Mestrado em Finanças; Num contexto económico-social marcado pela crise orçamental que sucedeu à crise financeira do subprime, ganha cada vez mais importância a literacia financeira, assumindo-se como uma forma de defesa de consumidor e ao reflectir-se num conjunto de decisões e comportamentos financeiros cujo impacto e repercussões proporcionem bem-estar financeiro.
Os objectivos do presente estudo são, assim, determinar o nível médio de literacia financeria dos portugueses e identificar e analisar os principais determinantes da literacia financeira.
Com base numa proposta de índice que tomou como referência as respostas a questões sobre finanças pessoais, conhecimento financeiro, investimento, crédito e crédito habitação, recolhidas através de inquérito, verificou-se que o nível médio de literacia financeira dos portugueses é insuficiente, de apenas 2,4. Acresce que 16,3% revela uma total ausência de conhecimentos e competências na gestão de finanças pessoais e que 60,2% dos inquiridos sobrestima o seu nível de conhecimentos e competências.
Constatou-se ainda que ser do género masculino, com formação superior, com rendimentos mensais superiores a 1.500 €, património financeiro acima de 5.000 €...
The current study examines whether associations exist between household chaos and children’s early reading skills, after controlling for a comprehensive battery of home literacy environment characteristics. Our sample included 455 kindergarten and First-grade children who are enrolled in the Western Reserve Reading Project. We go on to test whether these associations are moderated by maternal reading ability. Results suggest that the degree of household order is significantly and positively associated with the expressive vocabulary, Woodcock Reading Mastery, and phonological awareness skills of children whose mothers are above-average readers. By contrast, the number of books a child owns or brings home and how often a child amuses self alone with books are significantly associated with the expressive vocabulary, Woodcock Reading Mastery, and phonological awareness skills of children whose mothers ore average-ability readers. These results suggest the potential for new approaches to encouraging literacy development in the home beyond those that depend solely on parental literacy.
Not all young children benefit from book exposure in preschool age. It is claimed that the ability to hold information in mind (short-term memory), to ignore distraction (inhibition), and to focus attention and stay focused (sustained attention) may have a moderating effect on children’s reactions to the home literacy environment. In a group of 228 junior kindergarten children with a native Dutch background, with a mean age of 54.29 months (SD = 2.12 months), we explored therefore the relationship between book exposure, cognitive control and early literacy skills. Parents filled in a HLE questionnaire (book sharing frequency and an author recognition checklist as indicator of parental leisure reading habits), and children completed several tests in individual sessions with the researcher (a book-cover recognition test, PPVT, letter knowledge test, the subtests categories and patterns of the SON, and cognitive control measures namely digit span of the KABC, a peg tapping task and sustained attention of the ANT). Main findings were: (1) Children’s storybook knowledge mediated the relationship between home literacy environment and literacy skills. (2) Both vocabulary and letter knowledge were predicted by book exposure. (3) Short-term memory predicted vocabulary over and above book exposure. (4) None of the cognitive control mechanisms moderated the beneficial effects of book exposure.
The combination of investigating child and family characteristics sheds light on the constellation of risk factors that can ultimately lead to dyslexia. This family-risk study examines plausible preschool risk factors and their specificity. Participants (N = 196, 42 % girls) included familial risk (FR) children with and without dyslexia in Grade 3 and controls. First, we found impairments in phonological awareness, rapid naming, and letter knowledge in FR kindergartners with later dyslexia, and mild phonological-awareness deficits in FR kindergartners without subsequent dyslexia. These skills were better predictors of reading than arithmetic, except for rapid naming. Second, the literacy environment at home was comparable among groups. Third, having a dyslexic parent and literacy abilities of the non-dyslexic parent related to offspring risk of dyslexia. Parental literacy abilities might be viewed as indicators of offspring’s liability for literacy difficulties, since parents provide offspring with genetic and environmental endowment. We propose an intergenerational multiple deficit model in which both parents confer cognitive risks.
