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Characterization of humic substances in salt marsh soils under sea rush (Juncus maritimus)

SANTIN, C.; GONZALEZ-PEREZ, M.; OTERO, X. L.; VIDAL-TORRADO, P.; MACIAS, F.; ALVAREZ, M. A.
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Humic substances (HS) from salt marsh soils were characterized and the relationships among HS composition and some geochemical factors were analysed. For this, three salt marshes with the same vegetation cover (Juncus maritimus), but with different geochemical characteristics, were selected. The qualitative characterization of the soil humic acids and fulvic acids was carried out by elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and VACP/MAS (13)C NMR spectroscopy. HS from salt marsh soils under sea rush (Juncus maritimus) displayed some shared characteristics such as low degree of humification, low aromatic content and high proportion of labile compounds, mainly polysaccharides and proteins. However, although the three salt marsh soils under study were covered by the same type of vegetation, the HS showed some important differences. HS composition was found to be determined not only by the nature of the original organic material, but also by environmental factors such as soil texture, redox conditions and tidal influence. In general. an increase in the humification process appeared to be related to aerobic conditions and predominance of sand in the mineral fraction of the soil, while the preservation of labile organic compounds may be associated with low redox potential values and fine soil texture. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; Spanish Government[MEDC-CAPES054-03]; Spanish Government[AP2003-387]

Benthic Bacterial and Fungal Productivity and Carbon Turnover in a Freshwater Marsh

Buesing, Nanna; Gessner, Mark O.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2006 Português
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Heterotrophic bacteria and fungi are widely recognized as crucial mediators of carbon, nutrient, and energy flow in ecosystems, yet information on their total annual production in benthic habitats is lacking. To assess the significance of annual microbial production in a structurally complex system, we measured production rates of bacteria and fungi over an annual cycle in four aerobic habitats of a littoral freshwater marsh. Production rates of fungi in plant litter were substantial (0.2 to 2.4 mg C g−1 C) but were clearly outweighed by those of bacteria (2.6 to 18.8 mg C g−1 C) throughout the year. This indicates that bacteria represent the most actively growing microorganisms on marsh plant litter in submerged conditions, a finding that contrasts strikingly with results from both standing dead shoots of marsh plants and submerged plant litter decaying in streams. Concomitant measurements of microbial respiration (1.5 to 15.3 mg C-CO2 g−1 of plant litter C day−1) point to high microbial growth efficiencies on the plant litter, averaging 45.5%. The submerged plant litter layer together with the thin aerobic sediment layer underneath (average depth of 5 mm) contributed the bulk of microbial production per square meter of marsh surface (99%)...

Experimentally Simulated Global Warming and Nitrogen Enrichment Effects on Microbial Litter Decomposers in a Marsh▿

Flury, Sabine; Gessner, Mark O.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Atmospheric warming and increased nitrogen deposition can lead to changes of microbial communities with possible consequences for biogeochemical processes. We used an enclosure facility in a freshwater marsh to assess the effects on microbes associated with decomposing plant litter under conditions of simulated climate warming and pulsed nitrogen supply. Standard batches of litter were placed in coarse-mesh and fine-mesh bags and submerged in a series of heated, nitrogen-enriched, and control enclosures. They were retrieved later and analyzed for a range of microbial parameters. Fingerprinting profiles obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated that simulated global warming induced a shift in bacterial community structure. In addition, warming reduced fungal biomass, whereas bacterial biomass was unaffected. The mesh size of the litter bags and sampling date also had an influence on bacterial community structure, with the apparent number of dominant genotypes increasing from spring to summer. Microbial respiration was unaffected by any treatment, and nitrogen enrichment had no clear effect on any of the microbial parameters considered. Overall, these results suggest that microbes associated with decomposing plant litter in nutrient-rich freshwater marshes are resistant to extra nitrogen supplies but are likely to respond to temperature increases projected for this century.

