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The Road Not Traveled : Education Reform in the Middle East and North Africa

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Português
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57.51797%
This report focuses on the economic rather than the social and cultural dimensions of education. Its approach in answering the questions raised is analytical and comparative in nature. Education outcomes in the region are compared with education outcomes in other developing countries. The development impact of investment in education is considered in the context of the large body of literature on the subject. The education reform strategies in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are assessed on the basis of a new analytical framework. Labor market outcomes are evaluated on the basis of how well these markets function, given past reform efforts. The feature of the report is that it covers all levels of instruction, not just basic, secondary, or higher education. Although the primary focus of the report is education, it was important to pay special attention to domestic labor markets and migration. After all, this is where the returns to education are determined and its impact on development made.

Central America : Education Strategy Paper

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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57.452456%
The purpose of the Education Strategy Paper is to compare basic education outcomes and indicators in the four Central American countries, which will then be examined and explored in the subsequent chapters. At least five main dimensions of educational performance should be considered in any education sector diagnostic such as this one: (a) educational coverage, measured by enrollment rates; (b) internal efficiency, measured by student cohort survival rates and other indicators; (c) educational quality, measured by the acquisition of cognitive skills; (d) external efficiency, measured by private (and ideally, social) rates of return to schooling at the various levels; and (e) equity, measured by the distribution among urban-rural areas, socio-economic groups and ethnic groups of all the previous indicators. We will make the attempt below to compare the countries along these dimensions, using similar indicators, and, when applicable, triangulating indicators across multiple sources (official Ministry of Education sources and household surveys). When possible, we also provide longitudinal comparisons of these education indicators for each country. A key conclusion of the chapter will be that some urgent priorities remain in spite of several accomplishments undertaken in the past decades...

Cameroon - Governance and Management in the Education Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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57.406963%
This report aims to analyze the extent to which current governance and management practices contribute to explaining differences in education outcomes, focusing on three regions of Cameroon: the Littoral, Far North, and North West. The three regions chosen for this study differ considerably in terms of education performance, with the Far North being the weakest at one end of the spectrum, and the Littoral region being one of the best at the other end. The report explores the connections between governance and educational outcomes in these three regions, using a qualitative approach. In-depth interviews with government officials and school personnel, observations of school operations, and reviews of documents were used to analyze governance and accountability in both basic and secondary education. Such approach is inductive, context sensitive, and naturalistic, based on an iterative process of knowledge generation. The analytical framework for the study consists of two broad areas, public expenditure and system functioning. Under public expenditure...

Indonesia - Spending More or Spending Better : Improving Education Financing in Indonesia

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Jakarta Publicador: World Bank, Jakarta
Português
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57.605576%
The report is divided into two parts. The first three chapters show that the vast increase in education resources has not been accompanied by a similar increase in learning outcomes, and thus highlight the urgent need to improve the quality of spending. Chapter one starts by describing the complex financing and governance systems. With this policy framework in mind, Chapter two focuses on the 20 percent rule, analyzing its consequences for budget planning and management and examining where resources went after this vast increase in spending. The chapter also provides some estimates of the cost of meeting future government objectives, in the context of discussions on expanding compulsory education, and broadening teacher certification. Chapter three looks at education outcomes, reviewing the significant improvements in access and equity, as well as the worrisome trends in learning outcomes. It points to improving the quality of education and expanding access to secondary and above (especially for the poor) as the main challenges in the sector. Given the cost of achieving these goals...

Education and Civil Conflict in Nepal

Valente, Christine
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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57.291963%
Between 1996 and 2006, Nepal experienced violent civil conflict as a consequence of a Maoist insurgency, which many argue also brought about an increase in female empowerment. This paper exploits variations in exposure to conflict by birth cohort, survey date, and district to estimate the impact of the insurgency on education outcomes. Overall conflict intensity, measured by conflict casualties, is associated with an increase in female educational attainment, whereas abductions by Maoists, which often targeted school children, have the reverse effect. Male schooling tended to increase more rapidly in areas where the fighting was more intense, but the estimates are smaller in magnitude and more sensitive to specification than estimates for females. Similar results are obtained across different specifications, and robustness checks indicate that these findings are not due to selective migration.

