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Parasites in the neighbourhood: Interactions of the mistletoe Phoradendron affine (Viscaceae) with its dispersers and hosts in urban areas of Brazil

Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Mendes-Rodrigues, Clesnan; Alves-Silva, Estevao; Cunha, Amanda Ferreira
Fonte: ELSEVIER GMBH, URBAN & FISCHER VERLAG; JENA Publicador: ELSEVIER GMBH, URBAN & FISCHER VERLAG; JENA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Mistletoes constitute an important food resource for animals in many ecosystems. However, these plants are considered pests in urban areas because of deleterious effects they have on the host trees. Studies in urban areas were mostly focused on listing host species or procedures to control the "pest". In this sense, broader studies including several aspects of mistletoes ecology in urban ecosystems are still missing. We studied the interaction of the mistletoe, Phoradendron affine, with its dispersers and hosts in two urban sites in Uberlandia, Brazil. Phoradendron affine fruits were consumed almost exclusively by Euphonia chlorotica, which was crucial for seed germination. Parasitism was recorded in five hosts, two native (Handroanthus chrysotrichus and Tabebuia roseoalba) and three exotic species (Spathodea campanulata, Ligustrum lucidum and Melia azedarach). Mistletoes were found parasitizing larger host trees, a trend commonly reported for mistletoe-host interaction. Mistletoe seed germination was not affected by the trees species, whether host or non-host, but the radicle of germinated seeds could not penetrate the bark and seedlings invariably died in non-host species. We found a high prevalence of parasitism in our study, in comparison to what previous studies reported for natural areas. The spatial distribution of the hosts and high light incidence on isolated host trees may lead to this high prevalence in urban areas. Rather than eradicated...

City knowledge : an emergent information infrastructure for sustainable urban maintenance, management and planning

Carrera, Fabio, 1961-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 256 leaves; 20713680 bytes; 20747615 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) updates. It produces plan-ready information, by exploiting the self-serving and opportunistic pursuit of instant return-on-investment by frontline offices. Thanks to its emergent qualities, City Knowledge engenders unexpected plan-demanding situations, where the ability to conduct second-order analyses leads to deeper knowledge of our cities. In the end, this dissertation proposes a paradigmatic shift by recommending that information be considered as a bonafide infrastructure and be consequently treated with the same attention that cities reserve to other infrastructures such as utilities and roads. It proposes that communicative planners become catalysts of this transformation away from the "hunting-and- gathering" of urban data and toward the "farming" of municipal information.; Recent advances in geo-spatial technologies, together with a steady decline in their cost, have inspired many spontaneous bottom-up municipal GIS initiatives aimed at improving many aspects of urban maintenance, management or planning. Some communities have institutionalized top-down citywide urban information systems with limited results, due to many organizational and institutional factors. Despite some encouraging progress, comprehensive urban information systems are still not commonplace and planners and decision makers still struggle to acquire the rich information that they need to conduct in-depth analyses and to make important decisions. This dissertation suggests a plausible strategy and several practical tactical solutions to set municipalities on a trajectory leading to City Knowledge. The concept of City Knowledge is introduced by first presenting numerous case studies ranging from the maintenance of the canals in Venice...

The urban economic development impacts of ethnic entrepreneurship : a case study of Dominican entrepreneurs in Lawrence, Massachusetts

Cheigh, Brian Chaneung
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 114 p.; 8860147 bytes; 8867419 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis examines the process through which ethnic entrepreneurship impacts urban economic development. In many urban places across the United States, demographic change has led to the rise of ethnic communities and the rise of ethnic entrepreneurs. In cities with sustained economic decline, the rise of ethnic entrepreneurship has been viewed with two perspectives: they are seen as symbols of continued economic decline or they are perceived as the new source of economic opportunity. Economic development practice has generally assumed the former, and in this thesis I focus on how ethnic entrepreneurship represents the latter. The thesis thus provides a strong criticism of contemporary economic development practice, and presents the case that economic development practice must embrace the role that ethnic entrepreneurship and the process of ethnic community formation plays in urban economic development. I present my arguments by first establishing a series of conceptual frameworks that show the ways in which ethnic entrepreneurship and the process of ethnic community formation influence economic activity and lead to urban economic development. I then apply the conceptual framework to a case study of Dominican entrepreneurs in the city of Lawrence...