Distribution and Diversity of Gallionella-Like Neutrophilic Iron Oxidizers in a Tidal Freshwater Marsh ▿ † ‡

Wang, Juanjuan; Vollrath, Susann; Behrends, Thilo; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Muyzer, Gerard; Meima-Franke, Marion; Den Oudsten, Frank; Van Cappellen, Philippe; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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37.833005%
Microbial iron oxidation is an integral part of the iron redox cycle in wetlands. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about the composition and ecology of iron-oxidizing communities in the soils and sediments of wetlands. In this study, sediment cores were collected across a freshwater tidal marsh in order to characterize the iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) and to link their distributions to the geochemical properties of the sediments. We applied recently designed 16S rRNA primers targeting Gallionella-related FeOB by using a nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach combined with a novel quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. Gallionella-related FeOB were detected in most of the samples. The diversity and abundance of the putative FeOB were generally higher in the upper 5 to 12 cm of sediment than in deeper sediment and higher in samples collected in April than in those collected in July and October. Oxygen supply by macrofauna appears to be a major force in controlling the spatial and temporal variations in FeOB communities. The higher abundance of Gallionella-related FeOB in April coincided with elevated concentrations of extractable Fe(III) in the sediments. Despite this coincidence, the distributions of FeOB did not exhibit a simple relationship to the redox zonation inferred from the geochemical depth profiles.

High Temperature and Salinity Enhance Soil Nitrogen Mineralization in a Tidal Freshwater Marsh

Gao, Haifeng; Bai, Junhong; He, Xinhua; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/04/2014 Português
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Soil nitrogen (N) mineralization in wetlands is sensitive to various environmental factors. To compare the effects of salinity and temperature on N mineralization, wetland soils from a tidal freshwater marsh locating in the Yellow River Delta was incubated over a 48-d anaerobic incubation period under four salinity concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 35‰) and four temperature levels (10, 20, 30 and 40°C). The results suggested that accumulated ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) increased with increasing incubation time under all salinity concentrations. Higher temperatures and salinities significantly enhanced soil N mineralization except for a short-term (≈10 days) inhibiting effect found under 35‰ salinity. The incubation time, temperature, salinity and their interactions exhibited significant effects on N mineralization (P<0.001) except the interactive effect of salinity and temperature (P>0.05), while temperature exhibited the greatest effect (P<0.001). Meanwhile, N mineralization processes were simulated using both an effective accumulated temperature model and a one-pool model. Both models fit well with the simulation of soil N mineralization process in the coastal freshwater wetlands under a range of 30 to 40°C (R2 = 0.88–0.99...

El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Enhances CO2 Exchange Rates in Freshwater Marsh Ecosystems in the Florida Everglades

Malone, Sparkle L.; Staudhammer, Christina L.; Oberbauer, Steven F.; Olivas, Paulo; Ryan, Michael G.; Schedlbauer, Jessica L.; Loescher, Henry W.; Starr, Gregory
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/12/2014 Português
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This research examines the relationships between El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), water level, precipitation patterns and carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange rates in the freshwater wetland ecosystems of the Florida Everglades. Data was obtained over a 5-year study period (2009–2013) from two freshwater marsh sites located in Everglades National Park that differ in hydrology. At the short-hydroperiod site (Taylor Slough; TS) and the long-hydroperiod site (Shark River Slough; SRS) fluctuations in precipitation patterns occurred with changes in ENSO phase, suggesting that extreme ENSO phases alter Everglades hydrology which is known to have a substantial influence on ecosystem carbon dynamics. Variations in both ENSO phase and annual net CO2 exchange rates co-occurred with changes in wet and dry season length and intensity. Combined with site-specific seasonality in CO2 exchanges rates, El Niño and La Niña phases magnified season intensity and CO2 exchange rates at both sites. At TS, net CO2 uptake rates were higher in the dry season, whereas SRS had greater rates of carbon sequestration during the wet season. As La Niña phases were concurrent with drought years and extended dry seasons, TS became a greater sink for CO2 on an annual basis (−11 to −110 g CO2 m−2 yr−1) compared to El Niño and neutral years (−5 to −43.5 g CO2 m−2 yr−1). SRS was a small source for CO2 annually (1.81 to 80 g CO2 m−2 yr−1) except in one exceptionally wet year that was associated with an El Niño phase (−16 g CO2 m−2 yr−1). Considering that future climate predictions suggest a higher frequency and intensity in El Niño and La Niña phases...