Local Governance and Education Performance : A Survey of the Quality of Local Education Governance in 50 Indonesian Districts

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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57.42657%
In the last 15 years, Indonesia has introduced a comprehensive package of education reforms designed to expand access and improve quality. A key component of the reform process has been the devolution of responsibility for basic education services to local governments and schools. The ability of local governments to deliver good quality basic education services varies considerably across Indonesia. Identifying the key dimensions of governance that underpin effective education service delivery can provide a starting point for addressing existing weaknesses and raising education performance. The main purpose of this report is to assess the state of local education governance in a sample of Indonesian districts and how it affects education performance. The study uses a unique survey of 50 local governments conducted in 2009 and 2012, coupled with district level information from household surveys, to identify patterns and explore trends in the relationship between governance and education outcomes. The report also explores the effects of a large donor supported program that aimed to strengthen the capacity of local governments. The findings of the Indonesian Local Education Governance (ILEG) survey demonstrate the importance of the quality of local governance in improving district education performance. Recent governments have demonstrated a commitment to education that has been backed up by substantial increases in public investment. The challenge for the education sector is to translate this commitment and increased investment into better education outcomes. The report has shown that strengthening the capacity of local governments to deliver good quality basic education services needs to be at the heart of efforts to address this challenge.

Local Governance and Education Performance : A Survey of the Quality of Local Education governance in 50 Indonesian Districts

Al-Samarrai, Samer
Fonte: World Bank, Jakarta Publicador: World Bank, Jakarta
Português
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57.42657%
In the last 15 years, Indonesia has introduced a comprehensive package of education reforms designed to expand access and improve quality. A key component of the reform process has been the devolution of responsibility for basic education services to local governments and schools. The ability of local governments to deliver good quality basic education services varies considerably across Indonesia. Identifying the key dimensions of governance that underpin effective education service delivery can provide a starting point for addressing existing weaknesses and raising education performance. The main purpose of this report is to assess the state of local education governance in a sample of Indonesian districts and how it affects education performance. The study uses a unique survey of 50 local governments conducted in 2009 and 2012, coupled with district level information from household surveys, to identify patterns and explore trends in the relationship between governance and education outcomes. The report also explores the effects of a large donor supported program that aimed to strengthen the capacity of local governments. The findings of the Indonesian Local Education Governance (ILEG) survey demonstrate the importance of the quality of local governance in improving district education performance. Recent governments have demonstrated a commitment to education that has been backed up by substantial increases in public investment. The challenge for the education sector is to translate this commitment and increased investment into better education outcomes. The report has shown that strengthening the capacity of local governments to deliver good quality basic education services needs to be at the heart of efforts to address this challenge.

Can Conditional Cash Transfers Improve Education and Nutrition Outcomes for Poor Children in Bangladesh? Evidence from a Pilot Project

Ferre, Celine; Sharif, Iffath
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
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57.417646%
There is an increasing recognition that investment in human development at an earlier age can have a significant impact on the lifetime earnings capacity of an individual. This notion is the basis for the popularity of conditional cash transfer programs to help boost child health and education outcomes. The evidence on the impact of conditional cash transfers on health and education outcomes, however, is mixed. This paper uses panel data from a pilot project and evaluates the impact of conditional cash transfers on consumption, education, and nutrition outcomes among poor rural families in Bangladesh. Given implementation challenges the intervention was not able to improve school attendance. However the analysis shows that the pilot had a significant impact on the incidence of wasting among children who were 10-22 months old when the program started, reducing the share of children with weight-for-height below two standard deviations from the World Health Organization benchmark by 40 percent. The pilot was also able to improve nutrition knowledge: there was a significant increase in the proportion of beneficiary mothers who knew about the importance of exclusively breastfeeding infants until the age of six months. The results also suggest a significant positive impact on food consumption...

The Education Resilience of Out-of-school Children in Bhutan : A Methodology and Pilot Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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57.2021%
Accessibility and quality of education is a much-debated issue today. In Bhutan this is especially a concern for the population scattered across the extreme mountainous terrain of the country. Difficult access and spatial isolation leads to an unequal distribution of the quality services in Bhutan. It is also an issue for children in urban communities despite the easy access to schools. Poverty and disability hold children back from enrolling in and completing school. Hence, the education resilience in these vulnerable communities can differ accordingly even despite the fact that the government provides free basic education in Bhutan. We define resilience as the ability of students, education institutions, and communities to achieve positive education outcomes in spite of adversities, such as the marginalization, isolation and poverty that exist in pockets in Bhutan. This report presents the results of our pilot study. We consulted with education policy makers and implementers at the national level, and communities...

Assessing the Role of the School Operational Grant Program in Improving Education Outcomes in Indonesia

World Bank
Fonte: Jakarta Publicador: Jakarta
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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67.558555%
Over the last ten years, Indonesia has continued to make significant progress in improving educational opportunities for all its citizens. The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the national school grants program, Bantuan Operasional Sekolah (BOS), and its contribution to progress in the education sector. The BOS program aimed to raise educational attainment through the provision of school grants to all primary and junior secondary schools. The report draws together studies and data that have been used to analyze the program and undertakes new analysis that looks at the effect of the program on household education costs and education participation. The review is used to draw out policy options to improve the program further and ensure that it contributes effectively to emerging challenges in the sector. The first chapter provides a brief overview of school funding in Indonesia before setting out the channels through which the BOS program was designed to improve education outcomes. The chapter also provides background information on the size and mechanics of the BOS program as well as the major changes that have occurred over the last ten years. Chapter two explores the effect of BOS on the education costs faced by households and whether these changes have been a key driver of the improvements in participation...

