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Impact Evaluation of Trade Interventions : Paving the Way

Cadot, Olivier; Fernandes, Ana M.; Gourdon, Julien; Mattoo, Aaditya
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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The focus of trade policy has shifted in recent years from economy-wide reductions in tariffs and trade restrictions toward targeted interventions to facilitate trade and promote exports. Most of these latter interventions are based on the new mantra of "aid-for-trade" rather than on hard evidence on what works and what does not. On the one hand, rigorous impact-evaluation is needed to justify these interventions and to improve their design. On the other hand, rigorous evaluation is feasible because unlike traditional trade policy, these interventions tend to be targeted and so it is possible to construct treatment and control groups. When interventions are not targeted, such as in the case of customs reforms, some techniques, such as randomized control trials, may not be feasible but meaningful evaluation may still be possible. Theis paper discusses examples of impact evaluations using a range of methods (experimental and non-experimental), highlighting the particular issues and caveats arising in a trade context...

The Economy-wide Effects of Further Trade Reforms in Tunisia’s Services Sectors

Dee, Philippa; Diop, Ndiame
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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The purpose of this paper is to benchmark Tunisia against other emerging economies in terms of the regulatory barriers affecting particular services sectors, and to assess the economy-wide effects of further liberalizing these services trade restrictions, compared with reducing the dispersion in barriers to its merchandise trade. On the basis of a rather restricted sample of services sectors, partial regulatory reform would yield gains roughly equivalent to full unilateral reform of manufacturing tariffs, but roughly one-tenth the gains from full bilateral reform of border protection in agriculture with the European Union. The adjustment costs associated with these services trade reforms would be minimal. The paper identifies the reasons why the gains from these services reforms are relatively small, and argues that a wider set of reforms could provide win-win outcomes and even fewer adjustment costs. By contrast, the gains in agriculture and manufacturing tend to come at the expense of domestic output in the reforming sectors -- the gains are greater...

Trade and Regional Inequality

Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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This paper examines the relationship between openness and within-country regional inequality across 28 countries over the period 1975-2005, paying special attention to whether increases in global trade affect the developed and developing world differently. Using a combination of static and dynamic panel data analysis, we find that while increases in trade per se do not lead to greater territorial polarization, in combination with certain country-specific conditions, trade has a positive and significant association with regional inequality. In particular, states with higher inter-regional differences in sector endowments, a lower share of government expenditure, and a combination of high internal transaction costs with a higher degree of coincidence between the regional income distribution and regional foreign market access positions have experienced the greatest rise in territorial inequality when exposed to greater trade flows. This means that changes in trade regimes have had a more polarizing effect in low and middle-income countries...

Structure and Performance of the Services Sector in Transition Economies

Fernandes, Ana M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper examines the structure and performance of the services sector in Eastern European and Central Asian countries during 1997-2004. Services represent an increasing share of total value added and employment with the major sub-sectors being wholesale trade, retail trade, inland transport, telecommunications, and real estate activities. A clear divide separates EU-5 countries from South Eastern European countries and Ukraine in terms of services labor productivity. Although a large gap in productivity also separates EU-8 countries from EU-15 countries, that gap was reduced from 1997 to 2004 as most services sub-sectors experienced fast productivity growth. High skill intensive sub-sectors and information and communications technology producers and users have exhibited higher productivity levels and growth rates relative to other sub-sectors since 2000. The author finds a positive effect of services liberalization on the productivity growth of services sub-sectors. The author also finds a positive and significant effect of services liberalization in both finance and infrastructure on the productivity of downstream manufacturing.

Moving Forward Faster : Trade Facilitation Reform and Mexican Competitiveness

Soloaga, Isidro; Wilson, John S.; Mejía, Alejandro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Improved competitiveness is at the top of the agenda for Mexico as it moves to leverage economic progress made over the past decade. The authors evaluate the impact of changes in trade facilitation measures on trade for main industrial sectors in Mexico. They use four indicators of trade facilitation: port efficiency, customs environment, regulatory environment, and e-commerce use by business (as a proxy for service sector infrastructure). The authors use gravity model results to consider how much trade among countries might be increased under various scenarios of improved trade facilitation. They follow a simulation strategy that uses a formula to design a unique program of reform for each country in the sample, and apply it to the case of Mexico. The formula brings the below-average countries in the group half-way to the average for the entire set of countries. After simulating these improvements in trade facilitation in all four areas, the authors find that the total increase in trade flow in manufacturing goods is estimated to be $348.2 billion (about 7.4 percent of total world trade). The analysis indicates that Mexico has a large scope for trade promotion from trade facilitation reform: overall increments from domestic reforms are expected to be on the order of $31.8 billion...