Isotopic variation of fishes in freshwater and estuarine zones of a large subtropical coastal lagoon

Garcia, Alexandre Miranda; Hoeinghaus, David Joseph; Vieira, Jo??o Paes; Winemille, Kirk
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We used stable C and N isotope ratios of tissues from 29 fish species from a large subtropical lagoon in southern Brazil to examine spatial variability in isotopic composition and vertical trophic structure across freshwater and estuarine habitats. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicated a smooth gradation in trophic positions among species, with most fishes occupying the secondary and tertiary consumer level. Fish assemblages showed a significant shift in their carbon isotopic signatures between freshwater and estuarine sites. Depleted carbon signatures (from _24.7& to _17.8&) were found in freshwater, whereas more enriched signatures (from _19.1& to _12.3&) were obtained within the estuarine zone downstream. Based on our survey of the C3 and C4 plants and isotopic values for phytoplankton and benthic microalgae reported for ecosystems elsewhere, we hypothesized that the observed d13C differences in the fish assemblage between freshwater and estuarine sites is due to a shift from assimilating organic matter ultimately derived from C3 freshwater marsh vegetation and phytoplankton at the freshwater site (d13C ranging from _25& to _19&), to C4 salt-marsh (e.g. Spartina) and widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima), benthic microalgae and marine phytoplankton at the estuarine sites (from _18& to _12&). Our results suggested that fish assemblages are generally supported by autochthonous primary production. Freshwater fishes that likely were displaced downstream into the estuary during periods of high freshwater discharge had depleted d13C values that were characteristic of the upper lagoon. These results suggest that spatial foodweb subsidies can occur within the lagoon.

Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Wetlands : Impacts and Costs

Blankespoor, Brian; Dasgupta, Susmita; Laplante, Benoit
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Scientific evidence indicates that global warming could well lead to a sea-level rise of 1 meter or more in the 21st century. This paper seeks to quantify how a 1-meter sea-level rise that would affect coastal wetlands in 76 developing countries and territories, taking into account how much of wetlands would be submerged and how likely the wetlands would move inland as the coastline recedes. It is estimated that approximately 64 percent of the freshwater marsh, 66 percent of Global Lakes and Wetlands Database coastal wetlands, and 61 percent of brackish/saline wetlands are at risk. A large percentage of this loss would be shouldered by two regions: East Asia and the Pacific, and the Middle East and North Africa. At the country level, the results are extremely skewed with a small number of countries being severely affected. In East Asia, China and Vietnam would bear the brunt of these losses. In the Middle East and North Africa, Libya and Egypt would see the most losses. A rough estimate of the economic value of the goods and services produced by wetlands at risk is approximately $630 million per year in 2000 U.S. dollars.

Phosphorus enrichment effects on interactions among the ecosystem components in a long-hydroperiod oligotrophic marsh in Everglades National Park

Dailey, Susan Kay
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Hydrology and a history of oligotrophy unite the massive landscape comprising freshwater marsh in Everglades National Park. With restoration of water flow to the Everglades, phosphorus (P) enrichment, both from agricultural and domestic sources, may increase nutrient load to the marsh ecosystem. Previous research of P enrichment of Everglades soil, periphyton, and macrophytes revealed each of these ecosystem components responds to increased P loads with increased production and nutrient content. Interactions among these ecosystem components and how P affects the magnitude and direction of interaction are poorly understood and are the focus of my research. Here I present results of a two-year, two-factor experiment of P enrichment and manipulation in Everglades National Park. I quantified biomass, nutrient content, and production for periphyton and macrophyes and found macrophyte removal drives change in nutrient content, biomass, and production of periphyton. Periphyton removal did not appear to control macrophyte dynamics. Soil chemical and physical characteristics were explained primarily by site differences but there was an enrichment effect of soil porewater nitrite + nitrate, nitrite, and soluble reactive phosphorus. Flocculent materials production and depth were significantly affected by macrophyte removal where depth and production were significantly greater with the no macrophyte treatment. The dominant macrophyte of the marsh...