Improving Education Outcomes in South Asia

Asim, Salman; Chase, Robert S.; Dar, Amit; Schmillen, Achim
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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57.53396%
There have been many initiatives to improve education outcomes in South Asia. Still, outcomes remain stubbornly resistant to improvements, at least when considered across the region. To collect and synthesize the insights about what actually works to improve learning and other education outcomes, this paper conducts a systematic review and meta-analysis of 29 education-focused impact evaluations from South Asia, establishing a standard that includes randomized control trials and quasi-experimental designs. It finds that while there are impacts from interventions that seek to increase the demand for education in households and communities, those targeting teachers or schools and thus the supply-side of the education sector are generally much more adept at improving learning outcomes. In addition, interventions that provide different actors with resources and those that incentivize behavioral changes show moderate but statistically significant impacts on student learning. A mix of input- and incentive-oriented interventions tailored to the specific conditions on the ground appears most promising for fostering education outcomes in South Asia.

Achieving Education for All in Post-Conflict Cambodia

Thomas, Christopher J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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57.316313%
Cambodia has made good progress in rebuilding its education system after three decades of conflict and isolation. Enrollments are growing, administration is improving, and large numbers of schools have been rehabilitated. A number of innovative and mutually reinforcing programs have energized local administrators and resourced schools, building on early efforts to rebuild capacity. These are, however, not sufficient conditions for improving education outcomes, and significant challenges remain in the financing and management of education in order to realize Cambodia's goal of providing free, universal access to basic education.

Thailand - Secondary Education for Employment (Vol. 1 of 2) : Policy Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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57.32688%
The study aims at assisting the Government in undertaking an evaluation of the system of secondary education, and skills development, in order to plan the many complex decisions, and future international finance assistance in the sector. The objectives of the study are to determine general employment trends, including a sampling of employer views on skill development; to evaluate the cost effectiveness, and quality of present academic, and vocational secondary education; and, to develop alternative scenarios for expansion of secondary education. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the changing Thai economy, and documents the growing importance of education, and skills for global competitiveness. An overview of labor market trends, and human capital development demonstrates the under-education of Thailand's labor force, thus reinforcing the need for high-quality education, and training for demand-driven skills development. Chapter 2 presents the factors motivating change in the system of education, and, examines the market forces driving the need for reform...

School-Based Education Improvement Initiatives : The Experience and Options for Sri Lanka

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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57.46352%
Most developing countries following independence opted for strong central control and direction of the education system, partly because of limited resources and the need to plan carefully and partly because of a felt need to create a sense of national unity among diverse ethnic and linguistic groups. This meant that key areas of control and decision making, such as management of resources and personnel, curriculum, evaluation of performance, and accountability, were under central rather than local control. The empowerment of schools has two major components: school-based management and the involvement of parents and communities in the work of schools. The emphasis given to one or other of these components depends on general national policy, local traditions, and context, with the result that almost every system is unique when one considers who makes decisions, the actual decisions that are made, the nature of those decisions, the level at which they are made, and relationships between levels. Thus, there are 'strong' and 'weak' versions of school empowerment. In some...

School-Based Management, School Decision-Making and Education Outcomes in Indonesian Primary Schools

Chen, Dandan
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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57.3999%
This paper examines the key aspects of the practices of school-based management in Indonesia, and its effect on education quality. Using a conceptual framework of an accountability system of public service delivery, the paper explores the relations among Indonesian parents, school committees, schools, and government education supervisory bodies from three tenets: participation and voice; autonomy; and accountability. Using the data from a nationally representative survey of about 400 public primary schools in Indonesia, the paper finds that the level of parental participation and voice in school management is extremely low in Indonesia. While the role of school committees is still limited to community relations, school facilities, and other administrative areas of school management, school principals, together with teachers, are much more empowered to assert professional control of the schools. The accountability system has remained weak in Indonesia's school system, which is reflected by inadequate information flow to parents...