Regulation, Trade and Productivity in Romania : An Empirical Assessment

De Rosa, Donato; Iootty, Mariana; Pirlea, Ana Florina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Inappropriate regulation can influence productivity performance by affecting incentives to invest and adopt new technologies, as well as by directly curbing competitive pressures. Results of a labor productivity growth model for European countries suggest that improving the regulatory environment -- proxied by the Worldwide Governance Indicators regulatory quality indicator -- and boosting effective exposure to competition through increasing trade integration -- expressed as the ratio of exports plus imports to gross domestic product -- have positive effects on productivity growth. In Romania a 10 percent increase in openness to global trade over 1995-2010 would have boosted productivity growth by 9.7 percent per year. A 10 percent increase in openness to European Union trade, in particular, would have led to an annual increase in productivity of 7 percent. Realizing the benefits from trade integration depends to some extent on regulation. In this regard, the effects of regulation on productivity growth are found to be positive...

Trade Facilitation and Economic Development : New Approach to Quantifying the Impact

Wilson, John S.; Mann, Catherine L.; Otsuki, Tsunehiro
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This article analyzes the relationship between trade facilitation and trade flows in the Asia Pacific region. Country specific data for port efficiency, customs environment, regulatory environment, and e-business usage are used to construct indicators for measuring trade facilitation. The relationship between these indicators and trade flows is estimated using a gravity model that includes tariffs and other standard variables. Enhanced port efficiency has a large and positive effect on trade flows. Regulatory barriers deter trade. Improvements in customs and greater e-business use significantly expand trade but to a lesser degree than improvements in ports or regulations. The benefits of specific trade facilitation efforts are estimated by quantifying differential improvements in these four areas among members of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). A scenario in which APEC members with below-average indicators improve capacity halfway to the average forall members shows that intra-APEC trade could increase by Dollar 254 billion...

Best Environmental Management Practice in the Retail Trade Sector

SCHOENBERGER Harald; GALVEZ MARTOS Jose Luis; STYLES David
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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Retailers have a large potential to reduce their environmental impacts and many are already implementing effective actions. This document describes what are the best practices implemented by frontrunner retailers in all aspects under their direct control or on which they have a considerable influence. They cover the energy performance of retailers, the sustainability of retail supply chains, transport and logistics, waste and other areas including engaging with consumers. The document also contains sector-specific environmental performance indicators and benchmarks of excellence. These can be used by retailers to monitor their environmental performance and to benchmark it against the performance of frontrunner retailers in each given specific area. Overall, this document aims at supporting all actors in the retail trade sector who intend to improve their environmental performance and seek for reliable and proven information on how best to do it.; JRC.J.5-Sustainable Production and Consumption

A Theory of Commerce

Faig, Miquel; Jerez, Belén
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: application/pdf; text/plain
Publicado em //2005 Português
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The theory of commerce advanced here captures prominent features of retail trade: large employment, congestion effects, anonymous posted prices, and quantity discounts. This theory is built around a directed search model where buyers’ preferences are private information. The analytical solution is easily inserted in a Neoclassical growth framework. In this framework, the parameters of retail trade are calibrated using commercial margins and employment. Welfare properties depend on the sellers’ ability to charge two-tier prices. With two-tier prices, the directed search equilibrium is efficient. Otherwise, it is not. This contrasts with the full information benchmark, where directed search is always efficient.; Financial support from SSHRC of Canada (Grant 410010028) and DGCYT of Spain (projects BEC2002-00642,BEC2000-01 72 and HI2001-0039) is gratefully acknowledged.

Bourke's ACTU store

Fonte: Reproduced from ACTU Youth, 1972, p. 31 Publicador: Reproduced from ACTU Youth, 1972, p. 31
Formato: 6cm x 13cm; document; b&w
Português
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The establishment of Bourke's Store as a trade union-backed enterprise, in 1971, resulted in a lower retail price structure for Melbourne.

Trade Facilitation and Economic Development : Measuring the Impact

Wilson, John S.; Mann, Catherine L.; Otsuki, Tsunehiro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The authors analyze the relationship between trade facilitation, trade flows, and GDP per capita in the Asia-Pacific region for the goods sector. They define and measure trade facilitation using four broad indicators. These are constructed using country-specific data for port efficiency, customs environment, regulatory environment, and electronic-business usage. They estimate the relationship between these indicators and trade flows using a gravity model. The model includes tariffs and other standard variables. The authors find that enhanced port efficiency has a large and positive effect on trade. Regulatory barriers deter trade. The results also suggest that improvements in customs and greater electronic-business use significantly expands trade, but to a lesser degree than the effect of ports or regulations. The authors then estimate the benefits of specific trade facilitation efforts by quantifying differential improvement by members of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in these four areas. Based on a scenario in which APEC members below average improve capacity halfway to the average for all members...

