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Improving Gender Targeting of Public Expenditures : A Consolidated Note on Lessons and Policy Implications

Ruiz Abril, Maria Elena; Ofosu-Amaah, A. Waafaas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This report summarizes policy lessons from the project Improving Gender Targeting of Public Expenditures through Capacity Building. The project, funded by the Bank-Netherlands Partnership Program between July 2007 and December 2009, has supported a combination of analytical work and capacity building activities in the area of Gender-Responsive Budgeting (GRB) in DRC, Liberia, and Rwanda, as well as a regional learning- exchange workshop on gender-responsive budgeting with participants from Kenya, Liberia, Rwanda, and Uganda. The purpose of this policy note is to provide a brief analysis of the key policy issues that emerged from project activities in the three countries.

Mongolia : Gender Disparities in Labor Markets and Policy Suggestions

Khan, Tehmina; Aslam, Monazza
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Mongolia has made strong progress on key gender-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in recent years. Gender indicators in education and health are also better in many respects than in comparator countries in the East Asia and Pacific region. Women have a limited presence in higher level managerial positions and in entrepreneurial work, and working women also have to shoulder most of the household and care duties compared to men. These inequalities can have large impacts on development, growth and productivity as well as pervasive intergenerational social costs. Removing impediments to full and equal participation for women in the economy, providing equal access to economic resources and opportunities and eliminating discrimination can boost productivity and competitiveness for firms with wider benefits for the economy and within the household. A range of potential policy actions can be considered, including improving employment outcomes (wages, career progression) for women in the public sector...

Mainstreaming Gender in Water and Sanitation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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Gender is a concept that refers to socially constructed roles, behavior, activities and attributes that a particular society considers appropriate and ascribes to men and women. A useful definition of the concept of gender mainstreaming is provided by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (1997), suggests that mainstreaming a gender perspective is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programs, in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making the concerns and experiences of women as well as men, an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programs in all political, economic and societal spheres, so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality. The chapters that follow highlight in a short summary form experiences of mainstreaming gender at various levels in the water and sanitation sector. It begins with a discussion on gender responses to policy and its requirement for analysis and clear policy objectives to guide operations. The second section touches on experiences of mainstreaming gender within sector operations...

Transformative Resilience Guide : Gender, Violence, and Education

Reyes, Joel E.; Kelcey, Jo; Diaz Varela, Andrea
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The Education Resilience Approaches (ERA) program is developing frameworks and tools to understand the role and impact of education in conflict- and violence-affected contexts. This guide is for researchers, evaluators, and planners supporting education policy and program development in contexts of gender-related violence. It outlines a conceptual framework to support the collection, interpretation, and use of gender- and resilience-related information. In addition, it also includes how-to advice to think through crucial issues, which may arise when assessing areas of protection for people in all levels of an education system who experience gender-related violence, as well as to promote improved educational outcome. This guide is divided into two parts, plus an initial chapter on general aspects of gender and resilience in situations of conflict and violence. Together, the parts present, respectively, core guidance on gender-related risks and assets, and the ways that schools, communities, and education systems can respond to protect education actors from gender-related violence...

Gender Inclusion Strategies in PNPM

Azarbaijani-Moghaddam, Sippi
Fonte: World Bank, Jakarta Publicador: World Bank, Jakarta
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
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The Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM) or National Community Empowerment Program is the world’s largest program of its kind with long term goals to reduce poverty by making development planning more inclusive, accountable, and reflective of local needs. PNPM currently covers about 70,000 rural and urban communities across Indonesia. PNPM works by giving communities block grants to spend on projects developed through a participatory, bottom-up planning process, facilitated by social and technical specialists who provide advice to communities without controlling funds. PNPM is supported by a multi-donor trust fund called the PNPM Support Facility (PSF). Part of PSF’s role is to provide more effective strategic support to the government’s objectives, especially by improving the effectiveness of PNPM’s gender action plan. Increasing women’s voice in community planning and decision-making has been an explicit goal of PNPM since its founding, and since 2007 PNPM Rural has had an overarching gender action plan to guide actions to involve women in all procedures. A maximum of 25 per cent of all PNPM funds are reserved to support proposals from village women’s groups for RLF groups referred to in this report as SPP. Women play increasingly central roles in PNPM’s kecamatan and village administration. The PSF engaged a gender specialist with expertise in working in challenging rural contexts to review the system and provide a short critical report and practical recommendation on gender sensitive approaches in the overall implementation of PNPM Rural. A PSF operational analyst with in depth knowledge of PNPM accompanied the specialist to the field. Objectives and outputs are laid out in full in described in Appendix 6. The report below lays out the findings and recommendations of the mission.

