveis adequados. Para os tempos de alimentação de 10 min, 3 h e 6 h, respectivamente, as eficiências de remoção de sulfato foram de 30, 72 e 72% nas operações nas quais o reator foi alimentado com uma relação DQO/['SO IND.4'POT.2-'] de 1,34. Nos ensaios nos quais o reator foi alimentado na relação DQO/['SO IND.4'POT. 2-'] de 0,67, as eficiências para a redução de sulfato foram de 25, 58 e 55%, respectivamente. Na operação com relação DQO/['SO IND.4'POT.2-'] de 0,34, as eficiências para redução de sulfato foram de 23, 37 e 27%, respectivamente. Desta maneira, pode-se concluir que as operações em batelada alimentada favoreceram a remoção de sulfato, enquanto foi observado que nas operações em batelada a remoção de matéria orgânica atingiu melhores eficiências.; This present work evaluate an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR)...

Estudo numérico de tubos de sucção de turbinas hidráulicas tipo bulbo; Numeric study of draft tubes of bulbe hydraulic turbines

Coelho, José Gustavo
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, 2006.; Em máquinas de baixa queda, como é o caso da turbina bulbo,o estudo do escoamento em tubos de sucção tem uma grande importância, pois a eficiência e a potência da máquina estão diretamente associadas ao seu bom desempenho. Esse trabalho tem como objetivo geral a modelagem e simulação numérica do escoamento turbulento, com o intuito de avaliar a capacidade dos métodos numéricos atuais em reproduzir com fidelidade o escoamento em tubos de sucção. Como objetivo específico, pretende-se avaliar a possibilidade de diminuir o comprimento de um tubo de sucção da turbina tipo Bulbo, preservando a sua relação de área e o seu rendimento. Para atingir esses objetivos, inicialmente se faz a validação do modelo de turbulência adotado, SST, para diferentes casos. Primeiro para difusores com variadas angulações e sem swirl. Posteriormente se insere o giro no escoamento. Após essa etapa de validação, faz-se a simulação da máquina completa com o intuito de obter resultados realistas para a região da entrada do tubo de sucção. Utiliza-se essa condição de entrada tanto para um tubo de sucção convencional como para a geometria otimização proposta...

Reconhecimento de receitas nos contratos de construção imobiliária : um estudo do exposure draft ED/2010/6 - receita de contratos com clientes; Revenue recognition onconstruction contracts estate : a study of the exposure draft ED/2010/6 - contract revenues with clients

Mota, Renato Henrique Gurgel; Campos, Saulo José de Barros; Niyama, Jorge Katsumi; Paulo, Edilson
Fonte: Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Publicador: Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Em 2010 o International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) e o Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), publicaram o Exposure Draft ED/2010/6 que discute o tratamento das receitas de contratos com clientes. O projeto surgiu da necessidade de harmonizar os critérios de reconhecimento de receitas e fornecer melhores informações aos usuários. Quando se trata de um evento de longo prazo, o reconhecimento da receita deve ser analisado de forma mais criteriosa, de forma a refletir, adequadamente, a transferência do bem ou serviço entre as partes. Para tanto o Exposure Draft propõe que as receitas sejam reconhecidas quando satisfeitas as respectivas obrigações de desempenho. Uma das atividades que serão afetadas diretamente pela aprovação desta norma é a construção imobiliária. Diante desse fato, buscou-se responder o seguinte questionamento: qual o efeito provocado pela aprovação do Exposure Draft sobre o reconhecimento de receitas no setor da construção imobiliária? Esta pesquisa caracteriza-se como exploratória quanto aos objetivos, bibliográfica quanto aos procedimentos e qualitativa em relação à abordagem do problema. A análise crítica, baseado em um exemplo ilustrativo, evidencia que a proposta provocará significativas alterações no fluxo de receitas das entidades do setor imobiliário e...