Afghanistan Diagnostics Trade Integration Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Foreign Trade, FDI, and Capital Flows Study; Economic & Sector Work
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Trade enables countries to import ideas and technologies, realize comparative advantages and economies of scale, and foster competition and innovation, which in turn increases productivity and achieves higher sustainable employment and economic growth. Countries open to international trade tend to provide more opportunities to their people, and grow faster. Afghanistan could derive far more benefit from its international trade opportunities than it does at present. This Diagnostics Trade Integration Study (DTIS) report is intended to identify concrete policy actions in three areas of endeavor: lowering the transaction costs of trade, increasing Afghanistan's competitiveness in world markets, and providing an analytical foundation for Afghanistan's national trade strategy. The study examines how to do this, looking not only at trade performance and policy, but also at three sectors with great export potential: agriculture, gemstones and carpets, as well as the investment climate, customs as a driver of trade facilitation...

Where to Spend the Next Million? Applying Impact Evaluation to Trade Assistance

Cadot, Olivier; Fernandes, Ana M.; Gourdon, Julien; Mattoo, Aaditya
Fonte: London: Centre for Economic Policy Research and the World Bank Publicador: London: Centre for Economic Policy Research and the World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
Português
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Trade policy has changed fundamentally since the days of structural adjustment and economy-wide trade reforms. Partly in reaction to the uneven results of trade policy reforms, the focus has shifted to more targeted interventions aimed at reducing trade costs and addressing market failures that inhibit exports. Significant national resources and international assistance are now devoted to trade facilitation and export promotion, and the international development community has galvanized around a new 'aid-for-trade' (AfT) mantra as a means of helping low-income countries integrate into the global economy. The rest of this chapter is organized as follows: in section two the report discusses the changing nature of trade policy. In section three the report reviews the available evidence on the impact of trade assistance. In section four the report considers a detailed menu of trade-related interventions and discusses the challenges to their evaluation. In section five the report addresses the data issues crucial to impact evaluation. Finally, in section six the report look at the future challenges to doing Independent Evaluation (IE) in trade assistance.

Bazaars and Trade Integration in CAREC Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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This paper based on survey work as well as an examination of trade statistics is the first to have studied the economic and trade effects of bazaars in central Asia in a detailed way. It presents a wealth of information and statistics relating to critical income generating activities and seeks to uncover the vital role played by bazaars in supporting economic growth. The analysis conducted in this work is of policy interest: rather than treating bazaars as unorganized and undesirable features of a modern market economy, national authorities should foster the development of bazaars in view of the growth, employment-generation and poverty-fighting characteristics of the operations of bazaars. Indeed, without well-functioning bazaars, the cost of trade would be considerably greater, the prices of goods higher and availability more restricted, trade volumes considerably lower, and the powerful welfare-raising effects from re-exports (in which bazaars play a critical role) as well as trade itself would be greatly muted. The populations would be much the poorer. The remainder of this report is organized as follows: section one provides birds' eye-view of networks of bazaars: their structure and weight in local economies as well as their involvement in domestic and foreign trade activities. Section two provides estimates of trade mediated by bazaars based on both mirror...

Regional Integration in South Asia : What Role for Trade Facilitation?

Wilson, John S.; Otsuki, Tsunehiro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The trade performance of countries in South Asia over the past two decades has been poor relative to other regions. Exports from South Asia have doubled over the past 20 years to approximately USD 100 billion. In contrast, East Asia's exports grew ten times over the same period. The low level of intraregional trade has contributed to weak export performance in South Asia. The empirical analysis in this paper demonstrates gains to trade in the region from reform and capacity building in trade facilitation at the regional level. When considering intraregional trade, if countries in South Asia raise capacity halfway to East Asia's average, trade is estimated to rise by USD 2.6 billion. This is approximately 60 percent of the total intraregional trade in South Asia. Countries in the region also have a stake in the success of efforts to promote capacity building outside its borders. If South Asia and the rest of the world were to raise their levels of trade facilitation halfway to the East Asian average...

Assessing the Potential Benefit of Trade Facilitation: A Global Perspective

Wilson, John S.; Mann, Catherine L.; Otsuki, Tsunehiro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The relationships between trade facilitation, trade flows, and capacity building are complex and challenging to assess, both empirically and in implementation. The authors measure and estimate the relationship between trade facilitation and trade flows across 75 countries in global trade, considering four important categories: port efficiency, customs environment, regulatory environment, and service sector infrastructure. A gravity model is employed that accounts for bilateral trade flows in manufactured goods in 2000-01 between the 75 countries, using traditional factors such as GDP, distance, language, and trade areas, and is augmented by the trade facilitation measures in the four categories for each country. The results suggest that both imports and exports for a country and for the world will increase with improvements in these trade facilitation measures. Potential gains from trade facilitation reforms are predicted by using the estimated parameters. The gains from trade facilitation are presented by comparing the gains across geographical regions and trade facilitation categories...

