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Analysis of serial measurements in medical research.

Matthews, J N; Altman, D G; Campbell, M J; Royston, P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/01/1990 Português
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In medical research data are often collected serially on subjects. The statistical analysis of such data is often inadequate in two ways: it may fail to settle clinically relevant questions and it may be statistically invalid. A commonly used method which compares groups at a series of time points, possibly with t tests, is flawed on both counts. There may, however, be a remedy, which takes the form of a two stage method that uses summary measures. In the first stage a suitable summary of the response in an individual, such as a rate of change or an area under a curve, is identified and calculated for each subject. In the second stage these summary measures are analysed by simple statistical techniques as though they were raw data. The method is statistically valid and likely to be more relevant to the study questions. If this method is borne in mind when the experiment is being planned it should promote studies with enough subjects and sufficient observations at critical times to enable useful conclusions to be drawn. Use of summary measures to analyse serial measurements, though not new, is potentially a useful and simple tool in medical research.

Additional Support for Simple Imputation of Missing Quality of Life Data in Nursing Research

Hopman, Wilma M.; Harrison, Margaret B.; Carley, Meg; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth G.
Fonte: International Scholarly Research Network Publicador: International Scholarly Research Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background. Missing data are a significant problem in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research. We evaluated two imputation approaches: missing data estimation (MDE) and assignment of mean score (AMS). Methods. HRQOL data were collected using the Medical Outcomes Trust SF-12. Missing data were estimated using both approaches, summary statistics were produced for both, and results were compared using intraclass correlations (ICC). Results. Missing data were imputed for 21 participants. Mean values were similar, with ICC >.99 within both the Physical Component Summary and the Mental Component Summary when comparing the two methodologies. When imputed data were added into the full study sample, mean scores were identical regardless of methodology. Conclusion. Results support the use of a practical and simple imputation strategy of replacing missing values with the mean of the sample in cross-sectional studies when less than half of the required items of the SF-12 components are missing.

Project Evolution, Activities and Research Summary

Harbour, Malcolm
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 3556208 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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46.424673%
Project Evolution, Activities and Research Summary; Presented at the IMVP Annual Sponsors Meeting, June 1995

Research in Computer Science and Computer Engineering

Feldman, J. A. ; Merriam, C. W.
Fonte: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department. Publicador: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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This report describes many of the computer related research efforts at the University of Rochester. The Department of Computer Science is involved in research in automatic programming, including very high level languages and data structures; machine perception; and in problem solving using combinations of traditional heuristic methods, artificial intelligence, and utility theory. The research of the Department of Electrical Engineering includes basic computer engineering research in the construction of computer systems and operating systems, research in image processing and in numerical methods, and research in production automation which is concerned with mechanical manufacturing and assembly, and is currently developing mathematical models of parts, raw materials and tools. In conjunction with other departments, Electrical Engineering is also using computers for biomedical applications including ultrasound diagnostic techniques for heart disease, and pattern recognition techniques for detection of cancer from PAP smears.

Research in Computer Science and Computer Engineering

Feldman, J. A. ; Merriam, C. W.
Fonte: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department. Publicador: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.271157%
This report describes many of the computer related research efforts at the University of Rochester. The Department of Computer Science is involved in research in automatic programming, including very high level languages and data structures; machine perception; and in problem solving using combinations of traditional heuristic methods, artificial intelligence, and utility theory. The research of the Department of Electrical Engineering includes basic computer engineering research in the construction of computer systems and operating systems, research in image processing and in numerical methods, and research in production automation which is concerned with mechanical manufacturing and assembly, and is currently developing mathematical models of parts, raw materials and tools. In conjunction with other departments, Electrical Engineering is also using computers for biomedical applications including ultrasound diagnostic techniques for heart disease, and pattern recognition techniques for detection of cancer from PAP smears.

Research in Computer Science and Computer Engineering

Feldman, J. A. ; Merriam, C. W.
Fonte: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department. Publicador: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.271157%
This report describes many of the computer related research efforts at the University of Rochester. The Department of Computer Science is involved in research in automatic programming, including very high level languages and data structures; machine perception; and in problem solving using combinations of traditional heuristic methods, artificial intelligence, and utility theory. The research of the Department of Electrical Engineering includes basic computer engineering research in the construction of computer systems and operating systems, research in image processing and in numerical methods, and research in production automation which is concerned with mechanical manufacturing and assembly, and is currently developing mathematical models of parts, raw materials and tools. In conjunction with other departments, Electrical Engineering is also using computers for biomedical applications including ultrasound diagnostic techniques for heart disease, and pattern recognition techniques for detection of cancer from PAP smears.