Draft versus finished sequence data for DNA and protein diagnostic signature development

Gardner, Shea N.; Lam, Marisa W.; Smith, Jason R.; Torres, Clinton L.; Slezak, Tom R.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Sequencing pathogen genomes is costly, demanding careful allocation of limited sequencing resources. We built a computational Sequencing Analysis Pipeline (SAP) to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing necessary to develop high-quality diagnostic DNA and protein signatures. SAP uses simulations to estimate the number of target genomes and close phylogenetic relatives (near neighbors or NNs) to sequence. We use SAP to assess whether draft data are sufficient or finished sequencing is required using Marburg and variola virus sequences. Simulations indicate that intermediate to high-quality draft with error rates of 10−3–10−5 (∼8× coverage) of target organisms is suitable for DNA signature prediction. Low-quality draft with error rates of ∼1% (3× to 6× coverage) of target isolates is inadequate for DNA signature prediction, although low-quality draft of NNs is sufficient, as long as the target genomes are of high quality. For protein signature prediction, sequencing errors in target genomes substantially reduce the detection of amino acid sequence conservation, even if the draft is of high quality. In summary, high-quality draft of target and low-quality draft of NNs appears to be a cost-effective investment for DNA signature prediction...

Genetic Draft and Quasi-Neutrality in Large Facultatively Sexual Populations

Neher, R. A.; Shraiman, B. I.
Fonte: Genetics Society of America Publicador: Genetics Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Large populations may contain numerous simultaneously segregating polymorphisms subject to natural selection. Since selection acts on individuals whose fitness depends on many loci, different loci affect each other’s dynamics. This leads to stochastic fluctuations of allele frequencies above and beyond genetic drift—an effect known as genetic draft. Since recombination disrupts associations between alleles, draft is strong when recombination is rare. Here, we study a facultatively outcrossing population in a regime where the frequency of outcrossing and recombination, r, is small compared to the characteristic scale of fitness differences σ. In this regime, fit genotypes expand clonally, leading to large fluctuations in the number of recombinant offspring genotypes. The power law tail in the distribution of the latter makes it impossible to capture the dynamics of draft by an effective neutral model. Instead, we find that the fixation time of a neutral allele increases only slowly with the population size but depends sensitively on the ratio r/σ. The efficacy of selection is reduced dramatically and alleles behave “quasi-neutrally” even for Ns≫1, provided that |s| < sc, where sc depends strongly on r/σ, but only weakly on population size N. In addition...

A Probability Based Approach for the Allocation of Player Draft Selections in Australian Rules Football

Anthony, Bedford; Schembri, Adrian J.
Fonte: Asist Group Publicador: Asist Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/12/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Australian Rules Football, governed by the Australian Football League (AFL) is the most popular winter sport played in Australia. Like North American team based leagues such as the NFL, NBA and NHL, the AFL uses a draft system for rookie players to join a team’s list. The existing method of allocating draft selections in the AFL is simply based on the reverse order of each team’s finishing position for that season, with teams winning less than or equal to 5 regular season matches obtaining an additional early round priority draft pick. Much criticism has been levelled at the existing system since it rewards losing teams and does not encourage poorly performing teams to win matches once their season is effectively over. We propose a probability-based system that allocates a score based on teams that win ‘unimportant’ matches (akin to Carl Morris’ definition of importance). We base the calculation of ‘unimportance’ on the likelihood of a team making the final eight following each round of the season. We then investigate a variety of approaches based on the ‘unimportance’ measure to derive a score for ‘unimportant’ and unlikely wins. We explore derivatives of this system, compare past draft picks with those obtained under our system...

Flow characteristics of an inclined air-curtain range hood in a draft

CHEN, Jia-Kun
Fonte: National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan Publicador: National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The inclined air-curtain technology was applied to build an inclined air-curtain range hood. A draft generator was applied to affect the inclined air-curtain range hood in three directions: lateral (θ=0°), oblique (θ=45°), and front (θ=90°). The three suction flow rates provided by the inclined air-curtain range hood were 10.1, 10.9, and 12.6 m3/min. The laser-assisted flow visualization technique and the tracer-gas test method were used to investigate the performance of the range hood under the influence of a draft. The results show that the inclined air-curtain range hood has a strong ability to resist the negative effect of a front draft until the draft velocity is greater than 0.5 m/s. The oblique draft affected the containment ability of the inclined air-curtain range hood when the draft velocity was larger than 0.3 m/s. When the lateral draft effect was applied, the capture efficiency of the inclined air-curtain range hood decreased quickly in the draft velocity from 0.2 m/s to 0.3 m/s. However, the capture efficiencies of the inclined air-curtain range hood under the influence of the front draft were higher than those under the influence of the oblique draft from 0.3 m/s to 0.5 m/s.