Civil society strategies on urban waterways : stewardship, contention, and coalition building

Campbell, Lindsay Kathleen
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 169 p.
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Urban, industrial waterways-with their contamination, environmental injustice, and nebulous development futures given changing economies-present multiple problems that are confronted by environmental civil society organizations. Despite the many problems, these groups view urban waterways as some of the last available open space in the city and as potential public amenities and natural resources that merit revitalization. This work focuses on the means by which citizen groups and nonprofit organizations-which are often in positions of relatively less power and authority vis-h-vis public and private actors-attempt to engage, be heard, and leverage influence over decision-making on and end use of three New York City river resources. Depending on the situation and the groups involved, strategies rooted in conflict or collaboration rise to the fore. Civil society organizations select from "insider" strategies based on cooperation with government, "outsider" strategies that depend upon advocacy and pressure tactics directed towards either government or the private sector, and "independent" strategies like stewardship, education, and environmental monitoring that engage with the resource, regardless of the political and policy context.; (cont.) To understand the selection and efficacy of strategies in general and alliance-building in specific...

The spatial and temporal dynamics of commuting : examining the impacts of urban growth patterns, 1980-2000

Yang, Jiawen, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 218 p.
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The dissertation is broadly concerned with the issues of urban transportation and urban spatial structure change. The focus of the research is to interpret the increase in commuting time and distance in the last two decades. The major hypothesis is that a significant proportion of commuting length increase can be explained by land development patterns, particularly the spatial relationship between workplace and residence. The biggest challenge to address the above problem is to design a method that characterizes job-housing proximity and correlates commuting with job-housing proximity consistently across space, over time and among different regions. A thorough evaluation of existing measures, including ratios of jobs to employed residents, gravity type accessibility and minimum required commuting, shows that all have serious problems. The dissertation presents a new approach - the commuting spectrum - for measuring and interpreting the commuting impacts of metropolitan changes in terms of job-housing distribution. This method is then used to explain commuting in two sizable but contrasting regions, Boston and Atlanta. Journey-to-work data from Census Transportation Planning Packages (CTPP) over three decades (1980, 1990 and 1990) are utilized.; (cont.) Results indicate that the configuration of commuting spectrums mirror the changes in urban spatial structure in terms of job-housing proximity. In addition...

Participation as an end versus a means : understanding a recurring dilemma in urban upgrading

Fallavier, Pierre
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 182 p.
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Since the 1920s, participatory approaches to urban upgrading in developing nations have demonstrated that involving the urban poor in the physical, social, and economic development of their settlements could improve their living conditions. These housing policies and projects have since been central to urban poverty reduction. Yet, while participatory upgrading is still used on a limited scale, it has failed to become a mainstream component of urban development. This dissertation analyzes some reasons for that failure by investigating the trajectory of an urban poverty reduction program that had much potential for success in Cambodia, but whose results yet surprisingly fell short of expectations. It connects the results to a critical analysis of international experience with policies and programs for urban poverty reduction. It explores the issue in two steps: First it analyzes the historical evolution of the policies and practices of urban poverty reduction in developing nations. This highlights the apparently weak link between lessons from experience, international policy recommendations, and the programs actually implemented by governments. Second, it presents a narrative analysis of how a participatory urban poverty reduction policy originated...

Building green infrastructure through urban land conservation : the social and ecological value of dispersed open space in the Boston urban wilds

Kinzer, Kirsten (Kirsten Lee)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 123 p.
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Through an analysis of the thirty-year history of the Boston Urban Wilds, this thesis investigates the ability of distributed urban open spaces to provide social and ecological value to the surrounding community. The capacity of the Urban Wilds to act as system to provide simultaneously ecosystem services, public space and wildlife habitat is examined. The evolving understanding of green infrastructure is used as a lens through which to understand the elements of the Urban Wilds model applicable to other communities. Through this lens, the ability of the Urban Wilds to provide social and ecological value greater than the sum of its individual parts is considered. Reflecting on the tools that have been used to enact Urban Wilds conservation, the tools best suited to preserving the Urban Wilds' social and ecological value are assessed. Drawing from the evolution of the Boston Urban Wilds over the past three decades, this thesis concludes with designation, preservation and stewardship recommendations for other cities and towns considering a similar system of distributed open spaces.; by Kirsten Kinzer.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 118-123).