Quantifying nitrogen cycling rates in freshwater marshes of the southern Everglades using 15N tracer techniques

Wozniak, Jeffrey Robert
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This dissertation research project addressed the question of how hydrologic restoration of the Everglades is impacting the nutrient dynamics of marsh ecosystems in the southern Everglades. These effects were analyzed by quantifying nitrogen (N) cycle dynamics in the region. I utilized stable isotope tracer techniques to investigate nitrogen uptake and cycling between the major ecosystem components of the freshwater marsh system. I recorded the natural isotopic signatures (δ15N and δ 13C) for major ecosystem components from the three major watersheds of the Everglades: Shark River Slough, Taylor Slough, and C-111 basin. Analysis of δ15 N and δ13C natural abundance data were used to demonstrate the spatial extent to which nitrogen from anthropogenic or naturally enriched sources is entering the marshes of the Everglades. In addition, I measured the fluxes on N between various ecosystem components at both near-canal and estuarine ecotone locations. Lastly, I investigated the effect of three phosphorus load treatments (0.00 mg P m-2, 6.66 mg P m-2, and 66.6 mg P m-2) on the rate and magnitude of ecosystem N-uptake and N-cycling. The δ15N and δ13C natural abundance data supported the hypothesis that ecosystem components from near-canal sites have heavier...

Changes in Community Structure of Sediment Bacteria Along the Florida Coastal Everglades Marsh–Mangrove–Seagrass Salinity Gradient

Ikenaga, Makoto; Guevara, Rafael; Dean, Amanda L.; Pisani, Cristina; Boyer, Joseph N.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Community structure of sediment bacteria in the Everglades freshwater marsh, fringing mangrove forest, and Florida Bay seagrass meadows were described based on polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) patterns of 16S rRNA gene fragments and by sequencing analysis of DGGE bands. The DGGE patterns were correlated with the environmental variables by means of canonical correspondence analysis. There was no significant trend in the Shannon–Weiner index among the sediment samples along the salinity gradient. However, cluster analysis based on DGGE patterns revealed that the bacterial community structure differed according to sites. Not only were these salinity/vegetation regions distinct but the sediment bacteria communities were consistently different along the gradient from freshwater marsh, mangrove forest, eastern-central Florida Bay, and western Florida Bay. Actinobacteria- and Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi-like DNA sequences were amplified throughout all sampling sites. More Chloroflexi and members of candidate division WS3 were found in freshwater marsh and mangrove forest sites than in seagrass sites. The appearance of candidate division OP8-like DNA sequences in mangrove sites distinguished these communities from those of freshwater marsh. The seagrass sites were characterized by reduced presence of bands belonging to Chloroflexi with increased presence of those bands related to Cyanobacteria...

Modeling seasonal dynamics of small fish cohorts in fluctuating freshwater marsh landscapes

Jopp, Fred; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Trexler, Joel C.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Small-bodied fishes constitute an important assemblage in many wetlands. In wetlands that dry periodically except for small permanent waterbodies, these fishes are quick to respond to change and can undergo large fluctuations in numbers and biomasses. An important aspect of landscapes that are mixtures of marsh and permanent waterbodies is that high rates of biomass production occur in the marshes during flooding phases, while the permanent waterbodies serve as refuges for many biotic components during the dry phases. The temporal and spatial dynamics of the small fishes are ecologically important, as these fishes provide a crucial food base for higher trophic levels, such as wading birds. We develop a simple model that is analytically tractable, describing the main processes of the spatio-temporal dynamics of a population of small-bodied fish in a seasonal wetland environment, consisting of marsh and permanent waterbodies. The population expands into newly flooded areas during the wet season and contracts during declining water levels in the dry season. If the marsh dries completely during these times (a drydown), the fish need refuge in permanent waterbodies. At least three new and general conclusions arise from the model: (1) there is an optimal rate at which fish should expand into a newly flooding area to maximize population production; (2) there is also a fluctuation amplitude of water level that maximizes fish production...

Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter in freshwater wetlands of the Florida Everglades

Lu, X. Q.; Maie, N.; Hanna, J. V.; Childers, D. L.; Jaffe´, Rudolf
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In this study, the molecular composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM), collected from wetlands of the Southern Everglades, was examined using a variety of analytical techniques in order to characterize its sources and transformation in the environment. The methods applied for the characterization of DOM included fluorescence spectroscopy, solid state 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy, and pyrolysis-GC/MS. The relative abundance of protein-like components and carbohydrates increased from the canal site to more remote freshwater marsh sites suggesting that significant amounts of non-humic DOM are autochthonously produced within the freshwater marshes, and are not exclusively introduced through canal inputs. Such in situ DOM production is important when considering how DOM from canals is processed and transported to downstream estuaries of Florida Bay.

Biomarker Assessment of Spatial and Temporal Changes in the Composition of Flocculent Material (Floc) in the Subtropical Wetland of the Florida Coastal Everglades

Pisani, Oliva; Louda, J. William; Jaffe´, Rudolf
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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48.338237%
Flocculent material (floc) is an important energy source in wetlands. In the Florida Everglades, floc is present in both freshwater marshes and coastal environments and plays a key role in food webs and nutrient cycling. However, not much is known about its environmental dynamics, in particular its biological sources and bio-reactivity. We analysed floc samples collected from different environments in the Florida Everglades and applied biomarkers and pigment chemotaxonomy to identify spatial and seasonal differences in organic matter sources. An attempt was made to link floc composition with algal and plant productivity. Spatial differences were observed between freshwater marsh and estuarine floc. Freshwater floc receives organic matter inputs from local periphyton mats, as indicated by microbial biomarkers and chlorophyll-a estimates. At the estuarine sites, the floc is dominated by mangrove as well as diatom inputs from the marine end-member. The hydroperiod (duration and depth of inundation) at the freshwater sites influences floc organic matter preservation, where the floc at the short-hydroperiod site is more oxidised likely due to periodic dry-down conditions. Seasonal differences in floc composition were not consistent and the few that were observed are likely linked to the primary productivity of the dominant biomass (periphyton in the freshwater marshes and mangroves in the estuarine zone). Molecular evidence for hydrological transport of floc material from the freshwater marshes to the coastal fringe was also observed. With the on-going restoration of the Florida Everglades...

Analysis and Simulation of Propagule Dispersal and Salinity Intrusion from Storm Surge on the Movement of a Marsh–Mangrove Ecotone in South Florida

Jiang, Jiang; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Anderson, Gordon H.; Smith, Thomas J., III
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Coastal mangrove–freshwater marsh ecotones of the Everglades represent transitions between marine salt-tolerant halophytic and freshwater salt-intolerant glycophytic communities. It is hypothesized here that a self-reinforcing feedback, termed a “vegetation switch,” between vegetation and soil salinity, helps maintain the sharp mangrove–marsh ecotone. A general theoretical implication of the switch mechanism is that the ecotone will be stable to small disturbances but vulnerable to rapid regime shifts from large disturbances, such as storm surges, which could cause large spatial displacements of the ecotone. We develop a simulation model to describe the vegetation switch mechanism. The model couples vegetation dynamics and hydrologic processes. The key factors in the model are the amount of salt-water intrusion into the freshwater wetland and the passive transport of mangrove (e.g., Rhizophora mangle) viviparous seeds or propagules. Results from the model simulations indicate that a regime shift from freshwater marsh to mangroves is sensitive to the duration of soil salinization through storm surge overwash and to the density of mangrove propagules or seedlings transported into the marsh. We parameterized our model with empirical hydrologic data collected from the period 2000–2010 at one mangrove–marsh ecotone location in southwestern Florida to forecast possible long-term effects of Hurricane Wilma (24 October 2005). The model indicated that the effects of that storm surge were too weak to trigger a regime shift at the sites we studied...