The Dynamics of Genetic Draft in Rapidly Adapting Populations

Kosheleva, Katya; Desai, Michael Manish
Fonte: Genetics Society of America Publicador: Genetics Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.782346%
The accumulation of beneficial mutations on competing genetic backgrounds in rapidly adapting populations has a striking impact on evolutionary dynamics. This effect, known as clonal interference, causes erratic fluctuations in the frequencies of observed mutations, randomizes the fixation times of successful mutations, and leaves distinct signatures on patterns of genetic variation. Here, we show how this form of “genetic draft” affects the forward-time dynamics of site frequencies in rapidly adapting asexual populations. We calculate the probability that mutations at individual sites shift in frequency over a characteristic timescale, extending Gillespie’s original model of draft to the case where many strongly selected beneficial mutations segregate simultaneously. We then derive the sojourn time of mutant alleles, the expected fixation time of successful mutants, and the site frequency spectrum of beneficial and neutral mutations. Finally, we show how this form of draft affects inferences in the McDonald–Kreitman test and how it relates to recent observations that some aspects of genetic diversity are described by the Bolthausen–Sznitman coalescent in the limit of very rapid adaptation.; Organismic and Evolutionary Biology; Physics

Estudo experimental e de simulação da fluidodinâmica de um leito de jorro com tubo Draft

Vieira Neto, José Luiz
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.992722%
O leito de jorro tem sido utilizado em diversos processos como secagem, granulação, polimerização catalítica, tratamento de resíduos e no revestimento de materiais. A justificativa desta aplicação é atribuída ao excelente contato fluido-partícula e às características de circulação dos sólidos. Apesar de sua extensa aplicação este equipamento possui algumas limitações de ampliação de escala (“scale-up”), sendo necessário um melhor entendimento a cerca de seu comportamento fluidodinâmico. Assim, o conhecimento de escoamento do fluido e partículas no interior do leito de jorro é de grande interesse para o projeto deste equipamento, embora a quantificação da movimentação dos sólidos seja de difícil medida, mesmo em regiões de menor densidade como na região de jorro. Uma outra limitação apresentada pela configuração convencional do leito de jorro é o “curto-circuito” das partículas, ou seja, o retorno das partículas que estão na interface jorro-anular para a região de jorro antes de percorrer toda a região anular. Este curto circuito provoca uma maior distribuição de tempo de residência das partículas, tendo como conseqüência um produto heterogêneo. Uma alternativa para contornar esta limitação é a introdução de um tubo central (draft)...

Estudo da extração mecânica de bixina das sementes de urucum em leito de jorro

Cunha, Fabiano Guimarães e
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.035627%
O interesse e o consumo dos corantes naturais têm aumentado muito nos últimos anos. As sementes do urucum possuem um corante situado nas partes externas denominado bixina. O leito de jorro por se tratar de um equipamento barato e de operação simples, pode ser uma excelente alternativa para extração mecânica da bixina da superfície das sementes de urucum, em pequenas e médias propriedades rurais. Entretanto, apesar de apresentar algumas características fluidodinâmicas interessantes para a referida aplicação, tais como um intenso movimento das partículas e um efetivo contato gás-sólido, o leito de jorro apresenta algumas restrições, que tem limitado a sua utilização. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos das variáveis: uso do tubo draft, a carga de sementes e a velocidade do ar no processo na extração mecânica da bixina em leito de jorro. A técnica da fluidodinâmica computacional (CFD) foi utilizada para descrever numericamente a fluidodinâmica do escoamento das sementes de urucum e do ar no leito de jorro. Por meio dos resultados obtidos foi possível obter as condições operacionais que maximizam a eficiência de remoção e permitem a obtenção de um produto com a qualidade adequada. A partir do planejamento experimental realizado para estudar o efeito da carga de sementes...

The National Hockey League (NHL) Entry Draft: An Examination of the Impact of Brand Associations Attached to the Russian Hockey Players

Mansurov, Adel
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This research was conducted to investigate whether negative brand associations attached to Russian hockey players impact their draft rankings during the National Hockey League (NHL) Entry Draft. A quantitative analysis based on various regression model specifications was used to test whether Russian players were drafted relatively equally to their counterparts in the NHL Entry Draft. The data consisted of the NHL draft picks between 1993 and 2013 and their performance statistics and physical characteristics. The results suggested that Russian players were drafted relatively equal to their counterparts from other countries. Meanwhile, Russian players who played in the CHL before the draft are actually drafted better than Canadians who played in the same league. Hence, the negative brand associations attached to Russians were unlikely to impact their draft rankings. This study redefined the so-called “Russian Factor” from a notion that allegedly damages Russian players’ rankings to one that enhances their rankings.