Putting Gender on the Agenda: Engaging Women in Development in Burma

Thwaites, Alice
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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Gender equality has become a key development objective over recent decades, and in Burma the discussion around gender equality is quickly developing. Burma is one of the poorest countries in the world, suffering from decades of military rule, ethnic conflict and economic stagnation. Women in Burma are in a particularly difficult situation, where they are often the poorest of the poor, but where they don't have the leadership and decision-making opportunities to do anything about it. Indeed gender norms in Burma dictate that women are inferior and that they are unable to participate fully in public life. Whilst the Burmese government is signatory to such international agreements as the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women, the Beijing Platform for Action, and the Millennium Development goals, they are still sidelining issues of gender equality and the military governance structure excludes women from many roles in governance and public life. However the situation in Burma is slowly beginning to change, particularly since the 2010 election, which went some way to separating military and government. There are now a number of women in parliament, including democracy advocate Aung San Suu Kyi, who was previously imprisoned by the government due to her beliefs. The first female cabinet minister in 60 years has recently been appointed and there are a number of female deputy ministers...

An Evaluation of World Bank Support, 2002-08 : Gender and Development; Evaluation de l'appui de la banque mondiale, 2002-08 : genre et developpement

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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This evaluation, which covers the period fiscal 2002-08, finds that the Bank made progress in gender integration, compared with an earlier evaluation by the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) on gender covering the period fiscal 1990-99. Gender integration into Bank support increased both in quantity and in scope, and more than half of relevant projects integrated gender concerns. This evaluation recommends several actions to regain and sustain the momentum of gender integration that was evident in the first half of the evaluation period. These include redoubling efforts to institutionalize the accountability framework and develop the monitoring system envisioned in the 2001 gender strategy, establishing a results framework, and restoring a broader requirement for gender integration at the project level.

Gender and Environment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
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This report focuses on the nexus of environment and gender equality, defined as equality of access to and control over natural resources and development benefits; and equality of access to decision-making and representation for environmental and natural resources management process. The report provides recommendations to expand women's opportunities to own land; expand men's and women's knowledge and participation in reducing exposure to environmental hazards; strengthen gender mainstreaming efforts at the national policy level; improve women's participation at national, regional and local levels; and expand women's involvement in demand-side accountability mechanisms for environmental governance.

Gender Dimensions of Trade Facilitation and Logistics : A Guidance Note

Higgins, Kate
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
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Gender equality is a vital instrument for development. In trade related interventions, taking gender equality into account not only spurs country competitiveness, but also helps obtain better outcomes. The World Bank's international trade department and the gender and development unit in the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management network are collaborating to produce guidance notes in order to help people working in the field identify and assess the gender dimensions of trade projects. This guidance note focuses on trade facilitation and logistics initiatives, which seek to improve customs and border management, trade infrastructure, port efficiency, transport security, logistics and transport services, regional trade corridors and transit and multimodal transport. The guidance note demonstrates why gender matters for trade facilitation and logistics and how gender dimensions can be integrated into trade facilitation and logistics initiatives. The ultimate objective of the note is to support World Bank staff to enhance the effectiveness of the World Banks's trade-related work by integrating a gender perspective into trade-related policy dialogue...

Lao PDR - Mapping the Gender Dimensions of Trade : A Preliminary Exposition

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study; Economic & Sector Work
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The Lao Government has also made important commitments to gender equality in both its national socio-economic development planning and in a number of international agreements. Through mapping the gender dimensions of trade in Lao PDR, this report aims to draw out key inter-linkages between a more open trade policy and gender. Recent export performance in Lao has been strong and mostly driven by hydro-electricity and minerals, which constituted more than half of all exports in 2010 and are predicted to grow even more in the next few years. To better understand the interaction between gender and trade policy, this paper presents a gender mapping exercise for export development in Lao PDR and in this regard presents simple recommendations on how to undertake this type of exercise. The paper is split in two parts: the first sketches out a simple methodological framework that can be used by researchers to do an initial mapping of the inter-relationships between export promotion/trade policy and gender. The second part of the paper is aimed primarily at policy makers. It uses the framework to provide a diagnostic which examines: 1) sectors in Lao with potential for export expansion that could benefit women; 2) gender-based constraints in these sectors which limit their expansion through trade; and 3) potential impacts for women...