El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Enhances CO2 Exchange Rates in Freshwater Marsh Ecosystems in the Florida Everglades

Malone, Sparkle L.; Staudhammer, Christina L.; Oberbauer, Steve F.; Olivas, Paulo; Ryan, Michael G.; Schedlbauer, Jessice L.; Loescher, Henry W.; Starr, Gregory
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.03029%
This research examines the relationships between El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), water level, precipitation patterns and carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange rates in the freshwater wetland ecosystems of the Florida Everglades. Data was obtained over a 5-year study period (2009–2013) from two freshwater marsh sites located in Everglades National Park that differ in hydrology. At the short-hydroperiod site (Taylor Slough; TS) and the long-hydroperiod site (Shark River Slough; SRS) fluctuations in precipitation patterns occurred with changes in ENSO phase, suggesting that extreme ENSO phases alter Everglades hydrology which is known to have a substantial influence on ecosystem carbon dynamics. Variations in both ENSO phase and annual net CO2 exchange rates co-occurred with changes in wet and dry season length and intensity. Combined with site-specific seasonality in CO2 exchanges rates, El Niño and La Niña phases magnified season intensity and CO2 exchange rates at both sites. At TS, net CO2uptake rates were higher in the dry season, whereas SRS had greater rates of carbon sequestration during the wet season. As La Niña phases were concurrent with drought years and extended dry seasons, TS became a greater sink for CO2 on an annual basis (−11 to −110 g CO2 m−2 yr−1) compared to El Niño and neutral years (−5 to −43.5 g CO2 m−2 yr−1). SRS was a small source for CO2 annually (1.81 to 80 g CO2 m−2 yr−1) except in one exceptionally wet year that was associated with an El Niño phase (−16 g CO2 m−2 yr−1). Considering that future climate predictions suggest a higher frequency and intensity in El Niño and La Niña phases...

Ecosystem Resistance in the Face of Climate Change: a case study from the freshwater marshes of the Florida Everglades

Malone, Sparkle L.; Keough, Cynthia; Staughammer, Christina L.; Ryan, Michael G.; Parton, William J.; Olivas, Paulo; Oberbauer, Steve F.; Schedlbauer, Jessica; Starr, Gregory
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Shaped by the hydrology of the Kissimmee-Okeechobee-Everglades watershed, the Florida Everglades is composed of a conglomerate of wetland ecosystems that have varying capacities to sequester and store carbon. Hydrology, which is a product of the region’s precipitation and temperature patterns combined with water management policy, drives community composition and productivity. As shifts in both precipitation and air temperature are expected over the next 100 years as a consequence of climate change, CO2 dynamics in the greater Everglades are expected to change. To reduce uncertainties associated with climate change and to explore how projected changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate can alter current CO2 exchange rates in Everglades freshwater marsh ecosystems, we simulated fluxes of carbon among the atmosphere, vegetation, and soil using the DAYCENT model. We explored the effects of low, moderate, and high scenarios for atmospheric CO2 (550, 850, and 950 ppm), mean annual air temperature (þ1, þ2.5, and þ4.28C) and precipitation (2, þ7, and þ14%), as predicted by the IPCC for the year 2100 for the region, on CO2 exchange rates in short- and long-hydroperiod wetland ecosystems. Under 100 years of current climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration...