Ship scheduling with time-varying draft restrictions: a case study in optimisation with time-varying costs

Kelareva, Elena
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Português
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In the last few decades, optimisation problems in maritime transportation have received increased interest from researchers, since the huge size of the maritime transportation industry means that even small improvements in efficiency carry a high potential benefit. One area of maritime transportation that has remained under-researched is the impact of draft restrictions at ports. Many ports have restrictions on ship draft (distance between the waterline and the keel) which vary over time due to variation in environmental conditions. However, existing optimisation problems in maritime transportation ignore time variation in draft restrictions, thus potentially missing out on opportunities to load more cargo at high tide when there is more water available for the ship to sail in, and more cargo can be loaded safely. This thesis introduces time-varying restrictions on ship draft into several optimisation problems in the maritime industry. First, the Bulk Port Cargo Throughput Optimisation Problem is introduced. This is a novel problem that maximises the amount of cargo carried on a set of ships sailing from a draft-restricted bulk export port. A number of approaches to solving this problem are investigated, and a commercial system - DUKC Optimiser - based on this research is discussed. The DUKC Optimiser system won the Australia-wide NASSCOM Innovation Student Award for IT-Enabled Business Innovation in 2013. The system is now in use at Port Hedland...

Who Bears the Cost of Russia’s Military Draft?

Lokshin, Michael; Yemtsov, Ruslan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The authors use data from a large nationally representative survey in Russia to analyze the distributional and welfare implications of draft avoidance as a common response to Russia's highly unpopular conscription system. They develop a simple theoretical model that describes household compliance decisions with respect to enlistment. The authors use several econometric techniques to estimate the effect of various household characteristics on the probability of serving in the army and the implications for household income. Their results indicate that the burden of conscription falls disproportionately on the poor. Poor, rural households, with a low level of education, are more likely to have sons who are enlisted than urban, wealthy, and better-educated families. The losses incurred by the poor are disproportionately large and exceed the statutory rates of personal income taxes.

Use of Low-Coverage, Large-Insert, Short-Read Data for Rapid and Accurate Generation of Enhanced-Quality Draft Pseudomonas Genome Sequences

O'Brien, Heath E.; Gong, Yunchen; Fung, Pauline; Wang, Pauline W.; Guttman, David S.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/11/2011 Português
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Next-generation genomic technology has both greatly accelerated the pace of genome research as well as increased our reliance on draft genome sequences. While groups such as the Genomics Standards Consortium have made strong efforts to promote genome standards there is a still a general lack of uniformity among published draft genomes, leading to challenges for downstream comparative analyses. This lack of uniformity is a particular problem when using standard draft genomes that frequently have large numbers of low-quality sequencing tracts. Here we present a proposal for an “enhanced-quality draft” genome that identifies at least 95% of the coding sequences, thereby effectively providing a full accounting of the genic component of the genome. Enhanced-quality draft genomes are easily attainable through a combination of small- and large-insert next-generation, paired-end sequencing. We illustrate the generation of an enhanced-quality draft genome by re-sequencing the plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A (Pph 1448A), which has a published, closed genome sequence of 5.93 Mbp. We use a combination of Illumina paired-end and mate-pair sequencing, and surprisingly find that de novo assemblies with 100x paired-end coverage and mate-pair sequencing with as low as low as 2–5x coverage are substantially better than assemblies based on higher coverage. The rapid and low-cost generation of large numbers of enhanced-quality draft genome sequences will be of particular value for microbial diagnostics and biosecurity...