The sequence of the supreme and mundane : case studies of the Chinese urban order

Huang, Jianxiang, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 88 leaves
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After decades of urbanization and growth, Chinese cities are experiencing rapid renewal and redevelopment. The revolutionary changes in city form are accompanied by not only prosperity and wealth, but also chaotic environment and life. On the one hand, the current international style of urban design, which is largely copied from abroad, applies homogeneous grids and modern buildings without much concerns of the context. On the other hand, the past traditions have been forgotten or frowned upon. It is time for planners and urban designers to reflect on the question: will there be any relevant components from the past tradition which will prove to be valuable for contemporary Chinese cities? In what follows I want to explore an appropriated model of urban design which provides attractive environment and strengthened identities for contemporary Chinese cities. Different from previous approaches, my study focuses on the urban sequence which refers to the ordered configuration in a succession along urban routes. There are five chapters in this thesis. I start with a brief introduction to the definition and categorization of urban order and sequence. Then I looked at the vocabulary of sequence in pre-modern Chinese cities, including walls...

Transit-oriented development and the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail : shaping urban design patterns in northern New Jersey

Aranda, Marlon Patrick
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 148 p.
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This thesis investigates the influence of a new transit system on mature urban environments. The confluence of evolving socio-economic trends, cultural travel behaviors, and existing urban contexts, is changing how cities develop. The added value of convenient transit access provides unique urban design opportunities. Transit-oriented development (TOD) addresses these opportunities through attention to the pedestrian environment, coordinated land uses, and an emphasis on the holistic urban experience. The new Hudson-Bergen Light Rail (HBLR) provides a much needed North-South transit line along the New Jersey's congested Hudson River waterfront. Since NJ Transit announced their commitment to increase regional mobility in the mid-1990s, parcels adjacent to the HBLR stations have experienced unprecedented growth The various urban design and planning strategies address many contemporary issues, such as the role of the automobile in the city, the impact of increased densities, and the marketable pedestrian networks. By looking at the different urban development experiences of three different cities along the light rail, the thesis will illustrate transit-oriented opportunities for urban design and development.; by Marlon Patrick Aranda.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Newfound land : urban highway removal and planning the land it uncovers

Masenten, David J. (David Joel), 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 196 p.; 11787754 bytes; 11787557 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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When the interstate highway system was routed through urban centers during the 1950's and 1960's, few thought these elevated expressways would have a serious detrimental impact on the cities they served. These interstates were designed to bring a new ease to travel between cities. Unhappiness with the system began before much of the Interstate Highway system was complete, when communities were divided, and in some cases obliterated. This pattern of urban destruction can be prominently seen across the North America and around the world. Recently, cities have begun to undo this destruction by removing highways. Several projects, most notably the Central Artery Tunnel Project in Boston, have begun to bring awareness of what has become a new urban revitalization tool. With Boston's completion near, and San Francisco's Embarcadero standing as a successful completed example, cities around the world are beginning to acknowledge the problems elevated highways continue to create today, leading them to plan for their removal. Despite the abundance of projects, none of the municipalities currently undertaking highway removal have used past precedent to guide their design processes. This has occurred because cities see their projects as unique and individual...