Learning about letters, and how they differ from pictures, is one
important aspect of a young child’s print awareness. To test the
hypothesis that parent speech provides children with information about these
differences, we studied parent–child conversations in CHILDES (MacWhinney, 2000). We found that parents
talk to their young children about letters, differentiating them from pictures,
by 1–2 years of age and that some of these conversational patterns
change across the preschool years in ways that emphasize important features of
letters, such as their shape. We also found that children talk about
letters and pictures in distinct ways, suggesting an implicit understanding of
some of the differences between letters and pictures at an early age. Some
differences in parent–child conversations about letters were found as a
function of socioeconomic status: Lower SES families appeared to focus more on
alphabetic order than higher SES families. The general letter knowledge
expressed in these conversations suggests that everyday interactions are an
important component of the home literacy environment and that they differ, in
some respects, as a function of child age and family background.
Learning about letters is an important component of emergent literacy. We explored the possibility that parent speech provides information about letters, and also that children’s speech reflects their own letter knowledge. By studying conversations transcribed in CHILDES (MacWhinney, 2000) between parents and children aged one to five, we found that alphabetic order influenced use of individual letters and letter sequences. The frequency of letters in children’s books influenced parent utterances throughout the age range studied, but children’s utterances only after age two. Conversations emphasized some literacy-relevant features of letters, such as their shapes and association with words, but not letters’ sounds. Describing these patterns and how they change over the preschool years offers important insight into the home literacy environment.
Home literacy surveys were collected from the primary caregiver of 1,044 2- to 5-year-old children (M = 49.32 months, SD = 9.36) representing a wide range of socioeconomic backgrounds and types of early educational programs or child care. The caregivers completed survey questions on family background and home literacy activities and materials. Hierarchical cluster analyses performed on three randomly constituted subsamples and on the total sample revealed that a three-cluster solution best fit the data. Clusters differed on frequency of shared reading and literacy teaching activities with clusters representing caregivers either low or high on all behaviors or low on shared reading behaviors but high on literacy teaching behaviors. Cluster membership was significantly related to socioeconomic status, family living circumstances, caregiver stress, and caregiver reading ability. Results support a model of home literacy behavior informed not only by knowledge and resources but also by parental beliefs and deliberate choices.
Learning to read is a complex process and a number of factors affect a child’s success in beginning reading. This complexity increases when a child’s home language differs from that of the school and when the child comes from a home with limited economic resources. This article discusses factors that have been shown to contribute to children’s success in early reading, namely—phonological awareness, letter–word identification, oral language, and the home literacy environment. Preliminary evidence suggests that bilingual children from low-income backgrounds initially perform poorly on phonological awareness and letter identification tasks, but appear to acquire these abilities quickly in kindergarten once these abilities are emphasized in early reading instruction. In addition, the findings show that bilingual preschoolers’ receptive language abilities in English and Spanish positively impact their early letter–word identification abilities at the end of kindergarten. A positive relationship between bilingual preschoolers’ home literacy environment and early reading outcomes has not been found to date. Educational implications for serving young, bilingual children from programs such as Head Start are discussed.
Educational attainment and literacy
rates in Lao PDR have improved significantly. Years of
education research have established that, after family
background, teachers are one of the most important
determinants of student outcomes. A good teacher can have a
long lasting impact on what and how much a student learns.
The importance of teachers is even more significant in
developing countries where, on average, parental
socioeconomic status tends to be low and notable resource
constraints abound. In these circumstances, good teaching
becomes all the more critical as parents might not be able
to provide academic help at home or school resources may not
be readily available to enrich the classroom environment To
begin to understand how these challenges manifest themselves
in Lao PDR, this study examines the current status of
teachers in primary and lower secondary schooling as well as
government policies that strive to improve teaching in
particular and education quality more generally. It explores
This report will be particularly useful
for policy makers and regulators who prioritize financial
inclusion and/or financial literacy, or who are introducing
financial education strategies according to the high-level
principles developed by the organization for economic
cooperation and development international network for
financial education and recently endorsed by the G20
leaders. The review is intended to be a reference tool for
policy makers, practitioners, and researchers interested in
conducting a survey on these topics, and for those who need
to identify the appropriate combination of methods for
policy or research objectives. Chapter one examines how to
identify, compare, and contrast existing measurement
approaches in the area of financial literacy and capability,
and in the related areas of financial inclusion and
financial consumer protection. Chapter two discusses the
role that surveys can have in informing policy and research
in this area and provides examples of specific survey
objectives. Chapter three describes and compares the content
of the various instruments on financial capability...