Gender and Macroeconomic Policy

Nallari, Raj; Griffith, Breda
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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This report aims to show how macroeconomic policies create differential opportunities for women and men. This volume comprises nine chapters covering four broad themes: gender as a category of analysis in macroeconomics; the implications of gender for macroeconomic aggregates, in particular consumption and economic growth; the role of gender in the labor market, globalization, and access to credit; and gender budgeting. Chapters one and two address the first theme. Chapter one focuses on the macroeconomic cost to growth and development that arises from rigid gender roles and associated gender asymmetries. Chapter two documents the progress made in gender mainstreaming by highlighting developments in data collection and monitoring that have moved beyond simply disaggregating data by male and female. Chapters three and four cover the second theme. Chapter three considers the role of gender relations in the macroeconomic aggregates of consumption, savings, investment, and government expenditure and the implications for macroeconomic policy in these areas. Chapter four examines gender relations and economic growth. Chapters five through seven focus on the third theme. Chapter five examines the labor market. Chapter six examines how globalization affects gender relations...

Integrating Gender Considerations into Energy Operations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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The objective of this briefing note is to provide World Bank energy task teams a brief overview of the key issues, resources and tools to help integrate gender considerations into energy sector operations. This briefing note discusses the key elements of the 'gender in energy' topic and provides specific examples on 'how to' integrate gender considerations in energy policy dialogue and the project cycle. This note draws on recent experience within the World Bank and elsewhere in mainstreaming gender in energy projects. It aims to consolidate this knowledge and make it available to energy practitioners addressing gender aspects of energy projects. This note is complemented by a compendium of online resources to provide energy teams with basic tools, such as sample questionnaires, terms of reference, and screening guidance, as well as reference material on gender and energy. These resources have been developed by drawing on the experience of Energy Sector Management assistance Program's (ESMAP's) Africa Renewable Energy and Access (AFREA) gender and energy program...

Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook

World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization; International Fund for Agricultural Development
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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Three out of every four poor people in developing countries live in rural areas, and most of them depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. In many parts of the world, women are the main farmers or producers, but their roles remain largely unrecognized. The 2008 World development report: agriculture for development highlights the vital role of agriculture in sustainable development and its importance in achieving the millennium development goal of halving by 2015 the share of people suffering from extreme poverty and hunger. Climate change and rising food prices are reminders of the need to focus on food security and agriculture for development; and the material presented in the gender in agriculture sourcebook suggests that accounting for the different roles of women and men and gender equality in access to resources and opportunities is a necessary condition for doing so. This sourcebook is a particularly timely resource. It combines descriptive accounts of national and international experience in investing in agriculture with practical operational guidance on to how to design agriculture for development strategies that capitalize effectively on the unique properties of agricultural growth and rural development involving women and men as a high-impact source of poverty reduction. It looks at gender equality and women's empowerment...

Russian Federation Gender Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA)
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An egalitarian socialist legacy and relatively high and growing levels of income, particularly over the last decade, have translated into fairly equal gender outcomes in Russia along many dimensions. There are no significant differences in education levels between men and women, and in recent years more young women have completed post-secondary education than young men. Girls outperform boys in reading in standardized exams and do as well as them in math and science. At first glance, women do not seem to have difficulties in transitioning from school to work or remaining employed over the life cycle. And female labor force participation is significantly above the levels observed in other countries in Europe and Central Asia, as well as in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, or OECD. This new assessment of gender equality issues in Russia seeks to gauge the progress in all the domains of outcomes during the last 10 years, and to further understand the main causes behind the persisting gender gaps identified in the country. This assessment builds on the analytical framework proposed by the World Development Report 2012: gender equality and development (World Bank 2012a) to provide a general overview of gender issues in Russia...

More than Mainstreaming : Promoting Gender Equality and Empowering Women through Post-Disaster Reconstruction

MDF-JRF Secretariat
Fonte: World Bank, Jakarta Publicador: World Bank, Jakarta
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
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The Multi Donor Fund for Aceh and Nias (MDF) and the Java Reconstruction Fund (JRF) have played significant roles in the remarkable recovery of Aceh, Nias and Java, following some of the worst disasters in Indonesia in recent years. The MDF and the JRF, which is patterned after it, are each considered a highly successful model for post-disaster reconstruction. This paper presents lessons from the MDF and JRF's efforts to facilitate women's empowerment and gender equality during the reconstruction process. The reconstruction process presented opportunity to address gender issues and other social inequalities. Enhancing the role of women under the MDF and JRF programs saw significant results, such as improved and sustained outcomes in housing and infrastructure, faster economic and livelihood recovery and increased productivity, strengthening of women's legal rights, more representative decision making and enhanced resilience for women and communities.