Casinos in context : the impacts of stand-alone casino development on urban neighborhoods

Schray, Luke J. (Luke Joseph)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 176 p.
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As the stigma of gambling fades and governments seek more sources of revenue the urban casino is becoming more common. Many of these are legalized to operate with limited competition in their state, standing alone in their respective city. while the general, diffuse impacts of casinos have been well studied, the paucity of casinos in urban settings has left a gap in the understanding of how stand-alone casinos affect their urban context. This thesis seeks to fill this gap by analyzing three of the oldest stand-alone urban casinos in the United States: Harrah's Casino in Joliet, Harrah's Casino in New Orleans, and Greektown Casino in Detroit. The thesis analyzes the impact of each of these casinos through the lens of five categories of impact: urban design of the neighborhood, city investment, real estate development, street-level commerce, and the residential community. The resulting analysis finds that casinos tend to be insular entities that do not impact much outside their own footprint. Their greatest potential for external impacts is an ability to act as an anchor for street-level commerce in a neighborhood if designed properly, a trend that has been observed for some time in resort communities with fake interior streets. The essay concludes with recommendations on how a city might engender a similar phenomenon.; by Luke J. Schray.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Rediscovering the River Bièvre : the feasibility of restoring ecological functions in an urban stream

Simpson, Jacob T., 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 100 p.; 7149567 bytes; 7161325 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The Bièvre's 36-kilometer course stretches from the southwest of Paris near Satin-Quentin-en- Yvelines through numerous towns before disappearing into the urban hydraulic network upon its approach to Paris's dense urban core. Recent plans to restore the stream and uncover its buried sections outside of the core have lead to current plans to reintroduce the stream within Paris proper. Analysis of the environmental history and recent restoration efforts leading up to current plans helps to understand the motivation for such an impressive project. Despite the omnipresence of stream restoration practice in the world today, very few projects are comparable in scope and ambition to the restoration of the Bièvre stream in Paris, France. This thesis explores the extent to which a city fixated for centuries on its domination of nature through architecture and civil engineering is prepared to go to assimilate natural processes into the urban sphere. Through analysis of comparable projects in other cities, the degree to which all urban streams are capable of becoming ecologically-functional will be examined.; by Jacob T. Simpson.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, February 2005.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 97-100).

Pairing mega events and hydrological systems for urban sustainability : strategy framework for Delhi beyond the Commonwealth Games 2010

Cherian, Danny, 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 83 p.; 7887343 bytes; 7896211 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) initiate a process by which the city learns to seize opportunities through benign and sustainable change. Furthermore, this thesis intends to inform decision makers with a checklist of crucial tradeoffs, risks and benefits involved in incorporating water systems as a strategy framework. Eventually, the thesis argues that CWG 2010 organizers cannot ignore the crucial nature or threats posed by the neglect of Delhi's Water Systems. It proves that CWG 2010 organizers can benefit from the inherent utility offered by Delhi's Water Systems. Finally, it demonstrates that Delhi's hydrological systems allow an advantageous compatibility of the CWG's short-term objectives and the city's long-term objectives.; This thesis studies the inter-influence of urban hydrological systems and mega congregative events, as basis for urban strategy for sustainability. It questions how structuring the Commonwealth Games 2010 around Delhi's stream networks and the Yamuna River front create a more sustainable city. Millennia of continuous urban settlement have evolved hydraulic networks that allow extensive human control of Delhi's hydrological complex. This hierarchical system of water retaining, diverting and flood control structures made large populations possible in an otherwise arid landscape. Delhi's topography and this network of streams...

Placelogging : mobile spatial annotation and its potential use to urban planners and designers; Mobile spatial annotation and its potential use to urban planners and designers

Kottamasu, Rajesh
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 168, [1] p.
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With the rise of 'Mobile 2.0,' digital telecommunications are beginning to provide deep resources of information to mobile city dwellers. Particularly striking among recent applications is placelogging, defined here as the practice of digitally annotating physical places with user-generated text and media accessible onsite to other mobile users. Placelogging presents potential as a means of engaging citizens with each other and with their environment, as well as distributing authority over defining what Kevin Lynch called "the image of the city." But as an emerging practice, its uniqueness as a mode of communication distinct from other forms of spatial annotation has not yet been proved. To investigate the uniqueness of placelogging, the thesis first establishes a taxonomy of spatial annotation through which to consider the different forms, functions, and trends in official adoption of a wide range of annotating media. Next, annotations made through various media, including placelogging projects [murmur] and Yellow Arrow, are catalogued in two neighborhoods each of Toronto and New York City. A preliminary methodology is defined to analyze and compare trends in distribution, placement and content of annotations.; (cont.) Placelogs are found to distinguish themselves by annotating a wide range of public and private places...