Department of Operations Research

Eagle, James
Fonte: Monterey, California, Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California, Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Livro
Português
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46.214336%
Summary of activities and publications of the Department of Operations Research 2004/2005.

Summary of Research 1995, Department of Operations Research

Faculty of the Department of Operations Research, Naval Postgraduate School
Fonte: Office of the Associate Provost and Dean of Research, Naval Postgraduate School. Publicador: Office of the Associate Provost and Dean of Research, Naval Postgraduate School.
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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56.271157%
The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government.; This report contains 40 summaries of research projects in the Department of Operations Research which were carried out under funding of the Naval Postgraduate School Research Program. A list of recent publications is also included which consists of conference presentations and publications, books, contributions to books, published journal papers, and technical reports.

Summary of Research 1996, Department of Operations Research

Faculty of the Department of Operations Research, Naval Postgraduate School
Fonte: Office of the Associate Provost and Dean of Research, Naval Postgraduate School. Publicador: Office of the Associate Provost and Dean of Research, Naval Postgraduate School.
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26215%
The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government.; This report contains summaries of research projects in the Department of Operations Research. A list of recent publications is also included which consists of conference presentations and publications, books, contributions to books, published journal papers, technical reports, and thesis abstracts.

Summary of Research 1998, Department of Operations Research

Faculty of the Department of Operations Research, Naval Postgraduate School
Fonte: Office of the Associate Provost and Dean of Research, Naval Postgraduate School. Publicador: Office of the Associate Provost and Dean of Research, Naval Postgraduate School.
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26215%
The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government.; This report contains summaries of research projects in the Department of Operations Research. A list of recent publications is also included which consists of conference presentations and publications, books, contributions to books, published journal papers, technical reports, and thesis abstracts.

Summary of Research 2000, Department of Operations Research

Faculty of the Department of Operations Research, Naval Postgraduate School
Fonte: Office of the Associate Provost and Dean of Research, Naval Postgraduate School. Publicador: Office of the Associate Provost and Dean of Research, Naval Postgraduate School.
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26215%
The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or U.S. Government.; This report contains project summaries of the research projects in the Department of Operations Research. A list of recent publications is also included, which consists of conference presentations and publications, books, contributions to books, published journal papers, and technical reports. Thesis abstracts of students advised by faculty in the Department are also included.

Summary of Research 2001, Department of Operations Research

Faculty of the Department of Operations Research, Naval Postgraduate School
Fonte: Office of the Associate Provost and Dean of Research, Naval Postgraduate School. Publicador: Office of the Associate Provost and Dean of Research, Naval Postgraduate School.
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26215%
The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or U.S. Government.; This report contains project summaries of the research projects in the Department of Operations Research. A list of recent publications is also included, which consists of conference presentations and publications, books, contributions to books, published journal papers, and technical reports. Thesis abstracts of students advised by faculty in the Department are also included.

Summary of Research 1997, Department of Operations Research

Faculty of the Department of Operations Research, Naval Postgraduate School
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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46.25064%
The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government.; This report contains summaries of research projects in the Department of Operations Research. A list of recent publications is also included which consists of conference presentations and publications, books, contributions to books, published journal papers, technical reports, and thesis abstracts.

Research in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (1983-1984)

Powers, John P.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 47 p.
Português
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This report provides a snapshot of some of the research that was done at in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering during Fiscal Year 1984 (1 October 1983-30 September 1984). The purpose of the report is to introduce the reader to the types of research performed by the Faculty and students, to provide specific information about the projects, and to indicate the breadth of the research effort. The report also contains information on the publications of the faculty and the student theses produced in association with the School's research program. Further information about specific projects or copies of the publications are available from the individual faculty investigators. The mail address of the department is: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Code 62 Naval Postgraduate School Monterey California 93943 The department telephone number is (408) 646-2081 (or for AUTOVON users 878-2081). I hope that you find this report interesting and informative. - John P. Powers, Associate Chairman, President; Prepared for: Chairman, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering; http://archive.org/details/researchindepart43powe

Engaged Research and Scholarship PPt Presentation - 9/18/2014 (Summary Report to the Provost - Engagement Academy included)

Howard, Ann; Engaged Research and Scholarship Working Group
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
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Engaged Research and Scholarship PPt Presentation for 9/18/2014