The current study examined the impact of an early summer literacy program and the mediating effects of the home literacy environment on the language and literacy outcomes of a group of children at-risk for long-term developmental and academic delays. Participating children (n=54) were exposed to an intensive book-reading intervention each summer (June through mid August) over a 3-year period.
The current study implemented an ex post facto, quasi-experimental design. This nonequivalent group design involved a pretest and posttest over three time points for a non-randomized treatment group and a matched non-treatment comparison group.
Results indicated that literacy scores did improve for the children over the 3-year period; however, language scores did not experience the same rate of change over time. Receptive language was significantly impacted by attendance, and race/ethnicity. Expressive language was impacted significantly by gestational age and attendance. Results also indicated that language outcomes for young children who are exposed to a literacy program were higher than those who did not participate; however, only receptive language yielded significance at the p
This study concluded that at-risk young children do benefit from center-based literacy intervention. This literacy experience...
Background: People with physical and intellectual disabilities (PID) depend on their carers for daily oral care at home and attending regular preventive dental visits. However, very few carers seem to receive training in oral care for people with PID. Carers’ oral health literacy, and psycho-social factors (carer dental efficacy, carer oral health competency, and carer activation measure) may be associated with the ability of carers to provide good oral care to their care recipients. The oral health care provided could be further associated with the environment, such as the residential setting of the care recipients where the care is provided. Thus, the aims of the study were to describe and compare oral health literacy and psycho-social factors among carers, and assess any associations with preventive dental behaviours. Favourable associations could then be utilised to make recommendations for the development of appropriate education programmes for carers, that match their oral health literacy and psycho-social preparedness, so that carers can provide more appropriate care for their care recipients.
Methods: The research was a follow-up study of carers of adults with PID living in Adelaide in three residential settings: family home; community housing; and institutions. Data were collected (February 2009 - April 2010) through a structured face-to-face interview of 100 carers. Oral health literacy (OHL) and general literacy (GL) were measured using text passages and prompts with a total of 25 items to assess comprehension and numerical ability of carers...
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between functional health literacy (FHL) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), its diagnosis, related risk factors, and comorbidities. DESIGN: Population cohort study. SETTING: Adelaide, South Australia, 2011-12. PARTICIPANTS: 1,021 Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress Study participants aged ≥ 40 years, of whom 627 were identified with OSA by self-report (n = 184 previously diagnosed) or with in-home polysomnography in 837 randomly selected participants without self-reported OSA (n = 443 previously undiagnosed). INTERVENTIONS: The Newest Vital Sign assessed FHL in 88% of participants. Full in-home unattended polysomnography (Embletta X100) was scored by 2007 AASM (alternative) criteria. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: FHL was adequate in 75.3% (n = 122) of previously diagnosed and 68.3% (n = 261) of previously undiagnosed OSA. Not having a previous diagnosis was independently associated with inadequate FHL (odds ratio [OR]:2.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.25-6.45) and workforce participation (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.01-4.00), and inversely associated with previous snoring (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.29-0.81), obesity (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.15-0.81), and cardiovascular disease (OR = 0.45...
Childhood circumstances such as socio-economic status and family structure have been found to influence psychological, psychosocial attributes and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to assess the influence of parental Socio-Economic Status (SES) and home environment on children's OHRQoL. A systematic search was conducted in August 2013 using PubMed, Medline via OVID, CINAHL Plus via EBSCO, and Cochrane databases. Studies that have analysed the effect of parental characteristics (SES, family environment, family structure, number of siblings, household crowding, parents' age, and parents' oral health literacy) on children's OHRQoL were included. Quality assessment of the articles was done by the Effective Public Health Practice Project's Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative studies. Database search retrieved a total of 2,849 titles after removing the duplicates, 36 articles were found to be relevant. Most of the studies were conducted on Brazilian children and were published in recent two years. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and Children's Perception Questionnaire were the instruments of choice in preschool and school aged children respectively. Findings from majority of the studies suggest that the children from families with high income...