CompactCities : analyzing the urban spatial structure in cities with growth restrictions; Compact Cities : analyzing the urban spatial structure in cities with growth restrictions

Oberoi, Amit
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 113 [i.e. 114] leaves; 6491409 bytes; 6505419 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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A compact city form is one that espouses high intensity development within a restrictive geographic area. Its perceived benefits include (a) saving agricultural land (b) inducing shorter commute trips, thus less consumption of fuel and lower emission of harmful gases (c) bringing about a better quality of life through greater social interaction and (d) causing economic benefits through economies of agglomeration. In this thesis I analyze these claims based on literature review, economic models, statistical tools, and by generating hypothetical transport scenarios. Based on this analysis, I conclude that high-density development by itself has little significant association with the benefits claimed above. Further growth control mechanisms have negative externalities such as increasing land rents and causing an immense strain on congestible amenities. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first section is treated as an introduction to the concept of a "compact city". In the second section I analyze whether a compact city can deliver the benefits that its proponents claim. I look at issues such as, (i) the effect of density on urban travel behavior factors like commute distances and public transit usage; (ii) the economics at the urban edge; (iii) the claim that sprawl is inevitable...

Movin' on up : mainstreaming under-serviced urban communities in Colombo, Sri Lanka; Moving on up

Wickrema, Marinne Dhakshike
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 105 leaves; 6806999 bytes; 6812900 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis offers an early look at a radical shift in Sri Lankan urban housing policy regarding slums in the capital city of Colombo. During the 1980s, the Sri Lankan government achieved widespread urban improvements by mobilizing community-led on-site slum upgrading. However, since the late 1990s, the government has attempted to persuade urban slum dwellers to relocate to nearby high-rise apartments and, thus, reclaim public land inhabited by low-income settlements in central Colombo city. This policy shift is surprising because: (1) Sri Lanka's previous 10-year slum upgrading program was described as "best practice" by donor agencies, and (2) most other countries have rejected the notion of high-rise for low-income city dwellers. Concurrent shifts in donor agency ideology and preconditions as well as overcrowded physical conditions in previously upgraded under-served settlements drove the government to seek new approaches to improve the lives of the urban poor. Moreover, beginning in the 1990s, there was a renewed perception that cities like Colombo needed to capitalize on its comparative advantages vis-à-vis the rest of the region in order to spur economic growth in the nation. The Sustainable Townships Programme (STP) and its pilot project...

Effects of housing policies on intra-urban inequality in transitioning China

Xu, Yi, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 75 leaves; 4076262 bytes; 4079323 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In the People's Republic of China, housing reform was launched in the 1980s as a component of the overall economic reform. In the 1990s, housing policies, privatization and subsidies combined, were found to contribute to over one-third of the overall inequality in urban income distribution in China. My hypothesis is that housing inequalities are reinforced in the reform years. In the first half, I discuss three types of general mechanisms: the income-regressive nature of the Housing Provident Fund, the exclusion of rural migrants from urban housing welfare, and the strengthened work-unit-based inequality in reform years. In the second half, to offer some empirical support, I conduct a case study of housing relocation in a large-scale urban redevelopment project-the Xintiandi redevelopment project in Shanghai. My main findings are that the government formed a pro-growth coalition with the private business, and middle-to-low income residents were excluded from the negotiation process. Families in difficulties and families with strong negotiation power received preferential treatment to facilitate the relocation process. In summary, market reform has preserved some features of socialism, particularly the advantages of certain urban population groups with political implications.; (cont.) At the same time...