A dinâmica territorial do comércio varejista moderno da Zona Norte de Natal/RN

Paula, Joseara Lima de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia; Dinâmica e Reestruturação do Território Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia; Dinâmica e Reestruturação do Território
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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This work studies the territorial dynamics of the trade modern retailer in the North Zone of Natal/RN, undertaken by the expansion of that following of the tertiary section in the researched space. For so much, we accomplished bibliographical and documental research during whole the process of construction of the work and the field research based close to in interviews the responsible for the establishments of the modern retail and application of questionnaires with the residents and consumers of the area in subject. Leaving of the understanding that the territory is used by the society producing the movement of capitalist reproduction in the places, we inferred that the expansion of the modern retail in the North Zone has been promoting a new dynamics in your territory, fact that has been valuing the space and attracted investors to the place. Therefore, we organized the study in this dissertation in three chapters: the first, "North Zone: use and occupation of the soil ", brings us the process of historical and social formation of the North Zone inserted in the context of the urban expansion of Natal; the second chapter, " Expansion of the tertiary section: the growth of the modern retail trade in the North Zone", makes direct reference to the tertiary section and the expansion of the I trade modern retailer; and finally...

Clustering or scattering: the underlying reason for regulating distance among retail outlets

Borrell, Joan-Ramon; Fernández Villadangos, Laura
Fonte: Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP) Publicador: Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP)
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Concerns on the clustering of retail industries and professional services in main streets had traditionally been the public interest rationale for supporting distance regulations. Although many geographic restrictions have been suppressed, deregulation has hinged mostly upon the theory results on the natural tendency of outlets to differentiate spatially. Empirical evidence has so far offered mixed results. Using the case of deregulation of pharmacy establishment in a region of Spain, we empirically show how pharmacy locations scatter, and that there is not rationale for distance regulation apart from the underlying private interest of very few incumbents.

Structural Transformation and Productivity Growth in Africa; Uganda in the 2000s

Ahmed, Sabin; Mengistae, Taye; Yoshino, Yutaka; Zeufack, Albert G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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Uganda’s economy underwent significant structural change in the 2000s whereby the share of non-tradable services in aggregate employment rose by about 7 percentage points at the expense of the production of tradable goods. The process also involved a 12-percentage-point shift in employment away from small and medium enterprises and larger firms in manufacturing and commercial agriculture mainly to microenterprises in retail trade. In addition, the sectoral reallocation of labor on these two dimensions coincided with significant growth in aggregate labor productivity. However, in and of itself, the same reallocation could only have held back, rather than aid, the observed productivity gains. This was because labor was more productive throughout the period in the tradable goods sector than in the non-tradable sector. Moreover, the effect on aggregate labor productivity of the reallocation of employment between the two sectors could only have been reinforced by the impacts on the same of the rise in the employment share of microenterprises. The effect was also strengthened by a parallel employment shift across the age distribution of enterprises that raised sharply the employment share of established firms at the expense of younger ones and startups. Not only was labor consistently less productive in microenterprises than in small and medium enterprises and larger enterprises across all industries throughout the period...

EVALUATION OF FRESH FRUIT AND VEGETABLES LOSSES AT THE RETAIL TRADE IN MINEIROS-GO MARKET; AVALIAÇÃO DAS PERDAS DE FRUTAS E HORTALIÇAS NO MERCADO VAREJISTA DE MINEIROS-GO: UM ESTUDO DE CASO

TOFANELLI, Mauro Brasil Dias; FIMES; FERNANDES, Marilaine de Sá; FIMES; MARTINS FILHO, Oscar Barbosa; FIMES; CARRIJO, Núbia Sousa; FIMES
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/07/2009 Português
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The objective of this work was to evaluate losses of fruits and vegetables on the market of the Mineiros city (Goiás State, Brazil), as well as its causes. The research was done at different retail equipments (supermarkets, groceries stores and street market) by questionnaire application from December 2005 to January 2006. The results showed week total losses of 2.9% for fruits and vegetables. Supermarkets and groceries stores losses (2.1% and 4.0%, respectively) were lower than the street market ones (15.9%). Peach (50.0%), plum (14.7%), summer squash (9.0%), papaya fruit (7.2%), nectarine (7.1%), tomato (6.2%), pineapple (6.0%) and banana (5.2%) showed medium to high rates of losses over the total volume commercialized at the different markets. The results showed that inadequate storage are the main causes of fruit and vegetable losses in the Mineiros retail trade. Although there are low losses of fruit and vegetables on the Mineiros market improvement could be done to adequate handling system and postharvest facilities to reduce that losses.; O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar levantamento das principais perdas de frutas e hortaliças frescas no mercado varejista do município de Mineiros-GO, bem como dos fatores que as provocam. O trabalho de pesquisa foi executado mediante visitação aos equipamentos varejistas (supermercados...