The current study examined the impact of an early summer literacy program and the mediating effects of the home literacy environment on the language and literacy outcomes of a group of children at-risk for long-term developmental and academic delays. Participating children (n=54) were exposed to an intensive book-reading intervention each summer (June through mid August) over a 3-year period. ^ The current study implemented an ex post facto, quasi-experimental design. This nonequivalent group design involved a pretest and posttest over three time points for a non-randomized treatment group and a matched non-treatment comparison group. ^ Results indicated that literacy scores did improve for the children over the 3-year period; however, language scores did not experience the same rate of change over time. Receptive language was significantly impacted by attendance, and race/ethnicity. Expressive language was impacted significantly by gestational age and attendance. Results also indicated that language outcomes for young children who are exposed to a literacy program were higher than those who did not participate; however, only receptive language yielded significance at the p<.05 level. These study results also found that activities in the home that support literacy and learning do indeed impact language and literacy outcomes for these children...
Fifty percent of the world's
out-of-school children live in communities where the
language of schooling is rarely, if ever, used at home. This
paper discusses the benefits of use of first language
instruction. The results of benefits from first language
instruction discussed are: increased access and equity;
improved learning outcomes; reduced repetition and dropout
rates; socio-cultural benefits and lower overall costs. The
paper outlines why many countries have been reluctant to
deliver basic education in local languages. It also gives
lessons learned on: policy formulation around language of
instruction issues; bilingual programs; and management of
the policy environment of language reforms.
In most major international assessments
(e.g., Programme for International Student
Assessment-Organization for Economic Co-operation and
Development [PISAOECD], and Progress in International
Reading Literacy Study -International Evaluation of
Educational Achievement [PIRLS-IEA]) children's reading
skills are not assessed before fourth grade. For students
who are poor readers, it is often too late to carry out
efficient and effective remedial instruction. Indeed, to be
efficient, remedial instruction should be conducted as early
as possible. In addition, most major assessments are only
composed of reading comprehension tasks, and do not take
into account the level of word reading fluency (including
accuracy and speed) and listening comprehension. However,
research suggests that reading comprehension is associated
with capacity in these complementary tasks. A large-scale
reading assessment was conducted in Gambia with 1,200 first,
second, and third graders (randomly selected from 40
schools) who were learning to read in English. Three
analyses were carried out. The first involved a comparison
within the group...
The purpose of this project was to provide parents with an awareness of the role that they play in their preschool children's literacy and reading development and to create a practical handbook that parents can use to teach early literacy and reading skills to their preschool children in their home environment. The handbook was created in response to the literature that confirmed that the children benefit from developing emergent literacy skills before they enter school in kindergarten or grade 1. In addition to the information gathered from the academic literature, needs assessments were conducted in order to hear perspectives from multiple stakeholders involved in the context of this project. The needs assessment questionnaires were conducted with 4 Ontario certified grade 1 and 2 teachers, and 4 parents with preschool children or children in kindergarten or grade 1. Data collected from these participants highlighted the needs of parents and were used to create a comprehensive handbook that will hopefully be accessible and useful to a wide parent audience. The results of the research project indicated that parents would, in fact, benefit from having access to a resource such as this handbook to assist in teaching the 4 components of emergent literacy to their preschool children––oral language...
The ability to process and identify visual words requires efficient orthographic processing of print, consisting of letters in alphabetic languages or characters in Chinese. The N170 is a robust neural marker for orthographic processes. Both genetic and environmental factors, such as home literacy, have been shown to influence orthographic processing at the behavioral level, but their relative contributions and interactions are not well understood. The present study aimed to reveal possible gene-by-environment interactions on orthographic processing at the behavioral and neural level in a normal children sample. Sixty 12 year old Chinese children from a 10-year longitudinal sample underwent an implicit visual-word color decision task on real words and stroke combinations. The ERP analysis focused on the increase of the occipito-temporal N170 to words compared to stroke combinations. The genetic analysis focused on two SNPs (rs1419228, rs1091047) in the gene DCDC2 based on previous findings linking these 2 SNPs to orthographic coding. Home literacy was measured previously as the number of children's books at home, when the children were at the age of 3. Relative to stroke combinations, real words evoked greater N170 in bilateral posterior brain regions. A significant interaction between rs1091047 and home literacy was observed on the changes of N170 comparing real words to stroke combinations in the left hemisphere. Particularly...