Promoting Excellence in Turkey's Schools; Turkiyede okullarda mukemmeliyeti tesvik etmek

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.56636%
The education system in Turkey has shown remarkable improvement since 2003 in terms of better student performance and reduced inequality with a concurrent and sustained increase in enrollments. The expansion of primary and secondary schooling was accompanied by the development of new curriculum in primary and secondary education, especially since 2004. A recent independent assessment of the revised secondary school curriculum regarded it as an improvement over the curriculum used in the past. Curriculum reform was accompanied by initiatives to improve the teaching profession policies. This report finds that most of the progress in the education system since 2003 has been the result of a combination of the overall socioeconomic progress being made in Turkey and increased effectiveness in the delivery of education. The Government's educational policies have contributed to the improvements in education outcomes including curriculum reform, phased modernization of teaching and learning materials and practices, stronger focus on measuring learning outcomes through large scale national and international assessments...

Education Outcomes, School Governance and Parents' Demand for Accountability : Evidence from Albania

Serra, Danila; Barr, Abigail; Packard, Truman
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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67.405713%
The extent to which teachers and school directors are held to account may play a central role in determining education outcomes, particularly in developing and transition countries where institutional deficiencies can distort incentives. This paper investigates the relationship between an expanded set of school inputs, including proxies for the functionality of "top-down" and "bottom-up" accountability systems, and education outputs in Albanian primary schools. The authors use data generated by an original survey of 180 nationally representative schools. The analysis shows a strong negative correlation between measures of top-down accountability and students' rates of grade repetition and failure in final examinations, and a strong positive correlation between measures of top-down accountability and students' excellence in math. Bottom-up accountability measures are correlated to various education outputs, although they tend lose statistical significance once parent characteristics, school resources and top-down accountability indicators are considered. An in-depth analysis of participatory accountability within the schools focuses on parents' willingness to hold teachers to account. Here...

Strengthening Kazakhstan's Education Systems : An Analysis of PISA 2009 and 2012

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.3999%
Kazakhstan's Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 performance improved markedly compared to 2009, and indicated a narrowing achievement gap among students. Math and science performance improvements equivalent to more than half a year of schooling were achieved. According to the OECD, 40 points in PISA is equivalent to what students learn in one year of schooling. The improvements reduced the gap with other countries in Europe and Central Asia (ECA) by almost half. Moreover, the performance improvements of the lowest achievers in 2009 and 2012 outpaced those of their higher achieving peers at a rate that compares favorably against OECD countries. However, performance on reading improved only marginally and overall reading achievement remained low, with some groups of students actually performing worse in 2012. Kazakhstan's PISA performance places it significantly behind other countries, especially in reading. Countries with income per capita levels similar to Kazakhstan's (namely Turkey and Russia) performed significantly better in math...

Philippines : Basic Education Public Expenditure Review

World Bank; Australia AID
Fonte: World Bank, Pasig City, Philippines Publicador: World Bank, Pasig City, Philippines
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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57.532324%
The 2010 Philippines Basic Education Public Expenditure Review (BEPER) provides an overview of public expenditures and outcomes in the basic education sector since 2000. The PER team intends this analysis to assist the Department of Education (DepED) in setting policy priorities and in making decisions on resource allocation, utilization, and management. In this review, we analyze trends in education performance as they relate to the Philippines' Education for All (EFA) goals and the objectives of the Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA). The analysis traces trends in government spending and their impact on basic education inputs and outcomes. It also examines the equity dimensions of the education outcomes and spending across geographic areas, households of different income levels, and gender. It examine in detail the processes for executing DepED's priority programs such as the provision of new teaching posts, school buildings, furniture, and textbooks, and we identify potential bottlenecks that slow implementation. Although the Government of the Philippines has committed to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and EFA goals by 2015, its level of investment in basic education is not sufficient for realizing these commitments. The PER analysis suggests that although the basic education sector needs additional resources for rapidly expanding the supply of key inputs for quality education services...

Technical efficiency and primary education in South Africa: evidence from sub-national level analyses

Boateng,Nana Adowaa
Fonte: South African Journal of Education Publicador: South African Journal of Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 Português
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67.258584%
The paper examines the extent to which sub-national public officials are efficient in delivering basic education services and argues that technical inefficiencies, especially in the management of public funds for education, could potentially contribute to poor education service delivery in South Africa. A conceptual framework is proposed to show the underlying mechanisms by which these technical inefficiencies can adversely affect education outcomes. The analysis is based on two micro-level surveys that were applied at 175 public primary schools and 13 district education offices (DEOs) in two provinces in South Africa: the North-West Province and Gauteng. The analysis reveals that South Africa has a well-planned decentralised structure to administer education. However, districts have significant human resource constraints. Capacity is often lacking and record-keeping, particularly of financial information, is very poor. Lack of technical efficiency has resulted in misappropriation of funds (leakage) and extensive delays in remitting funds to schools. The paper concludes that these inefficiencies potentially affect education outcomes and therefore should be given due consideration when designing and implementing education policy reforms.