Draft Sequencing and Comparative Genomics of Xylella fastidiosa Strains Reveal Novel Biological Insights

Bhattacharyya, Anamitra; Stilwagen, Stephanie; Reznik, Gary; Feil, Helene; Feil, William S.; Anderson, Iain; Bernal, Axel; D'Souza, Mark; Ivanova, Natalia; Kapatral, Vinayak; Larsen, Niels; Los, Tamara; Lykidis, Athanasios; Selkov, Eugene; Walunas, Theres
Fonte: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press Publicador: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.921836%
Draft sequencing is a rapid and efficient method for determining the near-complete sequence of microbial genomes. Here we report a comparative analysis of one complete and two draft genome sequences of the phytopathogenic bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, which causes serious disease in plants, including citrus, almond, and oleander. We present highlights of an in silico analysis based on a comparison of reconstructions of core biological subsystems. Cellular pathway reconstructions have been used to identify a small number of genes, which are likely to reside within the draft genomes but are not captured in the draft assembly. These represented only a small fraction of all genes and were predominantly large and small ribosomal subunit protein components. By using this approach, some of the inherent limitations of draft sequence can be significantly reduced. Despite the incomplete nature of the draft genomes, it is possible to identify several phage-related genes, which appear to be absent from the draft genomes and not the result of insufficient sequence sampling. This region may therefore identify potential host-specific functions. Based on this first functional reconstruction of a phytopathogenic microbe, we spotlight an unusual respiration machinery as a potential target for biological control. We also predicted and developed a new defined growth medium for Xylella.

Draft prediction models for soil engaging tines in two soils of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Machado,Antônio L. T.; Trein,Carlos R.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2013 Português
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The draft forces of soil engaging tines and theoretical analysis compared to existing mathematical models, have yet not been studied in Rio Grande do Sul soils. From the existing models, those which can get the closest fitting draft forces to real measure on field have been established for two of Rio Grande do Sul soils. An Albaqualf and a Paleudult were evaluated. From the studied models, those suggested by Reece, so called "Universal Earthmoving Equation", Hettiaratchi and Reece, and Godwin and Spoor were the best fitting ones, comparing the calculated results with those measured "in situ". Allowing for the less complexity of Reece's model, it is suggested that this model should be used for modeling draft forces prediction for narrow tines in Albaqualf and Paleudut.

Standing Committee Charges for AY2010 (DRAFT to be approved)

Academic Senate Executive Committee
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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Academic Senate Standing Committee Charges AY2010 (Draft)

College Tenure Expectations Draft (4/2/2015)

E5 Taskforce; Laver, Michael E5 Taskforce Chair
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57865%
College Tenure Expectations (Draft - 4/2/2015)

Revised Policy E7.0 (Draft of April 8, 2014) - For 4/17/2014 AS Meeting

Faculty Affairs Committee (FAC); Waterstram-Rich, Kristen FAC Chair
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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Revised Policy E7.0 (Draft of April 8, 2014) for April 17, 2014 AS Meeting

The Conciliation and the Preliminary Draft of the New Code of Civil Procedure; A Conciliação e o Anteprojeto do Novo Código de Processo Civil

de Aragão, Ana Carolina dos Santos; Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF); Felix, Kelly Ribeiro; Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF)
Fonte: Revista de Direito dos Monitores da Universidade Federal Fluminense (Monitor's Law Review); Revista de Direito dos Monitores da Universidade Federal Fluminense Publicador: Revista de Direito dos Monitores da Universidade Federal Fluminense (Monitor's Law Review); Revista de Direito dos Monitores da Universidade Federal Fluminense
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/12/2010 Português
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This study aims to analyze the Draft of the New Code of Civil Procedure, regarding the "Audience of Reconciliation" through a systematic comparison of the same with the devices of the current Code (Law no. 5869 1973) governing the matter and Laws 9099/95 and 9307/96, which provide for the Special Civil and Criminal Courts and arbitration respectively. We also want to point out the main criticisms and suggestions made ​​during discussions involving the procedural reform in progress in order to assess how and to what purposes the changes are being made.; O presente trabalho tem por objetivo analisar o Anteprojeto do Novo Código de Processo Civil, em relação à “Audiência de Conciliação”, através de uma comparação sistemática do mesmo com os dispositivos do atual Código (Lei n. 5.869 de 1973) que regem a matéria, e das Leis 9099/95 e 9307/96, que dispõem sobre os Juizados Especiais Cíveis e Criminais e sobre arbitragem, respectivamente. Pretendemos, ainda, apontar as principais críticas e sugestões proferidas durante os debates que envolveram a reforma processual em curso, de forma a avaliar como e com quais propósitos as mudanças estão sendo feitas.