Seasonal Patterns in Energy Partitioning of Two Freshwater Marsh Ecosystems in the Florida Everglades

Malone, Sparkle L.; Staudhammer, Christina L.; Loescher, Henry W.; Olivas, Paulo; Oberbauer, Steven F.; Ryan, Michael G.; Schedlbauer, Jessica; Starr, Gregory
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We analyzed energy partitioning in short- and long-hydroperiod freshwater marsh ecosystems in the Florida Everglades by examining energy balance components (eddy covariance derived latent energy (LE) and sensible heat (H) flux). The study period included several wet and dry seasons and variable water levels, allowing us to gain better mechanistic information about the control of and changes in marsh hydroperiods. The annual length of inundation is ~5 months at the short-hydroperiod site (25°26′16.5″N, 80°35′40.68″W), whereas the long-hydroperiod site (25°33′6.72″N, 80°46′57.36″W) is inundated for ~12 months annually due to differences in elevation and exposure to surface flow. In the Everglades, surface fluxes feed back to wet season precipitation and affect the magnitude of seasonal change in water levels through water loss as LE (evapotranspiration (ET)). At both sites, annual precipitation was higher than ET (1304 versus 1008 at the short-hydroperiod site and 1207 versus 1115 mm yr−1 at the long-hydroperiod site), though there were seasonal differences in the ratio of ET:precipitation. Results also show that energy balance closure was within the range found at other wetland sites (60 to 80%) and was lower when sites were inundated (60 to 70%). Patterns in energy partitioning covaried with hydroperiods and climate...

Effects of Simulated Drought on the Carbon Balance of Everglades Short-Hydroperiod Marsh

Malone, Sparkle L.; Starr, Gregory; Staudhammer, Christina L.; Ryan, Michael G.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Hydrology drives the carbon balance of wetlands by controlling the uptake and release of CO2 and CH4. Longer dry periods in between heavier precipitation events predicted for the Everglades region, may alter the stability of large carbon pools in this wetland's ecosystems. To determine the effects of drought on CO2 fluxes and CH4 emissions, we simulated changes in hydroperiod with three scenarios that differed in the onset rate of drought (gradual, intermediate, and rapid transition into drought) on 18 freshwater wetland monoliths collected from an Everglades short-hydroperiod marsh. Simulated drought, regardless of the onset rate, resulted in higher net CO2 losses net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over the 22-week manipulation. Drought caused extensive vegetation dieback, increased ecosystem respiration (Reco), and reduced carbon uptake gross ecosystem exchange (GEE). Photosynthetic potential measured by reflective indices (photochemical reflectance index, water index, normalized phaeophytinization index, and the normalized difference vegetation index) indicated that water stress limited GEE and inhibited Reco. As a result of drought-induced dieback, NEE did not offset methane production during periods of inundation. The average ratio of net CH4 to NEE over the study period was 0.06...

Responses of plant nutrient resorption to phosphorus addition in freshwater marsh of Northeast China

Mao, Rong; Zeng, De-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Hou; Song, Chang-Chun
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/01/2015 Português
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Anthropogenic activities have increased phosphorus (P) inputs to most aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. However, the relationship between plant nutrient resorption and P availability is still unclear, and much less is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we used a multi-level P addition experiment (0, 1.2, 4.8, and 9.6 g P m−2 year−1) to assess the effect of P enrichment on nutrient resorption at plant organ, species, and community levels in a freshwater marsh of Northeast China. The response of nutrient resorption to P addition generally did not vary with addition rates. Moreover, nutrient resorption exhibited similar responses to P addition across the three hierarchical levels. Specifically, P addition decreased nitrogen (N) resorption proficiency, P resorption efficiency and proficiency, but did not impact N resorption efficiency. In addition, P resorption efficiency and proficiency were linearly related to the ratio of inorganic P to organic P and organic P fraction in mature plant organs, respectively. Our findings suggest that the allocation pattern of plant P between inorganic and organic P fractions is an underlying mechanism controlling P resorption processes, and that P enrichment could strongly influence plant-mediated biogeochemical cycles through altered nutrient resorption in the freshwater wetlands of Northeast China.