Argentina : Gender Equity in the Private Sector; Argentina - Equidad de genera en el sector privado

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA)
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First tested in Mexico in 2003, and most recently applied in 2009 in Argentina, the World Bank has developed a model to incorporate gender equity into private sector organizations while simultaneously enhancing their business. Under the model, participating organizations conduct a self-diagnosis to identify gender biases and gaps in the operations. This baseline is then used to create and subsequently implement an action plan to address these gender inequalities in their organization. Successful application of this gender equity model is certified by an independent auditing agency and the firm is awarded a seal they can publicly use and display, enhancing their reputation. Since the first experience in Mexico, the model has been adapted to fit other countries' realities, and each experience has improved the tools and process of the model. This paper summarizes the World Bank's experiences with the gender equity certification model and explores the primary features and factors of success through careful examination of the most recent application in Argentina. The successful experiences and ease of adaptability of the model point towards the feasibility of applying this model as standard World Bank "brand" certifiable international Gender Equity Model...

Jordan Country Gender Assessment : Economic Participation, Agency and Access to Justice in Jordan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
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Over the last three decades Jordan has made substantial investments in its human resources, spending more than 10 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on health and education. Like their male counterparts, women and girls have benefitted from these policies and their quality of life has improved. The Jordan Country Gender Assessment (CGA) has two primary objectives. The first is to assess gender imbalances in the areas of economic participation in the labor market, agency, and access to justice; provide a framework for policies or interventions to the Government of Jordan (GoJ) on addressing imbalances; and provide a basis for implementing the activities included in the Gender Action Plan (GAP). The second objective is to develop and strengthen partnerships with GoJ agencies, Civil Society Organization's (CSOs), and academic institutions to promote collaboration on addressing gender-related issues impacting development, and in particular to develop mechanisms for cooperation on implementation of the GAP. This CGA will further explore...

Gender Dimensions of Investment Climate Reform : A Guide for Policy Makers and Practitioners

Simavi, Sevi; Manuel, Clare; Blackden, Mark
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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Promoting women's economic empowerment is increasingly seen as an important driving force behind economic growth and the fight against poverty. Women's economic participation as entrepreneurs, employees, and leaders is recognized as a measure of a country's economic viability and dynamism. The guide starts with a brief section on the economic rationale for gender inclusion in investment climate reform work. It is then divided into nine modules. Recognizing the socioeconomic dimensions of gender-focused work, the core module outlines the broader, overarching framework within which gender-informed investment climate work can take place. It also focuses on the monitoring and evaluation framework, with particular emphasis on establishing appropriate baselines to facilitate the measurement of gender-informed changes in the business environment. The eight thematic modules provide specific guidance on key investment climate issues comprising: (i) public-private dialogue, (ii) business start-up and operation, (iii) business taxation...

Integrating Gender into World Bank Financed Transport Programs : Component 1. Case Study Summary and Final Report

IC Net
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
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The World Bank in November 2001 commissioned IC Net Limited of Japan to carry out a study titled 'Integrating Gender into World Bank Financed Transport Programs' in accord with the terms of reference (TOR) issued in June 2001. The study was financed by a grant from the Japanese Large Studies Trust Fund. The contract came into effect on 15 December 2001 and covers the period to 15 June 2004. IC Net was to work in association with TRL Limited and the International Forum for Rural Transport and Development, both of the United Kingdom. The TOR defines the overall objective of the study as follows: 'to assist the World Bank and other international development agencies, developing country governments and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), to improve the efficiency and equity of transport policies and programs through ensuring that projects respond to the needs of both women and men.' This report brings together the findings of ten case studies from nine countries (China, Laos, Vietnam, Bangladesh [two studies]...

Women and Land in Timor-Leste: Issues in Gender and Development

Narciso, Vanda Margarida; Henriques, Pedro Damião
Fonte: Indian Journal of Gender Studies Publicador: Indian Journal of Gender Studies
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the position of rural women in East Timor by examining social aspects, with an emphasis on gender, family and community roles, access to natural resources, and women’s status within the legal and traditional system. This study is based on documentary sources, observations made in East Timor in 2000 and 2003, and household surveys carried out in three East Timorese villages located in Ermera. Gender inequality is presented in customary law and social practices. Women have less access than men to natural resources, especially land, and present a lower level of participation in decision-making. As a result the current women's contribution to rural development remains invisible in statistics and absent from most policies. Rural development strategies and policies should be formulated in line with the HRBA, implying that the principles of dignity, integrity and equality of individuals are ends in themselves, not just means to further economic growth