A Brief Summary of Search and Rescue Literature: A Report to COT Netherlands

Trainor, Joseph; Aguirre, Benigno E.; McNeil, Sue
Fonte: Disaster Research Center Publicador: Disaster Research Center
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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The accumulated of research on search and rescue (SAR) allows us to identify repeating patterns that should be considered in the development of an effective plan for national emergency response: (1) SAR is not simply an organizational activity, it necessarily includes the social and collective behavior of volunteers; (2) Preexisting and emergent organizations, social statuses and social identities, such as neighborhood and work place relationships and family and neighborhood social identities, serve as a basis for the emergence of new SAR groups and constitute the fundamental concepts and categories that are needed to understand and improve SAR activities; (3) SAR activities do not emerge from a vacuum; as an example of the principle of continuity advocated by Quarantelli and Dynes (1977), there are always elements of the traditional social structure embedded within collective behavior entities, and their emergent division of labor, role structure, and activities are also dependent on prior social relationships and forms of social organization in the community or region; (4) Breakdown models of social organizational patterns in disaster are not useful to understand SAR. Television reports and misinformed reporters often misinterpret throngs of people moving seemingly at random at the sites destroyed by various hazards...

A Brief Summary of Social Science Warning and Response Literature: A Report to COT Netherlands

Trainor, Joseph; McNeil, Sue
Fonte: Disaster Research Center Publicador: Disaster Research Center
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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For more than five decades, researchers have explored the dynamics of warnings and warning response in the disaster context. This report is intended to briefly summarize findings related to this topic. The ultimate goal is to provide a basic understanding of how social science research related to warnings and evacuations might inform policy makers and emergency managers. Before we begin discussing the details of warning messages, the first and most important issue for readers to note is that the decision making processes of most evacuees and even non-evacuees are rational and calculated. Contrary to media depictions and other’s perceptions of the public that suggest animal-like, irrational, or antisocial behavior it is important that we begin this discussion knowing that people typically “rise to the occasion” during disasters. Although it would be wrong to suggest that people never make irrational decisions it is important that we begin this summary by recognizing that when we look at the broad patterns of human behavior documented through scientific/empirical studies, people who are experiencing a disaster far more often than not act in very rational and predictable ways. This finding above all others holds true in social science research. It is important to recognize this truth because it allows policy makers and emergency managers to move beyond the notion that the problem with warning and response is “getting people to be rational and do what we say” and instead allows us to move towards understanding “how can we change our approach so that it takes into account how people process warning information. While the difference may seem subtle...

The Disaster Research Center: Its History and Activities

Quarantelli, E. L.; Dynes, R. R.; Wenger, D. E.
Fonte: Disaster Research Center Publicador: Disaster Research Center
Tipo: Outros Formato: 956901 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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The Disaster Research Center (DRC) is frequently asked questions about its origin and history, its research activities and operations, its services and publications, its ongoing work, etc. This document attempts to answer the major questions typically asked. Part I primarily presents background material on the Center's research objectives,its field procedures and operations, its training and service functions, and its publication outputs and funding sources. Part II, where the last Annual Report of DRC is reproduced, gives a summary picture of the very recent activities of the Center. Part III consists of a brief statement on the current work of DRC.

The NORC Research on the Arkansas Tornado: A Fountainhead Study

Quarantelli, E. L.
Fonte: Research Committee on Disasters, International Sociological Association Publicador: Research Committee on Disasters, International Sociological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In this review and analysis of the research effort in the disaster area by NORC [National Opinion Research Center] we shall present: (1) the general background of the work; (2)the nature of the field research undertaken; (3) a selective summary of the substantive focus and findings from the largest single field study within the NORC work, namely on the Arkansas tornado; (4) a brief overall assessment of the research done, and (5) some of the important consequences of what NORC did in the disaster area.

Disaster Related Social Behavior: Summary of 50 Years of Research Findings

Quarantelli, E. L.
Fonte: Disaster Research Center Publicador: Disaster Research Center
Tipo: Outros Formato: 57983 bytes; application/pdf
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This paper summarizes much although not all of what is known about overall disaster related social behavior. Drawing from a base of 50 years of social science research involving thousands of studies, we note the typical patterns of behavior at the individual, organizational, community and mass media levels. The last is a surrogate for reactions at the societal level. To avoid interminable and specific documentation, readers are presented a large bibliography at the end of this paper that lists the major research literature examined for the purpose of this essay. Most disasters impact a community. However, there are non-community types of disasters, e.g., a plane crash in an isolated rural area. This affects behavioral responses (e.g., crash survivors do not receive the social support that emerges in a community when residents have undergone a common disaster experience). The 20 general observations below around which we organize our comments, are mostly about community disasters. This is the paper written as background for the oral remarks to be made at the 8Th International Symposium on Natural and Technological Hazards: Hazards 2000 to be held in Tokushima, Shikoku, Japan, May 21-25, 2000.