Spatial Metrics to Study Urban Patterns in Growing and Shrinking Cities

Reis, Jos? P.; Silva, Elisabete A.; Pinho, Paulo
Fonte: Spatial Metrics to Study Urban Patterns in Growing and Shrinking Cities Publicador: Spatial Metrics to Study Urban Patterns in Growing and Shrinking Cities
Tipo: Article; accepted version
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This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Taylor & Francis via http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02723638.2015.1096118; This article reviews existing literature on spatial metrics, presenting a portfolio of metrics addressing the spatial patterns of growing and shrinking cities and discussing their potential and limitations. A wide and diverse set of spatial metrics was found. While these metrics address most of the identified spatial patterns of urban growth, spatial metrics used in urban shrinkage studies are much scarcer and not nearly sufficient to provide a comprehensive assessment of its spatial patterns. The article concludes that there is great potential for the development of new spatial metrics or mixed indicators, particularly in shrinkage contexts. The article builds on recent literature focusing on reviewing and developing metrics for particular spatial patterns (notably patterns of urban sprawl), while considering a very broad and multidisciplinary set of metrics. It focuses not only on the outcomes of urban growth but also on those of the increasingly common shrinking phenomenon.; This research was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (SFRH/BD/71970/2010), co-financed by the European Social Fund through the POPH Programme.

Thermal Pollution in Urban Streams of the North Carolina Piedmont

Somers, Kayleigh
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Currently, cities comprise 52% of the Earth's land surface, with this number expected to continue to grow, as most of the predicted 2.3 billion increase in population over the next 40 years is expected to occur in urban areas (United Nations Population Division 2012). Urban areas necessarily concentrate food, energy, and construction materials, and as a result tend to be hotter and more polluted than the surrounding landscape. All urban ecosystems are thus quite altered from their pre-urban state, but urban streams are particularly impacted. As low lying points on the landscape, streams are subject to the degradation caused by urban stormwaters, which are transmitted rapidly from the surfaces of pavements, roofs, and lawns through stormwater infrastructure to streams.

The systematic changes seen in many urban streams have been described as the "Urban Stream Syndrome" (USS) and serve as an organizing conceptual framework for urban stream research (Walsh et al. 2005b). A primary symptom of USS is increased flashiness in hydrographs, as stormwater in urban areas is routed efficiently into streams (Booth and Jackson 1997, Konrad and Booth 2005). With this stormwater runoff comes intense scour leading to deeply incised channels...

Vegetation incorporation effects on the roofs in urban area in the continental tropical climate; Efeitos da incorporação de vegetação em telhados de zona urbana em clima tropical continental

Rosseti, Karyna de Andrade Carvalho; Durante, Luciane Cleonice; Nogueira, Marta Cristina de Jesus Albuquerque; Callejas, Ivan Júlio Aponônio; Kuhnen, Igor Antonio; Nogueira, José de Souza
Fonte: School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design Publicador: School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares; SIMULAÇÃO COMPUTACIONAL; Experimental research Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/06/2015 Português
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In most urban areas there are a few residual spaces left to be converted into green areas. A possible solution for the incorporation of vegetation in the urban area would be turning the existing roofs into green ones. The purpose of this research is to assess whether the incorporation of green roofs into existing building roofs in low-density urban areas could alter the termo-hygrometric conditions to the pedestrian level. Methodology consists on the performing of computer simulations in urban area scenarios, located in a tropical climate city (Cuiabá-MT), by adding vegetation of 10%, 50% and 100% to the existing roofs in the research area. It is shown the existence of interference association between the occupation density of the roofs by vegetation and the cooling and humidification phenomenon of the air, to the pedestrian level, in low density condition urban areas. The most expressive effects caused by green roof in temperature and absolute humidity are contained in the yard area in the lee of the houses that added vegetation to the roofs.; Na maioria das áreas urbanizadas existem poucos espaços residuais para serem convertidos em áreas verdes. Uma possível solução para incorporação da vegetação na área urbana é a transformação dos telhados existentes em telhados vegetados. O objetivo desta pesquisa é avaliar se a incorporação de vegetação nos telhados de edificações localizadas em zonas urbanas de baixo adensamento construtivo altera as condições termo higrométricas ao nível do pedestre. A metodologia consiste de realização de simulação computacional de cenários...